Social Distancing During A COVID-19 Lockdown Contributes to The Maintenance of Social Anxiety: A Natural Experiment
ConclusionsThe current results suggest that reduced exposure to social situations may play a role in the maintenance of social anxiety. Alternative explanations are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Reactivity Related to Coping Behaviors: An Assessment of Explicit and Implicit Dimensions in Clinical Depression
ConclusionsThis study demonstrated the existence of negatively biased cognitions and cognitive reactivity among people with a history of depression with coping-related contents, and on both explicit and implicit dimensions. The findings are consistent with the differential activation hypothesis. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Randomised Comparison of Values and Goals, Versus Goals Only and Control, for High Nonclinical Paranoia
ConclusionsThe values condition was most effective at reducing non-clinical paranoia. The values condition appeared to increase positive self-views more so than comparison groups, but the sample was small and the difference was non-significant. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Development of Psychiatric Disorders from Adaptive Behavior to Serious Mental Health Conditions
AbstractIn this paper we look at the manifestation of different psychopathologies and propose that the disorders are on a continuum with normal behavior which, when exaggerated, becomes maladaptive. The basic paradigm of adaptation consists of cognition, affect, motivation, and behavior. Maladaptation occurs when there are errors in cognition involving the four domains of gain, loss, threat, or offense, thus triggering positive or negative affect, motivation, and subsequent behavior. Behavior is traditionally focused upon when we evaluate and treat psychopathology, but the root of disorders is the exaggeration of commonpla...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 29, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Dysregulation within the CBT-E Model of Eating Disorders: A Narrative Review
ConclusionThis review proposes that emotion dysregulation is a key maintenance factor of eating pathology, and adaptations to reflect this should be considered for the CBT-E model. Furthermore, treatments targeting emotion dysregulation for adolescents and adults represent a promising avenue for further development. Further research should explore the potential of emotion dysregulation as a risk factor proceeding eating disorder development. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation and Repetitive Negative Thinking Before and After CBT and SSRI Treatment of Internalizing Psychopathologies
ConclusionsFindings suggest treatment improves ER and RNT and provides preliminary evidence of a treatment modality effect on reappraisal. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Bias and Medication Use Moderate the Relation of Socratic Questioning and Symptom Change in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Depression
ConclusionsFindings are consistent with the view that Socratic questioning promotes session-to-session symptom improvements for some clients but plays a less important role for others. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Rescripting Social Trauma: A Pilot Study Investigating Imagery Rescripting as an Adjunct to Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder
ConclusionsTaken together, findings suggest that IR may be a valuable adjunct to GCBT for SAD, especially among patients with comorbid unipolar depression. However, further research including a follow up period is indicated. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Attentional Control Moderates the Relations between Intolerance of Uncertainty and Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Symptoms
ConclusionsThese results indicate that at high levels of perceived AC, individuals with elevated IU report higher levels of worry, potentially due to the conscious use of worry as an emotion regulation strategy. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Correction to: Does Test Anxiety Predispose Poor School ‑Related Wellbeing and Enhanced Risk of Emotional Disorders?
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-021-10220-w (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding the Dynamic Interaction of Maladaptive Social-Evaluative Beliefs and Social Anxiety: A Latent Change Score Model Approach
ConclusionsThese findings suggest high standard beliefs play a prominent role in the dynamics involving social anxiety and provide a basis for future research to further understand the interaction between these constructs. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Commentary on the Science and Practice of Homework in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
ConclusionsThe use of homework assignments in CBT remains a critical issue for development. Limitations of the literature are addressed, and directions for future research in the field are provided. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Automaticity of Positive and Negative Thinking: A Scoping Review of Mental Habits
ConclusionsAlthough mental habits appear to be relevant predictors of mental health, habitual thinking has not been well-integrated with psychological constructs related to mental health, such as automatic thoughts. We discuss the implications of mental habits for future research and clinical practice. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does Test Anxiety Predispose Poor School-Related Wellbeing and Enhanced Risk of Emotional Disorders?
