“Memories Warm You Up from the Inside. But They also Tear You Apart”: Editorial for the Special Issue on Memory Training for Emotional Disorders
(Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotional Memory: Concluding Remarks to the Special Issue on Memory Training for Emotional Disorders
AbstractBasic research on emotional memory has given rise to important innovations in research on memory training in the context of psychopathology. In the special issue om memory training research is presented on (1) memory processes in psychopathology; (2) modification of emotional memories in psychotherapy; and (3) procedures to directly target memory processes. We review the key contributions of the special issue in these areas and describe the challenges for further research in this area. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Empathic Communication Among Women with High or Low Social Anxiety
ConclusionsThe implications for these findings on the interpersonal functioning of socially anxious individuals are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 6, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Model of Homework in Cognitive Behavior Therapy
This article contributes a comprehensive model of homework in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). To this end, several issues in the definition of homework and homework compliance are outlined, research on homework-outcome relations is critiqued, before an overview of classical and operant conditioning along with various cognitive theories are tied together in a comprehensive model. We suggestengagement represents a more clinically meaningful construct than compliance (or adherence). We describe how established behavior and cognitive theories are relevant for understanding patient engagement and what between-session and in-s...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - July 3, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Initial Maintenance of Attention to Threat in Children with Social Anxiety Disorder? Findings from an Eye-Tracking Experiment
ConclusionOur findings provide evidence for difficulties disengaging attention from faces. This may indicate that attention allocation is determined by the social nature of the stimuli rather than by the specific emotional valence. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 29, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Group Intervention ‘Drop it!’ Decreases Repetitive Negative Thinking in Major Depressive Disorder and/or Generalized Anxiety Disorder: A Randomised Controlled Study
ConclusionsGroup intervention improves RNT and quality of life of patients treated for MDD and/or GAD. Improvements remain stable until 9  months after treatment. Limitations of the study included the small sample size, the lack of a long-term follow-up in the delayed treatment control group and the inclusion of highly educated patients with mainly high comorbid generalized anxiety disorder and depression. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 28, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Narcissistic Reflections After Social Rejection: Grandiose and Vulnerable Narcissism in Terms of Explicit and Implicit Interpretation Bias
ConclusionsWe concluded that narcissistic explicit strategies are stable and unaffected by social situations. However, rejection may affect automatic processes congruent with the narcissistic strategy. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

College Mental Health Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Results From a Nationwide Survey
ConclusionsDepression, alcohol use disorder, bulimia nervosa/binge-eating disorder, and comorbidity were higher, whereas posttraumatic stress disorder was lower during the pandemic. Women and Black students could face especially heightened risk for alcohol use disorder and depression, respectively, during the pandemic. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Psychological Distress and Physical Health Symptoms in the Latinx Population During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Exploring the Role of Anxiety Sensitivity
AbstractObjectiveThe outbreak of the novel 2019 SARS2-Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has led to substantial physical and mental health consequences. Rates of mortality and hospitalization are highest among those of racial and ethnic minority persons, including Latinx persons. Further, Latinx persons have been experiencing elevated mental health problems in response to the pandemic compared to non-Latinx Whites. The current study examined whether individual differences in anxiety sensitivity (AS) related to more severe emotional distress associated with social distancing, financial strain, fear of COVID-19, and physical hea...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 19, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of Cognitive Restructuring and Defusion for Coping with Difficult Thoughts in a Predominantly White Female College Student Sample
ConclusionsOverall, results suggest that both cognitive restructuring and cognitive defusion are used in a nonclinical, untrained population, that both processes are overall beneficial when used in the moment, and that defusion may be particularly relevant to certain aims such as lower rumination or values progress across time points. Replication among clinical and more diverse populations is needed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 16, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Evaluating the Role of Anxiety Sensitivity on Behavioral Health Outcomes among Latinx Persons
ConclusionOverall, this work provides initial support for the role of AS in terms of the relation between acculturative stress and numerous psychological and behavioral health problems among Mexican American adults in a clinical setting. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Online Cognitive Control Training for Remitted Depressed Individuals: A Replication and Extension Study
