Fearlessness About Death is Related to Diminished Late Positive Potential Responses When Viewing Threatening and Mutilation Images in Suicidal Ideators
ConclusionsThese results suggest blunted LPP responses to threat/mutilation stimuli may be a potential biophysical mechanism for fearless about death. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Daily Worry in Trauma-Exposed Afghan Refugees: Relationship with Affect and Sleep in a Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment
ConclusionThese preliminary findings suggest unidirectional effects of daily worry on negative affect and positive affect on daily worry. However, the low compliance rate and the small sample size precludes drawing firm conclusions. Implications for further EMA research among refugees are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 12, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Looming Cognitive Style and Its Associations with Anxiety and Depression: A Meta-analysis
ConclusionsThese results support the idea that LCS is a transdiagnostic vulnerability factor for various anxiety subtypes and that it is more specific to anxiety than to depression. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 11, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How Anxious are You Right Now? Using Ecological Momentary Assessment to Evaluate the Effects of Cognitive Bias Modification for Social Threat Interpretations
ConclusionThis study demonstrates the challenges and opportunities associated with investigating intervention effects in daily life. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Anxiety Sensitivity Among Smokers During a Reduction Attempt: The Impact of Hatha Yoga
AbstractSmokers with elevated anxiety sensitivity (AS) have poorer smoking cessation outcomes. Smokers with elevated anxiety/depression report worse smoking cessation outcomes and greater AS. Thus, it is important to examine the utility of intervention strategies that target AS in the context of smoking cessation. Hatha yoga encourages the implementation of present-centered awareness in the face of discomfort, which may be a potential therapeutic strategy to reduce AS. The current study examines the impact of hatha yoga on AS among 51 smokers. Participants were randomly assigned to hatha yoga or wellness control on their q...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Vulnerabilities as Prognostic Predictors of Acute and Follow-Up Outcomes in Seasonal Affective Disorder Treatment with Light Therapy or Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
ConclusionsGreater morningness was associated with less severe post-treatment depression in both cognitive-behavior therapy and light therapy. No cognitive vulnerability emerged as a prognostic or prescriptive predictor, perhaps because they correlated with pre-treatment depression severity, a robust predictor of outcome. Future research should test alternative cognitive constructs. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - March 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Predictors of Treatment Outcome in Group or Individual Cognitive Processing Therapy for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Among Active Duty Military
ConclusionsYounger participants had greater symptom improvement, particularly if they received individual treatment. Other pretreatment variables did not predict outcome. CPT appears to be robust across most pretreatment variables, such that comorbid disorders, baseline symptom severity, and suicidal ideation do not interfere with application of CPT. However, individual CPT may be a better option particularly for younger service members. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 26, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mechanisms of Change in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Body Dysmorphic Disorder
AbstractAlthough cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is highly efficacious for body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), not all patients benefit, and mechanisms underlying response remain unknown. In this first report of the mechanisms underlying improvement with CBT for BDD, we examined whether cognitive (maladaptive beliefs, perfectionism, schemas) and behavioral (checking, grooming, avoidance behaviors) changes mediate the effect of CBT on BDD symptom reduction. Forty-five participants with BDD who enrolled in a CBT for BDD treatment development study were included in two sets of analyses: (1) between-subject mediation of the eff...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - February 3, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Increased Direct Retrieval of Overgeneral Categoric Memory in Individuals with Dysphoria and a History of Major Depression
AbstractIncreased overgeneral categoric memory has been reported in individuals with dysphoria and a history of depression. In three experiments, we examined whether increased categoric memory among individuals with depression occurs through generative or direct retrieval. Generative retrieval requires effort or additional information until the end of retrieval; direct retrieval occurs without such effort or information. Participants completed the Autobiographical Memory Test with minimal instructions and were asked whether each retrieval was generative or direct. Depressive symptoms were assessed using a self-reported sca...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 24, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Exposure and Reactivity to Repetitive Thought in the Neuroticism –Distress Relationship