ConclusionsOur findings imply that there would be downstream benefits to improved mental health from using interventions to address test anxiety but also, from addressing emotion disorders, to improve school-related wellbeing and test anxiety. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Role of Emotional Memory in Reappraising Negative Self-referent Thoughts
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that emotional long-term memory processes, and particularly memory bias, may modulate downregulation of negative emotions when implementing reappraisal. These insights could be leveraged to guide psychological treatments using cognitive techniques that rely on successful reappraisal use. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Cognitive Control Training as Add-On Treatment to Usual Care for Depressed Inpatients
ConclusionAlthough other studies suggest that CCT may hold potential as an add-on intervention for depression, our findings point to the importance of investigating individual differences and conditions predicting training response. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using Network Theory for Psychoeducation in Eating Disorders
ConclusionsGiven the increasing popularity of biological-genetic explanatory models of EDs, it is important to note the disadvantages we found to be associated with these models. Our findings indicate that explanatory models emphasizing cognitive-behavioral (CB)  principles and/or network theoretical (NT) underpinnings of EDs may serve to promote optimism and greater perceptions of personal agency in affected populations.This trial's registration number is 316. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gait Patterns and Mood in Everyday Life: A Comparison Between Depressed Patients and Non-depressed Controls
ConclusionIn sum, our results support expectations that embodiment (i.e., the relationship between bodily expression of emotion and emotion processing itself) in depression is also observable in naturalistic settings, and that depression is bodily manifested in the way people walk. The data further suggest that motor displays affect mood in everyday life. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reappraisal and Suppression Each Moderate the Association Between Stress and Suicidal Ideation: Preliminary Evidence From a Daily Diary Study
ConclusionsIn contrast to laboratory-based findings suggesting that expressive suppression has negative psychological effects, these preliminary daily diary results suggest that expressive suppression could be an effective short-term emotion regulation strategy among individuals considering suicide. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dyadic Emotion Regulation in Women with Borderline Personality Disorder
ConclusionsThe present study indicates an increased demand of dyadic ER in BPD. Increased negative support seeking and less creation of closeness to the partner might reflect ineffective strategies to actually receive support from the partner. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on Homework in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: New Clinical Psychological Science
This article introduces the Special Issue inCognitive Therapy and Research that presents advances in clinical psychological science for homework in behavior and cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs). Studies include sophisticated evaluations of homework adherence, moving beyond simplistic assessments of quantity and quality of completion to more complete assessments of engagement (i.e., perceived difficulty, obstacles, and helpfulness). Studies advance the clinical psychological science by examining therapist behavior as a predictor of homework adherence, by testing homework as a vehicle for specific treatment processes in...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Reliability and Validity of Response-Based Measures of Attention Bias
ConclusionsFindings indicate that response-based AB scores from the dot-probe task have better psychometric properties than traditional scores. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Towards a Reformulated Theory Underlying Schema Therapy: Position Paper of an International Workgroup
ConclusionsWith this project, we hope to contribute to the further development of ST and its application across the world. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Looming Cognitive Style More Consistently Predicts Anxiety than Depressive Symptoms: Evidence from a 3-Wave Yearlong Study
ConclusionsThe LCS predicts anxiety and may do so more consistently than depression, at least in time windows of 6  months of less. The findings are discussed in terms of the potential importance of dynamic threat parameters to anxiety that are not captured by other current putative vulnerability factors. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Metacognitions and Obsessive Beliefs in Obsessive –Compulsive Disorder: A Study of Within- and Between-Person Effects on Long-Term Outcome
ConclusionsThe results indicate that decreases in metacognitive beliefs during OCD treatment can also have important long-term consequences. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

What ’s in a Face? Amygdalar Sensitivity to an Emotional Threatening Faces Task and Transdiagnostic Internalizing Disorder Symptoms in Participants Receiving Attention Bias Modification Training
ConclusionsABM may lead to greater improvement in depressive symptoms in individuals exhibiting blunted baseline amygdalar responses to the EMF task, potentially by enhancing neural-level discrimination between negative and unambiguously neutral stimuli. Convergently, longitudinal increases in amygdala reactivity from pre-to-post-ABM may be associated with greater improvement in depression, possibly secondary to improved neural discrimination of threat and/or decreased neurophysiological threat avoidance in these specific patients. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining the associations between interpersonal emotion regulation and psychosocial adjustment in emerging adulthood
ConclusionsThe findings contribute to research by examining IER in emerging adulthood and broadening our understanding of the IER strategies that are important for psychosocial adjustment. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Positive and Negative Emotion Regulation in College Athletes: A Preliminary Exploration of Daily Savoring, Acceptance, and Cognitive Reappraisal
ConclusionsSavoring positive events may be an underappreciated strategy for helping athletes regulate emotions related to negative events. Since our sample predominantly identified as white and female, further research is needed to understand savoring use and effectiveness among the full, diverse spectrum of college athletes. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Can Gender Differences in Distress Due to Difficult Voices Be Explained by Differences in Relating?
