Anxiety Sensitivity Accelerates the Temporal Changes in Obsessions and Compulsions During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
ConclusionHigher levels of baseline AS negatively impact response to CBT for OCD. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Interaction Between Mentalizing, Empathy and Symptoms in People with Eating Disorders: A Network Analysis Integrating Experimentally Induced and Self-report Measures
ConclusionsThis is the first network analysis study which integrates self-reported symptoms and objective socio-cognitive performance in people with EDs. Results highlight the importance of mentalizing abilities in that they contribute to maintenance of ED psychopathology and to empathic ability. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 20, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Homework Completion in Treating Obsessive –Compulsive Disorder with Exposure and Ritual Prevention: A Review of the Empirical Literature
ConclusionsHomework completion is an important component of treating OCD with ERP. More research is needed to improve assessment tools and test strategies to enhance homework completion. We conclude with key practice points and directions for future research. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Role of Anxiety Sensitivity in Terms of Weight-Related Impairment and Fatigue Severity Among Adults with Obesity and Chronic Low Back Pain
ConclusionsThe findings suggest that anxiety sensitivity may be a mechanistic target for better understanding and addressing weight-related impairment and fatigue severity among individuals with obesity and chronic low back pain. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Standards for Socially-and Achievement-Oriented Roles in Major Depressive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder
ConclusionDespite similar standards for socially- and achievement-oriented roles, people with MDD and/or GAD are less likely to meet their standards and gain satisfaction from these roles. Having MDD, independent of GAD, is associated with putting less effort into achievement-oriented roles. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 15, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Processing and Resolving Major Life Stressors: An Examination of Meaning-Making Strategies
ConclusionsMeaning-making strategies may have distinct roles in adjustment, with some conferring immediate benefits, while others confer benefits over time and perhaps only to the extent that it leads to greater meaning made. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Affect Recall Bias: Being Resilient by Distorting Reality
ConclusionsWhile people appear to use retrospective PA overestimation as a strategy to enhance well-being and resilience, they are not likely to underestimate past negative experiences to feel better. Accordingly, owning an optimistic vision of the past may represent an adaptive “distortion” of reality that fosters people’s mental health. The clinical implications of cultivating PA and learning strategies to regulate both negative and positive emotions are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Rumination: Practicing Retrieval of Autobiographical Memories
ConclusionRecalling personal memories benefits from prior practice in bringing them to mind. However, these results provide insufficient evidence to recommend training recall of positive autobiographical memories to counteract rumination. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Relative Impact of Cognitive and Behavioral Skill Comprehension and Use During CBT for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
ConclusionsThese results demonstrate that higher levels of skill comprehension as well as skill frequency are associated with OCD symptom alleviation. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Influence of Implicit Theories of Depression on Treatment-Relevant Attitudes
ConclusionsPresenting depression as malleable may be associated with more positive attitudes towards treatment, although the impact on actual treatment engagement warrants future investigation. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Motivations for the Initiation of Ritualistic Hand Washing in Obsessive –Compulsive Disorder
ConclusionsIndividuals with hand-washing compulsions might have goals in mind right from the start of the wash that are very difficult to reach. If our findings are confirmed in future studies, therapeutic implications could include exploring the adaptiveness of having abstract goals and their exaggerated importance. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Prospective Associations Between Home Practice and Depressive Symptoms in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy for Recurrent Depression: A 15 Months Follow-Up Study
ConclusionsThe hypothesis that more frequent home practice would lead to reductions in depressive symptoms was not confirmed in the current study. Rather, it seems that patients with higher levels of depression may subsequently practice less frequently at home. The interplay between home practice and outcome might not be as straightforward as expected. However, these results are preliminary and should be replicated first before recommendations for clinical practice can be formulated. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Inhibiting the Emergence of Involuntary Musical Imagery: Implications for Improving Our Understanding of Intrusive Thoughts