ConclusionsGiven the partial replication of previously reported effects of cognitive control training in RMD, further research is needed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Correction to: The Future of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-021-10237-1 (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - June 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Psychological and Physiological Effects of Imagery Rescripting for Aversive Autobiographical Memories
ConclusionsPositive effects of ImRs on helplessness and distress were found. Null findings regarding mastery might result from timing of its assessment or the fact that rather high-functioning participants were included. The lack of between group differences on physiological responses indicates that ImRs did not exceed habituation effects in the present sample. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Higher Order Repetitive Negative Thinking Is More Robustly Related to Depression, Anxiety, and Mania Than Measures of Rumination or Worry
ConclusionsOur findings indicate that combining measures of RT can help public health researchers predict not only depression and anxiety, but also symptoms of mania. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 24, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Idiographic Network Models of Social Media Use and Depression Symptoms
ConclusionsStudying idiographic relationships between social media use and depression may help us (1) determine which individuals are most at risk of experiencing elevated depression symptoms after using social media and (2) personalize therapeutic treatments to alleviate symptoms. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxiety Sensitivity and Distress Tolerance Predict Changes in Internalizing Symptoms in Individuals Exposed to Interpersonal Trauma
ConclusionsThese findings contribute to our understanding of the role of AS and DT in the development of depression and anxiety in trauma-exposed college students. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Pain in Veterans: Indirect Association Through Anxiety Sensitivity
ConclusionsThese findings, though limited by their cross-sectional nature, provide support for AS as a  risk factor for perceived pain and PTSD symptoms, particularly among veteran samples. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Future of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
AbstractAaron T. Beck, the founder of this journal and the father of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), is turning 100 on June 18th, 2021. This special issue on theFuture of CBT provides a glimpse into the next frontier of CBT research and practice. Some of the leading CBT scholars and researchers, including Dr. Beck himself, will explore new CBT approaches for schizophrenia, OCD, depression, and envy. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Distress Intolerance Prospectively Predicts Traumatic Intrusions Following an Experimental Trauma in a Non-clinical Sample
ConclusionsThese findings provide critical support for DI as a pre-existing risk factor for the development of intrusive thoughts following an analogue trauma. Future research should seek to extend these findings to a clinical sample. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social Distancing During A COVID-19 Lockdown Contributes to The Maintenance of Social Anxiety: A Natural Experiment
ConclusionsThe current results suggest that reduced exposure to social situations may play a role in the maintenance of social anxiety. Alternative explanations are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 13, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Reactivity Related to Coping Behaviors: An Assessment of Explicit and Implicit Dimensions in Clinical Depression
ConclusionsThis study demonstrated the existence of negatively biased cognitions and cognitive reactivity among people with a history of depression with coping-related contents, and on both explicit and implicit dimensions. The findings are consistent with the differential activation hypothesis. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 12, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Randomised Comparison of Values and Goals, Versus Goals Only and Control, for High Nonclinical Paranoia
ConclusionsThe values condition was most effective at reducing non-clinical paranoia. The values condition appeared to increase positive self-views more so than comparison groups, but the sample was small and the difference was non-significant. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - May 10, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Development of Psychiatric Disorders from Adaptive Behavior to Serious Mental Health Conditions
AbstractIn this paper we look at the manifestation of different psychopathologies and propose that the disorders are on a continuum with normal behavior which, when exaggerated, becomes maladaptive. The basic paradigm of adaptation consists of cognition, affect, motivation, and behavior. Maladaptation occurs when there are errors in cognition involving the four domains of gain, loss, threat, or offense, thus triggering positive or negative affect, motivation, and subsequent behavior. Behavior is traditionally focused upon when we evaluate and treat psychopathology, but the root of disorders is the exaggeration of commonpla...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 29, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Dysregulation within the CBT-E Model of Eating Disorders: A Narrative Review
ConclusionThis review proposes that emotion dysregulation is a key maintenance factor of eating pathology, and adaptations to reflect this should be considered for the CBT-E model. Furthermore, treatments targeting emotion dysregulation for adolescents and adults represent a promising avenue for further development. Further research should explore the potential of emotion dysregulation as a risk factor proceeding eating disorder development. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotion Regulation and Repetitive Negative Thinking Before and After CBT and SSRI Treatment of Internalizing Psychopathologies
