Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Body Image and Self-Care (CBT-BISC) Among Sexual Minority Men Living with HIV: Skills-Based Treatment Mediators
AbstractIndividuals develop coping skills in response to body image distress; however, the degree to which body image improvements are mediated by skill acquisition is unknown. The current study assessed skills-based mediators of CBT-BISC (n  =  22) versus enhanced treatment-as-usual (n  =  22) for sexual minority men with HIV and body image disturbance. Skills-based mediators included avoidance, appearance fixing, and acceptance and cognitive reappraisal. Results revealed that CBT-BISC significantly reduced body image disturbance and improved coping skills. Latent difference score mediation ind...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Familial Aggregation of Cognitive Biases for Children with Anxiety Disorders
AbstractPrevious studies described a relation between anxiety-related cognitive biases in normally developing children and parents. The current study examined the familial aggregation of cognitive biases in children with anxiety disorders (N = 55) and their parents, with possible moderators and mediators as mechanisms underlying this aggregation. Cognitive biases for children were measured by the dot-probe task for attention bias and by ambiguous stories for interpretation bias. Mothers’ (n = 50) and fathers’ (n = 30) lifetime mood and anxiety disorders were assessed, a...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Training Rejection Interpretation in Eating disordeRs (TRIER): Preliminary Findings of a Feasibility Study in Adolescents with Anorexia Nervosa
This study investigated expectations of social rejection in adolescents with anorexia nervosa. Female adolescents (N = 24) admitted for hospital treatment completed both a positive interpretation bias training (experimental training) and a 50% positive and 50% negative interpretation bias training (control training), in a counterbalanced order, in two different testing sessions using a within-subjects design. The primary outcome for the training was the frequency of negative interpretations produced in the sentence completion task. At baseline, participants produced more negative than benign interpretations o...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Bias Modification of Expectancies (CBM-E): Effects on Interpretation Bias and Autobiographical Memory, and Relations with Social and Attachment Anxiety
AbstractSocial anxiety is characterised by a bias to recall negative social autobiographical memories as well as anxious expectations about future social interactions. Neuroscientific research shows that a shared neural network underlies both temporal directions of autobiographical recall and future self-projections. Inspired by these findings, the current study tested the effectiveness of a Cognitive Bias Modification training to induce expectancies about the outcome of possible future social interactions (CBM-E). Its effects on interpretation bias, autobiographical recall and personal future projections were tested addit...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Executive Dysfunction and Emotion Dysregulation Explain the Effects of Insomnia Symptoms on Repetitive Negative Thinking
AbstractAlthough research has linked insomnia symptoms to repetitive negative thinking (RNT), few studies have examined how insomnia symptoms are associated with RNT over time or specific factors that may account for this relationship. The present study addressed this gap in the literature by examining executive function and emotion regulation as mediators of the relationship between insomnia symptoms and RNT over 3  months. A final sample of 357 unselected community participants completed measures of insomnia symptoms and RNT at time 1, executive function 1 month later (time 2), emotion regulation 2 months ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Voice of Depression: Prevalence and Stability Across Time of Perception-Laden Intrusive Thoughts in Depression
AbstractIntrusive depressive thoughts are typically defined in terms of their content, frequency, and pervasiveness. The extent to which they carry sensory properties is largely unexplored. In a pilot study, 56.5% of individuals with mild to moderate depressive symptoms experienced depressive thoughts with sensory features. The present study explored the prevalence of sensory thoughts in patients with severe depression and examined the stability of the sensory phenomena across time. A total of 163 participants with severe depression completed an online assessment at baseline and 3  months later. Diagnostic status was ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Are Socially Anxious Children Really Less Liked, or Do They Only Think So?