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that INMI can be used as a model for examining intrusive thoughts and that inhibition can decrease the emergence of intrusive thoughts. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 30, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interpersonal Coordination Dynamics in Psychotherapy: A Systematic Review
ConclusionsWe discuss these results, shortcomings with the current literature, and highlight three crucial questions for future research. Research on interpersonal coordination in psychotherapy has potential to advance the both the research and practice of psychotherapy. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 29, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Vulnerability in the Context of Panic: Assessment of Panic-Related Associations and Interpretations in Individuals with Varying Levels of Anxiety Sensitivity
ConclusionsOur data provide support for panic-related interpretations as an important cognitive mechanism. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Theory of Modes: Applications to Schizophrenia and Other Psychological Conditions
The original version of this article contained an error in the corresponding author ’s first name and e-mail address. The author name should read as “Aaron T. Beck” instead of “Aron T. Beck” and the e-mail address should read as “abeck@pennmedicine.upenn.edu” instead of “abeck@penmedcine.upenu.edu.” The original article has been corrected. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Impact of Intolerance of Uncertainty and Anxiety Sensitivity on Mental Health Among Public Safety Personnel: When the Uncertain is Unavoidable
AbstractBackgroundPublic safety personnel (PSP; e.g., correctional workers and officers, firefighters, paramedics, police officers, public safety communications officials) are regularly exposed to potentially traumatic events and considerable uncertainty as part of their employment. Canadian PSP screen positively for mental disorders at much higher rates than the general population. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and anxiety sensitivity (AS) are empirically-supported vulnerability factors associated with the development and maintenance of mental disorders.MethodsThe present study was designed to assess IU and AS across PS...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Enhancing Social Connectedness in Anxiety and Depression Through Amplification of Positivity: Preliminary Treatment Outcomes and Process of Change
ConclusionsThese preliminary findings suggest that positive activity interventions may be valuable for enhancing social connectedness in individuals with clinically impairing anxiety or depression, possibly through both increasing positive emotions and decreasing negative emotions. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Fear of Losing Control in Social Anxiety: An Experimental Approach
ConclusionResults suggest beliefs about losing control are producing cognitive and behavioural changes which may in part explain differences in performance in social interactions. Beliefs about losing control appear to be relevant to the cognitive model of social anxiety. Future studies should consider whether these beliefs are malleable among individuals with SAD. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dampening of Positive Affect Predicts Substance Use During Partial Hospitalization
ConclusionsThis study provides preliminary evidence that dampening increases risk for substance use among those with high levels of pre-treatment substance use. Findings are limited by the use of a general psychiatric sample, which did not include individuals seeking treatment for substance use disorders; future studies are needed to replicate this effect in individuals with substance use disorders. Results point to the need for interventions to enhance healthy regulation of positive affect in substance-using populations. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effects of Alcohol and Depressive Symptoms on Positive and Negative Post-Event Rumination in Social Anxiety
ConclusionsIndividuals with SA may find alcohol positively reinforcing by increasing positive post-event rumination, independent of negative reinforcement effects. Clinical implications are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 9, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interpretation Bias in Online and Offline Social Environments and Associations with Social Anxiety, Peer Victimization, and Avoidance Behavior
ConclusionsThe current study ’s results indicate the importance of studying online interpretation bias to further understand social anxiety in online social environments. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 8, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Theory of Modes: Applications to Schizophrenia and Other Psychological Conditions
AbstractA novel, person centered approach to the understanding and treatment of severe mental illness —Recovery Oriented Cognitive Therapy (CT-R)—has recently been implemented in many settings in the mental health care system. The theory and therapy, originally based on clinical observations, are grounded on the assumption that the personality is composed of a number of “modes” which are com posed of specific components such as cognition, affect, motivation and behavior. The activation of a particular mode and its status as relatively adaptive or maladaptive depends on the “fit” between ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

When are Worry and Rumination Negatively Associated with Resting Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia? It Depends: The Moderating Role of Cognitive Reappraisal