ConclusionGender differences in the emotional impact of voices can be partially explained by relating behavior. Psychological interventions for voice hearing could be optimized by exploring the influence of gender in the emergence of distressing voices. Nevertheless, gender differences need to be treated as one of several different possible mechanisms when working with individual patients. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predicting and Moderating the Response to the Unified Protocol: Do Baseline Personality and Affective Profiles Matter?
ConclusionThe study results support the short-medium term utility of the UP to address all study outcomes. Moreover, personalizing interventions according to baseline personality/affect might be a sensible strategy to enhance the UP effectiveness. Trial registration number NCT03064477 (March 10, 2017). (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxiety Sensitivity Moderates the Impact of COVID-19 Perceived Stress on Anxiety and Functional Impairment
ConclusionsThe current study provides support for the role of anxiety sensitivity in identifying individuals at risk for clinically significant global anxiety symptom severity and anxious arousal symptom severity. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Personality Disorders and Their Relation to Treatment Outcomes in Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
ConclusionsThe apparent effect of PD on depression outcomes is likely explained by higher intake severity rather than treatment resistance. Excluding these patients from evidence-based care for depression is unjustified, and adequately lengthy CBT should be routinely offered. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Are Changes in Beliefs About Rumination and in Emotion Regulation Skills Mediators of the Effects of Internet-Delivered Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Depression and Anxiety? Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial
ConclusionsThese results align with findings from face-to-face therapy and add to the scarce literature on mediators of effects of iCBT, contributing to the understanding of how these interventions operate. Since mediator and outcome variables were measured at the same time, partial mediation results should be interpreted with caution since the study design did not account for temporality and therefore causality effects cannot be confirmed.Trial RegistrationISRCTN91967124. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Heightened Sense of Incompleteness in Excoriation (Skin-Picking) Disorder
ConclusionsThe results indicate a robust association between SPD and trait incompleteness. More research is needed to establish whether trait incompleteness may represent a vulnerability factor underlying SPD, or if skin picking leads to susceptibility to trait incompleteness. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Inhibitory Control Moderates the Effect of Anxiety on Vagally Mediated Heart Rate Variability: Findings from a Community Sample of Young School-Aged Children
ConclusionsThe results could indicate that anxious children with enhanced inhibitory control successfully utilized a cognitive avoidance strategy (i.e. verbal worry) to inhibit expected autonomic arousal in response to threat. Clinical implications are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 7, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Dissociation Between Two Cognitive Biases in Acute Stress Disorder: Preliminary Evidence for the Reverse Gambling Fallacy
ConclusionThe results align with the bridging of trauma theories claiming that trauma symptoms are generated bydisequilibrium following trauma exposure, with prospect theory ’s notion of chance, which is conceived as belief inequilibrium restoration. Such disequilibrium following trauma exposure is thus linked with the belief underlying reverse gambling fallacy biases, namely “what-was-will-be”. Implications regarding themes important to address in therapy are mentioned. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interpretation Bias Across Body Dysmorphic, Social Anxiety and Generalized Anxiety Disorder —A Multilevel, Diffusion Model Account
ConclusionsThese findings have important implications for understanding interpretation biases as both etiological and treatment factors. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 5, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Attention, Executive Control and Working Memory in Healthy Adults: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
ConclusionsMBIs have limited positive effects on attention and executive control in healthy adults. More studies are needed to address how participants ’ motivation may account for this effect, and clarify whether the smaller effects we found are due to our focus on healthy adults, or due to overestimation of effect sizes in previous meta-analyses. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Correction to: A Prospective Investigation of the Impact of Distinct Posttraumatic (PTSD) Symptom Clusters on Suicidal Ideation
The original version of this article contained a mistake in the Table 3. In Table 3: Two rows were accidentally cut out which reported the B coefficients and standard errors for two variables in the multiple regression model, the hyperoursal symptom cluster, avoidance/numbing symptom cluster. The corrected table is presented below. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