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to examine the relation of social anxiety with self-perceived and peer-reported likability, while controlling for the possible influence of depression. In total, 586 children (7 to 13  years) completed questionnaires to measure social anxiety, self-assessed likability, and depression. Peer-reported likability was derived from sociometric data on likability. As expected, children with higher self-reported social anxiety perceived themselves as less liked by classroom peers than c hildren with lower self-reported social anxiety. In reality, children with higher levels of social anxi...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Not Just Right Experiences, Disgust Proneness and Their Associations to Obsessive –Compulsive Symptoms: A Stringent Test with Structural Equation Modeling Analysis
AbstractAlthough “not just right experiences” (NJREs) and disgust proneness (DP) have been increasingly implicated in the development and maintenance of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), no studies to date have examined their conjoint effect. In the present study, structural equation modeling was used to ex amine the extent to which NJREs and DP were associated to OC symptoms in a sample composed of college students in a model which also included OC-related beliefs and negative affect. The results showed that NJREs and OC-beliefs, but not DP, were related to overall OC symptoms severity. Moreover, NJRE...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Doubting the Diagnosis but Seeking a Talking Cure: An Experimental Investigation of Causal Explanations for Depression and Willingness to Accept Treatment
AbstractIn the current literature there is a general lack of research examining the impact of causal explanations on beliefs about psychotherapy, willingness to accept treatment, and treatment expectancies. The present study was aimed at experimentally investigating effects of causal explanations for depression on treatment-seeking behavior and beliefs. Participants at a large Southern university (N = 139; 78% female; average age 19.77) received bogus screening results indicating high depression risk, then viewed an explanation of depression etiology (fixed biological vs. malleable biopsychosocial) before rec...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Evaluating CBT Clinical Competence with Standardised Role Plays and Patient Therapy Sessions
This study compared the following properties of SR assessments with established PTS assessments: interrater reliability, responsiveness to training, convergent validity of competence ratings, and predictive validity for a cademic outcomes. SR and PTS were both rated using the Cognitive Therapy Scale Revised (CTS-R) to assess CBT trainees’ (n  =  88) level of competence at the beginning and end of training, and at one-year follow-up. Both methods demonstrated excellent inter-rater reliability between pairs of course tutors (ICC range = .81–.93) and good reliability between tutors and ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

An experimental Study on the Induction of an Eating Disorder-Specific Interpretation Bias in Healthy Individuals: Testing the Interpretation Modification Paradigm for Eating Disorders (IMP-ED)
AbstractThe aim of this experimental study was to examine whether interpretation biases are possible mechanisms of genesis of eating disorders (ED). We investigated the induction of an interpretation bias in healthy women using an Interpretation Modification Paradigm for ED (IMP-ED). We employed a modified version of the Word-Sentences Association Paradigm, with feedback reinforcing positive or negative responses to enhance either positive or negative interpretation, respectively. These two training conditions (n = 33 each) were compared to a no-feedback control group (n = 31). Effects on appear...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 24, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Should I Keep It? Thoughts Verbalized During a Discarding Task
AbstractAn essential criterion for hoarding disorder (HD) is difficulty parting with possessions, but relatively little research has been conducted on responses by people with HD during actual efforts to discard objects. Frost et al. (Behav Res Therapy 85:13 –22, 2016) reported quantitative findings from a discarding task comparing those with HD to community control participants without significant hoarding symptoms (CC) on discarding behavior. The present study used qualitative data analysis of the verbal statements made by HD and CC participants whi le talking aloud about whether to discard or keep a personal objec...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Training to Inhibit Negative Content Affects Memory and Rumination
AbstractDepressive rumination, the tendency to engage in repetitive self-focus in response to distress, seems to be affected by a variety of cognitive biases that in turn maintain negative emotional states. The current study examined whether the difficulty in inhibiting attention to negative information contributes to rumination and to rumination-related biases in memory. Seventy-nine ruminators underwent a 3-week computer-based training, designed to increase either inhibition of negative words or attention to them. On immediate post-training trials, as well as on 2-week follow-up tests, we found evidence for transfer of i...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Imagery Rescripting of Aversive Autobiographical Memories: Effects on Memory Distress, Emotions, and Feelings of Mastery