This study also underscores th e necessity of utilizing psychophysiological measures when modeling interactions between regulatory strategies. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 31, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Relationships Between Early Maladaptive Schemas and Youth Mental Health: A Systematic Review
ConclusionFindings are discussed in the context of treatment approaches for psychopathology in youth, specifically through an increased understanding of the role of EMS in this developmental period. We also suggest future research directions and discuss the methodological limitations of the studies reviewed, including a bias towards community samples, and a lack of consistency in EMS measures. These findings suggest that EMS may be an important area to target when treating youth presenting with psychological distress. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Longitudinal Relations of Obsessive Beliefs, Obsessions, and Compulsions During Treatment for Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
ConclusionsThese findings offer unique information regarding the temporal precedence of these relations, and they are consistent with prior cognitive models of OCD. The importance of targeting both obsessive beliefs and compulsions is highlighted by these findings. Future research would benefit from investigating moderators of OCD models. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Daily Interpersonal and Noninterpersonal Stress Reactivity in Current and Remitted Depression
ConclusionsThese microlongitudinal results extend prior longitudinal evidence of the critical role of interpersonal stress in the course of major depression. The findings emphasize the importance of cognitive interventions that target negative interpretations of daily events. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Improving Mental Time Travel in Schizophrenia: Do Remembering the Past and Imagining the Future Make a Difference?
ConclusionsThese results suggest that all three training methods improved the MTT ability of SZ patients to a similar degree and support the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis.The trial registration number of this study is ChiCTR-INR-17014096 and the date of registration is Dec 22, 2017. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 21, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Hostility and Suicide Risk Among Veterans: The Mediating Role of Perceived Burdensomeness
AbstractThere is a growing body of research aimed at identifying predictors of suicide risk among Veterans. One predictor may be hostility, as hostility and anger are associated with greater suicidal ideation among Veterans. The interpersonal theory of suicide suggests hostility may be associated with suicide risk through perceived burdensomeness and thwarted belongingness. The aim of the current study was to investigate associations among hostility, perceived burdensomeness, thwarted belongingness, and suicide risk among a sample of Veterans enrolled in a clinical trial. Participants (N = 90) completed self-...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 19, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examination of the Relationship Between Attentional Biases and Body Dissatisfaction: An Eye-Tracking Study
ConclusionsThe findings provide partial support for an attentional bias for thin body images in body dissatisfied individuals. Moreover, the results provide further evidence for eye-tracking methodology as a more sensitive measure of cognitive biases than reaction time. Further examination of the relationship between cognitive biases and body dissatisfaction remains an important area of study as both are risk factors for eating disorders and can inform treatment interventions. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 18, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Barriers Associated with the Implementation of Homework in Youth Mental Health Treatment and Potential Mobile Health Solutions
ConclusionsThis study adds to the literature on homework barriers and potentialmHealth solutions to those barriers, which is largely based on recommendations from experts in the field. The results aligned well with this literature, providing additional support for existing recommendations, particularly as they relate to treatment with youth and caregivers. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Therapist Guided Activity Practice for Depressive Symptoms in University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial
ConclusionsThese results support the potential utility of guided practice as a strategy for improving homework compliance in BA. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 14, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fearlessness About Death is Related to Diminished Late Positive Potential Responses When Viewing Threatening and Mutilation Images in Suicidal Ideators
ConclusionsThese results suggest blunted LPP responses to threat/mutilation stimuli may be a potential biophysical mechanism for fearless about death. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Daily Worry in Trauma-Exposed Afghan Refugees: Relationship with Affect and Sleep in a Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment
ConclusionThese preliminary findings suggest unidirectional effects of daily worry on negative affect and positive affect on daily worry. However, the low compliance rate and the small sample size precludes drawing firm conclusions. Implications for further EMA research among refugees are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 13, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Looming Cognitive Style and Its Associations with Anxiety and Depression: A Meta-analysis