COVID-19 and Anxiety Sensitivity Across Two Studies in Argentina: Associations with COVID-19 Worry, Symptom Severity, Anxiety, and Functional Impairment
ConclusionsThese data identify AS as a potential intervention target to reduce COVID-19 mental health burden among adults in Argentina. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

To Approach or to Avoid: The Role of Ambivalent Motivation in Attentional Biases to Threat and Spider Fear
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that anxiety persistence may have more to do with goal prioritization than innate attentional biases. Future studies of attentional biases to threat should take motivation into account and study attention across the time course. Ambivalent motivation to threat should also be targeted in exposure therapy. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social Anxiety Disorder and the Fear of Death: An Empirical Investigation of the Terror Management Approach towards Understanding Clinical Anxiety
ConclusionThese results suggest that more robust theoretical frameworks may be needed to explain the evident, but likely complex, relationship between death fears and clinical anxiety. Directions for future research are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effects of Interpersonal Support on Treatment Outcomes Using Cognitive Processing Therapy
AbstractBackgroundAlthough there has been research connecting PTSD and social support, there has been little research on effects of treatment, especially in military samples. The current study examined the relationship between these variables over the course of PTSD treatment and assessed differences based on treatment modality (i.e. group versus individual).MethodsParticipants were 322 active duty service members in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of group and individual Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) treatment modalities and were assessed for PTSD symptoms and social support both prior to an...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Regulating Emotionality to Manage Adversity: A Systematic Review of the Relation Between Emotion Regulation and Psychological Resilience
ConclusionsER is positively associated with PR. ER may facilitate emotion- and problem-focused coping, promoting PR. Specific ER strategies uniquely related to PR and vary in effectiveness in strengthening PR depending on contextual factors (e.g., intense emotion-eliciting situations). (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Interpersonal Patterns in Social Anxiety Disorder: Predictors and Outcomes of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
ConclusionsOur findings suggest that although higher levels of interpersonal problems and lower levels of secure attachment predict greater social anxiety, interpersonal problems and insecure attachment do not predict poorer treatment outcome. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Money Versus Social Rank: An Empirical Investigation of Unfairness in Social Anxiety
ConclusionTaken together, our findings show that given the chance, individuals with elevated SA can resort to active punishment instead than acting submissively in asymmetric interactions, in partial disagreement with theoretical models of SA. We further advance that social rank threats are important drivers of punitive actions in SA. Empirical and practical implications, as well as interpretative caveats, are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Effects of Stoic Training and Adaptive Working Memory Training on Emotional Vulnerability in High Worriers
ConclusionsThe study provides a positive foundation for the further research and development of Stoic training. The wider implications of these results are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 1, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Bodily Maps of Emotion in Major Depressive Disorder
ConclusionsWe could show that emotion experience was associated with bodily sensations that are weaker in depression than in healthy controls and that antidepressant medication was correlated with an increased feeling of bodily deactivation. Results give insights into the relevance for clinicians to acknowledge bodily sensations in the treatment of depression. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 28, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How Depressive Symptoms Hinder Positive Information Processing: An Experimental Study on the Interplay of Cognitive Immunisation and Negative Mood in the Context of Expectation Adjustment
ConclusionsConsistent with previous work, depressive symptoms were associated with a reduced ability to integrate positive information. Furthermore, our results suggest that the activation of negative mood in people with elevated levels of depression may hamper learning from new positive experience. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Developmental Differences in Child and Adolescent Reasoning About Anxiety Sensations
ConclusionsThe results add to the existing understanding of emotional development and are consistent with the idea that the process of cognitive-emotional understanding is not a simple linear one because various domains may show differential development. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 25, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research