ConclusionsFindings suggest treatment improves ER and RNT and provides preliminary evidence of a treatment modality effect on reappraisal. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Bias and Medication Use Moderate the Relation of Socratic Questioning and Symptom Change in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy of Depression
ConclusionsFindings are consistent with the view that Socratic questioning promotes session-to-session symptom improvements for some clients but plays a less important role for others. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Rescripting Social Trauma: A Pilot Study Investigating Imagery Rescripting as an Adjunct to Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder
ConclusionsTaken together, findings suggest that IR may be a valuable adjunct to GCBT for SAD, especially among patients with comorbid unipolar depression. However, further research including a follow up period is indicated. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Attentional Control Moderates the Relations between Intolerance of Uncertainty and Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Symptoms
ConclusionsThese results indicate that at high levels of perceived AC, individuals with elevated IU report higher levels of worry, potentially due to the conscious use of worry as an emotion regulation strategy. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Correction to: Does Test Anxiety Predispose Poor School ‑Related Wellbeing and Enhanced Risk of Emotional Disorders?
A correction to this paper has been published: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-021-10220-w (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Understanding the Dynamic Interaction of Maladaptive Social-Evaluative Beliefs and Social Anxiety: A Latent Change Score Model Approach
ConclusionsThese findings suggest high standard beliefs play a prominent role in the dynamics involving social anxiety and provide a basis for future research to further understand the interaction between these constructs. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - April 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Commentary on the Science and Practice of Homework in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
ConclusionsThe use of homework assignments in CBT remains a critical issue for development. Limitations of the literature are addressed, and directions for future research in the field are provided. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Automaticity of Positive and Negative Thinking: A Scoping Review of Mental Habits
ConclusionsAlthough mental habits appear to be relevant predictors of mental health, habitual thinking has not been well-integrated with psychological constructs related to mental health, such as automatic thoughts. We discuss the implications of mental habits for future research and clinical practice. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 15, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Does Test Anxiety Predispose Poor School-Related Wellbeing and Enhanced Risk of Emotional Disorders?
ConclusionsOur findings imply that there would be downstream benefits to improved mental health from using interventions to address test anxiety but also, from addressing emotion disorders, to improve school-related wellbeing and test anxiety. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 11, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Role of Emotional Memory in Reappraising Negative Self-referent Thoughts
ConclusionsThese findings suggest that emotional long-term memory processes, and particularly memory bias, may modulate downregulation of negative emotions when implementing reappraisal. These insights could be leveraged to guide psychological treatments using cognitive techniques that rely on successful reappraisal use. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Cognitive Control Training as Add-On Treatment to Usual Care for Depressed Inpatients
ConclusionAlthough other studies suggest that CCT may hold potential as an add-on intervention for depression, our findings point to the importance of investigating individual differences and conditions predicting training response. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 27, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Using Network Theory for Psychoeducation in Eating Disorders
ConclusionsGiven the increasing popularity of biological-genetic explanatory models of EDs, it is important to note the disadvantages we found to be associated with these models. Our findings indicate that explanatory models emphasizing cognitive-behavioral (CB)  principles and/or network theoretical (NT) underpinnings of EDs may serve to promote optimism and greater perceptions of personal agency in affected populations.This trial's registration number is 316. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 26, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Gait Patterns and Mood in Everyday Life: A Comparison Between Depressed Patients and Non-depressed Controls
ConclusionIn sum, our results support expectations that embodiment (i.e., the relationship between bodily expression of emotion and emotion processing itself) in depression is also observable in naturalistic settings, and that depression is bodily manifested in the way people walk. The data further suggest that motor displays affect mood in everyday life. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 25, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Reappraisal and Suppression Each Moderate the Association Between Stress and Suicidal Ideation: Preliminary Evidence From a Daily Diary Study