AbstractImagery rescripting (ImRs) has been shown to be a promising intervention for aversive emotional memories, but research on underlying mechanisms is only in its beginnings. Previous analogue studies on ImRs were mainly based on the trauma film paradigm, but the personal relevance of film-induced memories is limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effects of ImRs on personally relevant autobiographical memories. Sixty-five participants who had experienced a distressing life-event were randomly assigned to ImRs or no-intervention control (NIC). ImRs led to less intrusive memories than NIC during ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 26, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

GAD-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Treatment for Children and Adolescents: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
AbstractCognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) designed to target generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in youth was examined in a pilot feasibility trial. Participants (aged 10 –18 years) were randomized to either 10 weeks of individual CBT (n = 20) or supported wait-list (n = 20). Diagnostic status (primary outcome) was assessed blindly at post-treatment for both groups, and at a 3-month follow-up for treated participants. Two participants failed to complete C BT and retained their GAD during the trial. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed large between-group differences in favor of C...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Comparison of Cognitive Restructuring and Thought Listing for Excessive Acquiring in Hoarding Disorder
AbstractExcessive acquiring is a common symptom of hoarding disorder (HD). Little is known about subjective distress associated with acquiring in HD. The present study examined acquiring-related distress and reactions to cognitive restructuring (CR) in 92 individuals with HD and 66 community control (CC) participants. All participants identified an item of interest at a high-risk acquiring location and then decided whether or not to acquire the item. HD participants completed the acquiring task while receiving a CR-based intervention or a thought-listing (TL) control condition. Results showed that HD participants reported ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 23, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

4/20 Cannabis Use is Greater than Other High-Risk Events: Identification of Psychosocial Factors Related to 4/20 Use
AbstractCannabis is the most commonly used federally illicit drug, yet little research has identified risk factors for high-risk use. Although April 20 ( “4/20”) has been identified as a day on which cannabis users use more cannabis than they typically do, it remains unknown whether 4/20 is a high-risk event for greater use than other heavy use days (e.g., other holidays) and whether use on 4/20 is related to greater use-related problems. Such in formation has important implications for event-specific prevention efforts. Thus, the present study tested whether 4/20 is associated with greater cannabis use than ot...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reactivation and Evaluation of Mastery Experiences Promotes Exposure Benefit in Height Phobia
AbstractThe retrieval of personal mastery experiences has been linked to adaptive functions, such as increased perceived self-efficacy and coping capability. Successful exposure leads to an increased mastery experience with respect to anxiety provoking situations, possibly due to a violation of expected negative outcomes. We investigated whether the reactivation and evaluation of mastery experiences after a brief virtual reality exposure (VRE) training can enhance self-efficacy and promote exposure therapy benefit in patients with acrophobia. Acrophobic participants (N  =  56) were randomly assigned to a memo...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 4, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Concurrent and Prospective Relations Between Attentional Biases for Emotional Images and Relapse to Depression
This study examined concurrent and prospective associations between attentional biases for emotional images and relapse to depression. Previously depressed (n = 121) and never depressed (n = 28) women completed an eye-tracking task to measure attentional biases for emotional images (face images and naturalistic images) and were then followed for 6 months to assess for relapse to depression. Participants returned for a follow-up session that included the eye-tracking task after a relapse or after 6 months. Previously depressed women who experienced a relapse to depression during the study pe...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Transdiagnostic Mechanisms of Psychopathology in Youth: Executive Functions, Dependent Stress, and Rumination
AbstractExecutive function (EF) deficits have been proposed as transdiagnostic risk factors for psychopathology, and recent research suggests EF impairments are associated with what is shared across forms of psychopathology (p factor). However, most research has not employed methods that differentiate between EF components, and little is known about the mediating mechanisms linking EF and psychopathology dimensions. The current study tested associations between the latent unity/diversity model of EF and latent dimensions of psychopathology and investigated mediating mechanisms in a community sample of 292 youth age 13 &nda...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Depressive Suppression: Effects of Emotion Suppression on Multiple Emotions for Depressed Versus Nondepressed Individuals