ConclusionsThese results support the idea that LCS is a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor for various anxiety subtypes and that it is more specific to anxiety than to depression. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How Anxious are You Right Now? Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Evaluate the Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification for Social Threat Interpretations
ConclusionThis study demonstrates the challenges and opportunities associated with investigating intervention effects in daily life. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxiety Sensitivity Among Smokers During a Reduction Attempt: The Impact of Hatha Yoga
AbstractSmokers with elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS) have poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Smokers with elevated anxiety/depression report worse smoking cessation outcomes and greater AS. Thus, it is important to examine the utility of intervention strategies that target AS in the context of smoking cessation. Hatha yoga encourages the implementation of present-centered awareness in the face of discomfort, which may be a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce AS. The current study examines the impact of hatha yoga on AS among 51 smokers. Participants were randomly assigned to hatha yoga or wellness control on their q...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Vulnerabilities as Prognostic Predictors of Acute and Follow-Up Outcomes in Seasonal Affective Disorder Treatment with Light Therapy or Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
ConclusionsGreater morningness was associated with less severe post-treatment depression in both cognitive-behavior therapy and light therapy. No cognitive vulnerability emerged as a prognostic or prescriptive predictor, perhaps because they correlated with pre-treatment depression severity, a robust predictor of outcome. Future research should test alternative cognitive constructs. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Group or Individual Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Active Duty Military
ConclusionsYounger participants had greater symptom improvement, particularly if they received individual treatment. Other pretreatment variables did not predict outcome. CPT appears to be robust across most pretreatment variables, such that comorbid disorders, baseline symptom severity, and suicidal ideation do not interfere with application of CPT. However, individual CPT may be a better option particularly for younger service members. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 27, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Change in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder
AbstractAlthough cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is highly efficacious for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), not all patients benefit, and mechanisms underlying response remain unknown. In this first report of the mechanisms underlying improvement with CBT for BDD, we examined whether cognitive (maladaptive beliefs, perfectionism, schemas) and behavioral (checking, grooming, avoidance behaviors) changes mediate the effect of CBT on BDD symptom reduction. Forty-five participants with BDD who enrolled in a CBT for BDD treatment development study were included in two sets of analyses: (1) between-subject mediation of the eff...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 4, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Increased Direct Retrieval of Overgeneral Categoric Memory in Individuals with Dysphoria and a History of Major Depression
AbstractIncreased overgeneral categoric memory has been reported in individuals with dysphoria and a history of depression. In three experiments, we examined whether increased categoric memory among individuals with depression occurs through generative or direct retrieval. Generative retrieval requires effort or additional information until the end of retrieval; direct retrieval occurs without such effort or information. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test with minimal instructions and were asked whether each retrieval was generative or direct. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a self-reported sca...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Exposure and Reactivity to Repetitive Thought in the Neuroticism –Distress Relationship
AbstractDistress has been assumed to result from exposure to repetitive thought (RT). However, if RT is viewed as internally generated stressors, both exposure and affective reactivity to RT could play roles in generating distress. Three studies (young adults, N  = 99; midlife women, N = 111; older adults, N = 159) assessed exposure and reactivity to daily RT and tested whether neuroticism was related to individual differences in both exposure and affective reactivity. Across all three studies, reactivity effects on depressive symptoms exceeded those of exposure to RT, and neurotic...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 23, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comparing Mindfulness and Positivity Trainings in High-Demand Cohorts