AbstractDistress has been assumed to result from exposure to repetitive thought (RT). However, if RT is viewed as internally generated stressors, both exposure and affective reactivity to RT could play roles in generating distress. Three studies (young adults, N  = 99; midlife women, N = 111; older adults, N = 159) assessed exposure and reactivity to daily RT and tested whether neuroticism was related to individual differences in both exposure and affective reactivity. Across all three studies, reactivity effects on depressive symptoms exceeded those of exposure to RT, and neurotic...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 22, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Comparing Mindfulness and Positivity Trainings in High-Demand Cohorts
AbstractAttention and working memory are at risk of degradation over intensive intervals in groups engaged in highly demanding jobs. Accordingly, there is great interest in identifying training regimes to promote cognitive resilience in such populations. Herein, US Army Soldiers were assigned to either an 8-week, 16-h mindfulness training (MT) program (n = 40) or to a well-matched active comparison program involving positivity training (PT,n = 40), during an intensive interval of predeployment training. Working memory (WM) and sustained attention task performance, as well as self-reported positive and n...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 16, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fear of Negative Evaluation and Rapid Response to Treatment During Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder
This study provides further support for the phenomenon of rapid response in CBT for SAD and suggests that mechanism s of change may be different for rapid responders as compared to non-rapid responders. The results of the current study may have implications for understanding the mechanisms underlying treatment response during CBT for SAD and for whom particular mechanisms are relevant. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 10, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Neural Correlates Supported by Eye Movements of Self-Focused Attention and Other-Focused Attention in Social Situations
AbstractCognitive-behavioral models of social anxiety propose that self-focused attention (SFA) and other-focused attention (OFA) are central to social fear, but few studies have simultaneously investigated both in social situations. We investigated brain activity changes following manipulation of SFA and OFA during speech tasks using near-infrared spectroscopy and eye-tracking. The 39 healthy participants performed speech tasks in SFA, OFA, and control conditions. Greater oxy-Hb responses in the right frontopolar area and the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for condition SFA versus control were related to the subject...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 6, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Bias Modification for the Induction of Negative Versus Benign Interpretations of the Self in Individuals with Elevated Social Anxiety: Effects on Self-related and Anxiety Outcomes
This study modifies and extends cognitive bias modification procedures to specifically alter interpretations of the self (CBM-IS) associated with social anxiety disorder and examined the effects of negative CBM-IS versus benign CBM-IS. Participants with elevated social anxiety were randomly allocated to a negative or benign CBM-IS condition. After CBM-IS training, participants were assessed on induced interpretations of the self, completed a speech task, and rated their performance. Negative self-esteem and anxiety were assessed at baseline, post-training, and post-speech. As predicted, negative CBM-IS induced a negative i...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - January 1, 2020 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Training Adaptive Emotion Regulation Skills in Early Adolescents: The Effects of Distraction, Acceptance, Cognitive Reappraisal, and Problem Solving
This study investigated the immediate and prolonged effects of training emotion regulation (ER) in 256 young adolescents (9 –13 years). The four experimental conditions in which an ER skill (acceptance, distraction, cognitive reappraisal, and problem solving) was trained were compared with two control conditions (rumination, performing a cognitive task). Results revealed that: (1) happy affect significantly increased and sad and anxious affect significantly decreased in the four experimental ER conditions but also in the cognitive task condition. Rumination did not have beneficial ER effects. (2) In the experime...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Contextual Changes Influence Attention Flexibility Towards New Goals
AbstractThe ability to flexibly process affective information underlies resilient adaptation to changing situations. However, the impact of social contextual changes on affective flexibility has not been examined yet, although this may be crucial to understand how attention operates when changing situations require allocation of different emotional goals. In a novel eye-tracking task, participants had to deploy the goals to attend to positive or negative facial expressions based on contextual cues. We found that dysphorics, compared to non-dysphorics, were faster in switching to negative goals, but slower in switching to p...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Evaluation of Exposure Instructions to Pain: Should Therapist Focus on Fear Reduction or Expectation Violation?