AbstractClinical theory from multiple psychological perspectives, including cognitive therapies, have long suggested that the maladaptive use of strategies to regulate emotion play a central role in the development and maintenance of psychopathology. This consideration may be particularly salient for depressive symptoms, given the prevalence of multiple negative emotions in the context of depression and the recently established tendency for depressed individuals to suppress emotions. We experimentally tested whether emotional and physiological effects of emotion suppression in response to separate sadness and anxiety induc...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dynamic Changes in a Desire to Escape from Interpersonal Adversity: A Fluid Experimental Assessment of the Interpersonal Theory of Suicide
AbstractGiven suicide risk is dynamic, research needs to identify the factors responsible for these changes. This can be achieved through experimentally manipulating putative causal risk factors. Two studies experimentally manipulated a change in interpersonal risk factors (thwarted belongingness and perceived burdensomeness) to assess the influence on participants ’ desire to escape. Study 1 (N = 74) found manipulating simultaneous changes in burdensomeness and belongingness rapidly changed participants’ desire to escape. In Study 2 (N = 54), a change in only thwarted belongingness ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Moderation of CBT: Disorder-Specific or Transdiagnostic Predictors of Treatment Response
AbstractCognitive vulnerability research has focused on cognitive variables that are hypothesized to confer risk to specific disorders within the mood and anxiety spectrum, while transdiagnostic research has emphasized common risk factors across disorders. The purpose of the present study was to test specific versus common cognitive predictors of treatment response across three treatment groups. Participants (N  = 373) with major depressive disorder (MDD; N = 187, panic disorder with/without agoraphobia (PD/A; N = 85), and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD; N = 101) ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

d -Cycloserine-Augmented Behavior Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Preliminary Efficacy Trial
AbstractCognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the leading psychotherapeutic treatment for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), yet not all patients improve. To address the treatment response gap, CBT may be augmented with cognitive enhancers such asd-cycloserine (DCS). DCS-augmented behavior therapy has been tested with mixed results in related disorders. To initially test whether DCS may augment CBT for BDD, we conducted the first preliminary efficacy trial of DCS versus placebo-augmented CBT for BDD, via a randomized, double-blind study. We analyzed data using mixed-effects models in a modified intent-to-treat sample (N&thins...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Client Motivation and Engagement in Transdiagnostic Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: Predictors and Outcomes
AbstractClient motivation is regarded as a key factor in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders. To date, client motivation has only been measured during individual-CBT, with little known about the predictive capacity of motivation in group settings. The current study aimed to explore the role of client motivation in group-CBT. Measuring motivation during individual-CBT has proven somewhat difficult with many self-report measures providing weak and inconsistent results. For this reason observational measures of motivation, such as rating client change (CT) language during CBT, have been trialled with some...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gaze-contingent Attention Bias Modification Training and its Effect on Attention, Interpretations, Mood, and Aggressive Behavior
AbstractCognitive theories propose that aggression is associated with specific patterns of attention to social cues, and suggest that cognitive biases in attention and interpretation are interrelated, The current study tested whether these attention patterns can be altered using a single session of a novel gaze-contingent cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-A) and assessed the impact of this on interpretation bias, aggressive behavior and mood. University students (18 –31 years) were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing attention to pr...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Post-event Processing and Alcohol Intoxication: The Moderating Role of Social Anxiety
AbstractTo resolve the mixed findings on the link between social anxiety (SA) and alcohol use, studies have examined the role of post-event processing (PEP), i.e., negative thinking about past social events. In a sample of 18 –30 year olds (82% female) high (n = 40) and low (n = 49) in SA, the current 21-day study assessed the effect of PEP after social drinking events on subjective intoxication at the next social event. The moderating role of SA severity was tested. Compared to the low SA group, the high SA group reported overall more PEP but similar intoxication le vels. Multilevel ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Innovations in the Study of Appraisals and PTSD: A Commentary
AbstractThe purpose of our commentary is to underscore key take-home points of the 11 articles in this special series on appraisals and trauma. Two important take-home points relate to (i) the question of whether appraisals mediate the relationship between trauma and trauma-relevant symptoms, and (ii) the methodological innovations presented here. Further, we discuss three features characterizing this special issue. First, it includes papers examining the role of negative appraisals as a correlate, predictor, and potential causal risk factor of posttraumatic stress symptoms; second, the studies use a multifaceted approach ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Components of Attentional Bias to Threat in Clinically Anxious Children: An Experimental Study Using the Emotional Spatial Cueing Paradigm