AbstractAttention and working memory are at risk of degradation over intensive intervals in groups engaged in highly demanding jobs. Accordingly, there is great interest in identifying training regimes to promote cognitive resilience in such populations. Herein, US Army Soldiers were assigned to either an 8-week, 16-h mindfulness training (MT) program (n = 40) or to a well-matched active comparison program involving positivity training (PT,n = 40), during an intensive interval of predeployment training. Working memory (WM) and sustained attention task performance, as well as self-reported positive and n...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 17, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fear of Negative Evaluation and Rapid Response to Treatment During Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder
This study provides further support for the phenomenon of rapid response in CBT for SAD and suggests that mechanism s of change may be different for rapid responders as compared to non-rapid responders. The results of the current study may have implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying treatment response during CBT for SAD and for whom particular mechanisms are relevant. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neural Correlates Supported by Eye Movements of Self-Focused Attention and Other-Focused Attention in Social Situations
AbstractCognitive-behavioral models of social anxiety propose that self-focused attention (SFA) and other-focused attention (OFA) are central to social fear, but few studies have simultaneously investigated both in social situations. We investigated brain activity changes following manipulation of SFA and OFA during speech tasks using near-infrared spectroscopy and eye-tracking. The 39 healthy participants performed speech tasks in SFA, OFA, and control conditions. Greater oxy-Hb responses in the right frontopolar area and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for condition SFA versus control were related to the subject...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 7, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Bias Modification for the Induction of Negative Versus Benign Interpretations of the Self in Individuals with Elevated Social Anxiety: Effects on Self-related and Anxiety Outcomes
This study modifies and extends cognitive bias modification procedures to specifically alter interpretations of the self (CBM-IS) associated with social anxiety disorder and examined the effects of negative CBM-IS versus benign CBM-IS. Participants with elevated social anxiety were randomly allocated to a negative or benign CBM-IS condition. After CBM-IS training, participants were assessed on induced interpretations of the self, completed a speech task, and rated their performance. Negative self-esteem and anxiety were assessed at baseline, post-training, and post-speech. As predicted, negative CBM-IS induced a negative i...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Training Adaptive Emotion Regulation Skills in Early Adolescents: The Effects of Distraction, Acceptance, Cognitive Reappraisal, and Problem Solving
This study investigated the immediate and prolonged effects of training emotion regulation (ER) in 256 young adolescents (9 –13 years). The four experimental conditions in which an ER skill (acceptance, distraction, cognitive reappraisal, and problem solving) was trained were compared with two control conditions (rumination, performing a cognitive task). Results revealed that: (1) happy affect significantly increased and sad and anxious affect significantly decreased in the four experimental ER conditions but also in the cognitive task condition. Rumination did not have beneficial ER effects. (2) In the experime...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Contextual Changes Influence Attention Flexibility Towards New Goals
AbstractThe ability to flexibly process affective information underlies resilient adaptation to changing situations. However, the impact of social contextual changes on affective flexibility has not been examined yet, although this may be crucial to understand how attention operates when changing situations require allocation of different emotional goals. In a novel eye-tracking task, participants had to deploy the goals to attend to positive or negative facial expressions based on contextual cues. We found that dysphorics, compared to non-dysphorics, were faster in switching to negative goals, but slower in switching to p...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Exposure Instructions to Pain: Should Therapist Focus on Fear Reduction or Expectation Violation?
This study provides experimental evidence for the effectiveness of exposure-based interventions among individuals confronting acute thermal pain. Instructions addressing expectation violations appeared to produce the greatest effects. Testing concrete expectancies might further improve exposure effects. Future research needs to translate our findings into clinical practice. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Validating a Mobile Eye Tracking Measure of Integrated Attention Bias and Interpretation Bias in Youth
This study sought to validate a real-world speech task designed to assess attention and interpretation bias in an integrated and ecologically valid manner. Thirty adolescent girls gave a speech in front of an emotionally ambiguous judge and a positive judge while wearing mobile eye tracking glasses to assess how long they looked at each judge (i.e., attention bias). They also reported their interpretations of the ambiguous judge and distress associated with the task (i.e., interpretation bias). These task-based measures correlated with self-report of interpretation bias and mother-report of attentional control, demonstrati...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research