ConclusionsIn contrast to laboratory-based findings suggesting that expressive suppression has negative psychological effects, these preliminary daily diary results suggest that expressive suppression could be an effective short-term emotion regulation strategy among individuals considering suicide. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Dyadic Emotion Regulation in Women with Borderline Personality Disorder
ConclusionsThe present study indicates an increased demand of dyadic ER in BPD. Increased negative support seeking and less creation of closeness to the partner might reflect ineffective strategies to actually receive support from the partner. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 20, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Introduction to the Special Issue on Homework in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: New Clinical Psychological Science
This article introduces the Special Issue inCognitive Therapy and Research that presents advances in clinical psychological science for homework in behavior and cognitive behavioral therapies (CBTs). Studies include sophisticated evaluations of homework adherence, moving beyond simplistic assessments of quantity and quality of completion to more complete assessments of engagement (i.e., perceived difficulty, obstacles, and helpfulness). Studies advance the clinical psychological science by examining therapist behavior as a predictor of homework adherence, by testing homework as a vehicle for specific treatment processes in...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 18, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Reliability and Validity of Response-Based Measures of Attention Bias
ConclusionsFindings indicate that response-based AB scores from the dot-probe task have better psychometric properties than traditional scores. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 17, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Towards a Reformulated Theory Underlying Schema Therapy: Position Paper of an International Workgroup
ConclusionsWith this project, we hope to contribute to the further development of ST and its application across the world. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 9, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Looming Cognitive Style More Consistently Predicts Anxiety than Depressive Symptoms: Evidence from a 3-Wave Yearlong Study
ConclusionsThe LCS predicts anxiety and may do so more consistently than depression, at least in time windows of 6  months of less. The findings are discussed in terms of the potential importance of dynamic threat parameters to anxiety that are not captured by other current putative vulnerability factors. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 8, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Metacognitions and Obsessive Beliefs in Obsessive –Compulsive Disorder: A Study of Within- and Between-Person Effects on Long-Term Outcome
ConclusionsThe results indicate that decreases in metacognitive beliefs during OCD treatment can also have important long-term consequences. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 4, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

What ’s in a Face? Amygdalar Sensitivity to an Emotional Threatening Faces Task and Transdiagnostic Internalizing Disorder Symptoms in Participants Receiving Attention Bias Modification Training
ConclusionsABM may lead to greater improvement in depressive symptoms in individuals exhibiting blunted baseline amygdalar responses to the EMF task, potentially by enhancing neural-level discrimination between negative and unambiguously neutral stimuli. Convergently, longitudinal increases in amygdala reactivity from pre-to-post-ABM may be associated with greater improvement in depression, possibly secondary to improved neural discrimination of threat and/or decreased neurophysiological threat avoidance in these specific patients. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Examining the associations between interpersonal emotion regulation and psychosocial adjustment in emerging adulthood
ConclusionsThe findings contribute to research by examining IER in emerging adulthood and broadening our understanding of the IER strategies that are important for psychosocial adjustment. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 23, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Positive and Negative Emotion Regulation in College Athletes: A Preliminary Exploration of Daily Savoring, Acceptance, and Cognitive Reappraisal
ConclusionsSavoring positive events may be an underappreciated strategy for helping athletes regulate emotions related to negative events. Since our sample predominantly identified as white and female, further research is needed to understand savoring use and effectiveness among the full, diverse spectrum of college athletes. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Can Gender Differences in Distress Due to Difficult Voices Be Explained by Differences in Relating?
ConclusionGender differences in the emotional impact of voices can be partially explained by relating behavior. Psychological interventions for voice hearing could be optimized by exploring the influence of gender in the emergence of distressing voices. Nevertheless, gender differences need to be treated as one of several different possible mechanisms when working with individual patients. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 22, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predicting and Moderating the Response to the Unified Protocol: Do Baseline Personality and Affective Profiles Matter?
ConclusionThe study results support the short-medium term utility of the UP to address all study outcomes. Moreover, personalizing interventions according to baseline personality/affect might be a sensible strategy to enhance the UP effectiveness. Trial registration number NCT03064477 (March 10, 2017). (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 21, 2021 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research