AbstractAttentional bias to threat is believed to play a key role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. However, the underlying attentional mechanisms related to anxiety are not well understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cognitive therapy on the engagement and disengagement components of attentional bias to threat in clinically anxious children using the emotional spatial cueing paradigm. Anxiety was diagnosed using the Anxiety Disorders Interview Schedule and the Revised Child Anxiety and Depression Scale. Results from 27 clinically anxious children and 27 control chi...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Bias Modification for Social Anxiety: The Differential Impact of Modifying Attentional and/or Interpretation Bias
This study aimed to determine the relative efficacy of CBM-A, CBM-I, and combined CBM for reducing social anxiety symptoms and attenuating anxiety vulnerability in response to a social stressor task. Participants (N = 116) were randomly allocated to receive CBM-A, CBM-I, combined CBM, or placebo. Results revealed that CBM-I reduced negative interpretation bias and social anxiety symptoms. Furthermore, CBM-I improved speech performance on a social stressor task. However, CBM-A procedures did not modify atte ntional biases or anxiety vulnerability. These findings support the efficacy of CBM-I for social anxiety...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Imagining as an Observer: Manipulating Visual Perspective in Obsessional Imagery
We examined the impact of visual perspective on response to intrusive obsessional images, using autobiographical memory images as a control stimulus. Undergraduates (N = 153) imagined idiosyncratic obsessional scenarios and negative memories from their natural visual perspective, then re-imagined them from a field or observer perspective. At baseline, field perspective was positively associated with vividness and distress and OCD symptoms were associated with an observer perspective. Participants shifted to observer perspective reported reduced vividness of the obsessional image, whereas those shifted to fiel...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on a Behavioural Measure of Rumination in Patients with Chronic, Treatment-Resistant Depression
AbstractIt has been found that Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) reduces rumination in remitted and currently depressed patients. However, less is known about the effects of MBCT on rumination in chronically and treatment-resistant depressed patients. Typically, questionnaires are used to assess rumination, but this introduces the risk of response and recall biases. A recent systematic review (van der Velden et al. Clinical Psychology Review 37:26 –39, 2015) proposes to also include behavioural measures. A behavioural measure that has previously been used to assess rumination in dysphoric students is the bre...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Early Versus Later Improvements in Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Use and Treatment Outcome in Eating Disorders
AbstractDialectical behavior therapy (DBT) has demonstrated initial efficacy for the treatment of eating disorders (EDs). However, no study has examined potential processes that may contribute to observed improvements in DBT for EDs. The present study sought to investigate changes in DBT skills use throughout treatment as a predictor of symptom change in a DBT-based partial hospital program (PHP) for adults with EDs. Adults [n  = 135; M(SD) age = 25.08 (7.88)] with EDs completed self-report measures at treatment admission, one-month post-admission, and discharge from PHP. DBT skills use, as meas...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How Do I Say This? An Experimental Comparison of the Effects of Partner Feedback Styles on Reassurance Seeking Behaviour
AbstractInterventions for reassurance seeking (RS) in obsessive –compulsive disorder typically include reducing accommodation by asking partners to not provide reassurance, which may decrease RS but increase distress and be perceived as unhelpful. Alternatively, having partners provide support to encourage coping may be effective and associated with greater pe rceived helpfulness and lower negative affect. This experiment tested hypotheses that compared with no reassurance, supportive feedback would be associated with higher ratings of intervention helpfulness, fewer requests for reassurance, and lower ratings of RS ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Feasibility and Impact of a Guided Symptom Exposure Augmented Cognitive Behavior Therapy Protocol to Prevent Symptoms of Pharmacologically Induced Depression: A Pilot Study
AbstractDepression is the leading cause of disability and a major cause of morbidity worldwide, with societal costs now upwards of 1 trillion dollars across the globe. Hence, extending current efforts to augment prevention outcomes is consistent with global public health interests. Although many prevention programs have been developed and have demonstrated efficacy, studies have yet to demonstrate that CBT is effective in preventing symptoms in populations at risk for developing depression induced by pharmacological substances. Using a randomized, controlled design, this pilot study reports on the feasibility and prelimina...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Symptom-Specific Threat Perception Mediates the Relationship Between Obsessive Beliefs and OCD Symptoms
AbstractCognitive theories of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) propose that obsessive beliefs bias individuals ’ perception of OC-relevant threats, which in turn maintain OCD symptoms. However, no prior research has directly tested this mediational model in a clinical sample. The current study bridges this gap in the literature. Sixty adults with OCD completed a diagnostic interview, self-report questionna ires and a threat perception task. More specifically, participants rated the perceived threat associated with (a) OC-specific stimuli (e.g., toilet) that matched their most interfering symptom dimension (e.g., c...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Developing a Brief Version of the Social Thoughts and Beliefs Scale (STABS) Using Item Response Theory
AbstractCognitions play a central role in the maintenance of social anxiety disorder (SAD). The aim of the present study was to develop a brief version of the social thoughts and beliefs scale (STABS) that can be used in clinical trials and experience sampling studies in which multiple repeated measures (e.g., weekly or daily measurements) are utilized. Our sample (n = 361) included both individuals diagnosed with SAD (n = 108) and non-anxious controls (n = 253). We used item response theory analyses to examine items of the STABS and kept only items which differentiated between 4 l...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 7, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Profiles of Emotion Regulation in Young People Accessing Youth Mental Health and Drug Treatment
AbstractDeficits regulating emotions are a core process underlying both substance use and mental health disorders. Research has focused on identifying one-to-one associations between individual emotion regulation (ER) strategies and mental health symptoms. Consequently, little is known about how patterns of ER relate to a broad range of psychopathology, in treatment seeking young people. Latent class analysis was used to examine patterns of ER strategies and their relationship with symptoms of depression, anxiety, eating disorders, substance use and borderline personality disorder, in a sample of young treatment seekers. P...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 6, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

#Sad: Twitter Content Predicts Changes in Cognitive Vulnerability and Depressive Symptoms
AbstractResearch shows that social media networks can affect both the physical and mental health of its users. We hypothesized that social media would also be associated with cognitive vulnerability to depression. To test this hypothesis, we used a 3-month pre-post prospective longitudinal design with a sample of undergraduates (n  = 105). Results showed that participants who had tweets with a “past focus” (as determined by LIWC software) were more likely to exhibit increases in cognitive vulnerability and depressive symptoms than participants who did not have tweets with a past focus. Increases i...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 31, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Mechanisms Underlying the Link Between Anxiety, Health Behaviors, and Illness Outcomes: Commentary on a Special Issue
AbstractThis commentary synthesizes research examining cognitive mechanisms underlying the links between anxiety, health behaviors, and illness outcomes. We provide a brief summary of contributions to this special issue and review common themes and methodological limitations. Notably, a number of related constructs emerged as amplification factors, increasing vulnerability to psychopathology and maladaptive health behaviors. These include anxiety sensitivity, distress and discomfort intolerance, emotion regulation, health literacy, and repetitive negative thinking. Finally, we discuss clinical implications, and conclude wi...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 28, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Factor Structure of the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS) in a Sample of Community Mental Health Clinicians
AbstractTreatment fidelity is an essential outcome of implementation research. The gold standard measure for Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) fidelity is the Cognitive Therapy Rating Scale (CTRS). Despite its widespread use in research and training programs, the structure of the CTRS has not been examined in a sample of community mental health clinicians with adult and child clients. The current study addressed this gap. The sample consisted of 355 clinicians and 1298 CBT sessions scored using the CTRS. High interrater reliability was observed and factor analysis yielded separate structures for child and adult treatment ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 18, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Different Patterns of Attention Bias in Worry and Rumination
AbstractIn two studies with college student participants, we explored the ways in which worry and rumination may be similar or distinct. Towards that end, as part of our research, we developed new laboratory measures of worry and rumination. In Study 1, we examined how the new lab instruments we developed differentiate worry versus rumination and initiation versus termination. We did so by comparing them with two other measurement methods of worry and rumination, ecological momentary assessment and questionnaires. We found that the laboratory measures were reasonably able to differentiate worry from rumination, but not ini...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxious and Overwhelming Affects and Repetitive Negative Thinking as Ecological Predictors of Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors
AbstractNonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) refers to purposely injuring one ’s body without suicidal intent via methods such as cutting or hitting oneself, and is a serious health concern that has been linked to detrimental behavioral and physical health consequences. One of the primary reasons that people report engaging in NSSI is that it appears to help them cope with intense affective states and upsetting thoughts, both of which they perceive as unbearable at the time. However, empirical investigation into the affective and cognitive states preceding NSSI has been limited, especially during daily life. The current st...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 9, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Editorial for the Special Issue on Negative Appraisals in Trauma: Current Status and Future Directions for Research
(Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Intergenerational Transfer of Early Maladaptive Schemas in Mother –Daughter Dyads, and the Role of Parenting
In conclusion, mother maladaptive schemas and style of parenting predict daughter schemas. The results provide support for interpersonal, intergenerational influences on schema development. In highlightin g the possible intergenerational sources of maladaptive core beliefs, this research may open new avenues of therapist–client dialogue. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does Modification of Implicit Associations Regarding Contamination Affect Approach Behavior and Attentional Bias?
The objective of our study was to investigate if training implicit associations affects stress reactivity and attention in the context of contamination concerns. In a double-blind randomized design, we used a modified Implicit Associations Task (IAT) to train associations between contamination and danger in a non-clinical sample (N = 121). Dependent measures were a brief-IAT to assess changes in associations, contamination-related behavior approach tasks, and a spatial cueing task to measure attentional bias. Results show that training successfully modified implicit associations. However, there were no transf...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Processes in Anxiety and Comorbid Physical Illness and Health Behavior: Introduction to the Special Issue
AbstractAnxiety symptoms and disorders are the most common psychiatric problems world-wide and are vastly overrepresented among individuals with chronic illness and poor health behavior. The purpose of the current special series is to bolster attention and highlight new research on cognitive processes as a basic element that may undergird the association between anxiety and chronic illness and health behavior. Findings in this issue highlight cognitive-based risk and resilience factors related to anxiety in individuals with various chronic conditions and  problematic health behavior. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 18, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Drive for Thinness Versus Fear of Fat: Approach and Avoidance Motivation Regarding Thin and Non-thin Images in Women
AbstractInternalization of sociocultural attitudes regarding the so-called virtues of thinness and vices of fatness can lead to two motivational orientations: drive for thinness and fear of fat. The current study assessed drive for thinness and fear of fat, via approach and avoidance motivation towards thin-ideal and non-thin bodies respectively, and also the relation between these approach-avoidance tendencies and key eating disorder-related constructs. Participants were 95 female undergraduate students. Results revealed an approach bias for thin-ideal bodies and an avoidance bias for non-thin bodies. Furthermore, a great...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 17, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Sustained Effects of CBT Training on Therapist Competence and Patient Outcomes
This study assessed therapist competence and patient clinical outcome during cognitive behaviour therapy training and 12+ months post-training. Trainee competence was assessed using audio-recorded sessions rated on the Cognitive Therapy Scale Revised at the beginning (n = 33) and end of training (n = 45), and at least 12 months post-training (n = 45). Pre-to-posttreatment clinical outcome for trainees’ patients during the course (n = 360) and post-training (n = 360) was evaluated using standardised self-report measures. The relationship betwee...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 12, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Trait Anxiety and Biased Prospective Memory for Targets Associated with Negative Future Events
AbstractCognitive models propose that elevated trait anxiety is associated with selective memory for negative information, although often no such effects are observed on tests of retrospective memory. One possibility is that no anxiety-linked biases in memory processes exists, however an alternative hypothesis is that trait anxiety may be associated with a bias in prospective memory, the process of remembering to carry out activities in the future. In two studies, high and low trait-anxious participants completed a prospective memory paradigm consisting of a lexical-decision task with embedded prospective memory targets. T...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 3, 2018 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research