This study provides experimental evidence for the effectiveness of exposure-based interventions among individuals confronting acute thermal pain. Instructions addressing expectation violations appeared to produce the greatest effects. Testing concrete expectancies might further improve exposure effects. Future research needs to translate our findings into clinical practice. (Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research)
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Validating a Mobile Eye Tracking Measure of Integrated Attention Bias and Interpretation Bias in Youth
This study sought to validate a real-world speech task designed to assess attention and interpretation bias in an integrated and ecologically valid manner. Thirty adolescent girls gave a speech in front of an emotionally ambiguous judge and a positive judge while wearing mobile eye tracking glasses to assess how long they looked at each judge (i.e., attention bias). They also reported their interpretations of the ambiguous judge and distress associated with the task (i.e., interpretation bias). These task-based measures correlated with self-report of interpretation bias and mother-report of attentional control, demonstrati...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Social Avoidance as a Predictor of Psychosocial Functioning in Body Dysmorphic Disorder: A Prospective Longitudinal Analysis
AbstractIndividuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) experience elevated social avoidance, both as a consequence and independent of BDD concerns. To explore how social avoidance relates to the long-term course of functioning for people with BDD, this prospective longitudinal study evaluated the hypothesis that initial social avoidance would predict changes in psychosocial functioning over 3 years, such that greater initial social avoidance would predict worsening functioning. At intake, individuals with BDD (N = 200) completed measures of social avoidance independent of BDD, social avoidance due to BDD or ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Beliefs About Emotions, Negative Meta-emotions, and Perceived Emotional Control During an Emotionally Salient Situation in Individuals with Emotional Disorders
AbstractResearch has highlighted that emotion regulation (ER) difficulties are common in individuals with emotional disorders (ED). However, most studies were limited to non-clinical (NC) samples and focused on specific strategies to control emotions. Also, few studies investigated these difficulties “in-the-moment”. Thus, the current study aimed to investigate ER difficulties in individuals with ED that are usually neglected, such as difficulties in how they appraise their emotions (beliefs about emotions). Moreover, we examined the mediator role of irrational/dysfunctional beliefs about em otions in relation ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - December 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cognitive Therapy for Suicide Prevention: A Randomized Pilot with Suicidal Youth Experiencing Homelessness
AbstractHomeless youth have extremely high rates of suicidal ideation and attempts, but limited research has evaluated the efficacy of suicide prevention interventions. Suicidal homeless youth (N  = 150) between the ages of 18 to 24 years were recruited from a local drop-in center. Of interest was (1) whether the proposed sample of eligible youth could be identified, (2) whether youth could be engaged and retained in the prevention intervention, and (3) whether the intervention was asso ciated with reduced suicidal ideation, our primary outcome measure. In particular, youth were randomly assigned to Cogn...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Emotional Nonacceptance, Distraction Coping and PTSD Symptoms in a Trauma-Exposed Adolescent Inpatient Sample
AbstractEmotional nonacceptance is associated with greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among trauma-exposed youth. Similarly, the use of distraction as a coping strategy is associated with greater PTSD symptoms, yet synergistic relations between emotional nonacceptance and distraction coping among trauma-exposed youth have not been examined. The present study examined associations and interactive effects of emotional nonacceptance and distraction coping in relation to PTSD symptoms among trauma-exposed inpatient adolescents. Participants included 50 adolescents (52.0% female;Mage = 15.1 ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Specificity of Disgust in the Prediction of Behavioral Avoidance of Possible Contaminants
AbstractIndividual differences related to disgust have been implicated in a host of psychiatric disorders, including obsessive –compulsive disorder (OCD). Theory suggests that individual differences in disgust propensity and, perhaps, sensitivity, make individuals more prone to experience disgust when confronted with potential contaminants, which then motivates avoidance of possible contaminants or safety behaviors aimed at removing contaminants when avoidance is not possible. However, no study has concurrently examined the relations of disgust propensity and state disgust with avoidance of contaminant-based stimuli....
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Choice Blindness, Confabulatory Introspection, and Obsessive –Compulsive Symptoms: Investigation in a Clinical Sample
AbstractThe content of obsessions in obsessive –compulsive disorder (OCD) often run contrary to the actual self of the individual experiencing them. The ego-dystonic nature of obsessions has led some researchers to propose that individuals with OCD form these false beliefs about themselves due to limited introspective access. The current study therefore aimed to extend on recent findings from non-clinical samples, which suggest the relevance of confabulatory introspection on OCD symptoms, in a clinical population. Participants were community participants diagnosed with OCD (n = 54) or another anxiety or...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Experiential Avoidance as a Mechanism of Change Across Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in a Sample of Participants with Heterogeneous Anxiety Disorders
AbstractDespite the substantial evidence that supports the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for the treatment of anxiety and related disorders, our understanding of mechanisms of change throughout treatment remains limited. The goal of the current study was to examine changes in experiential avoidance across treatment in a sample of participants (N = 179) with heterogeneous anxiety disorders receiving various cognitive-behavioral therapy protocols. Univariate latent growth curve models were conducted to examine change in experiential avoidance across treatment, followed by parallel process latent grow...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Valued Living in Daily Experience: Relations with Mindfulness, Meaning, Psychological Flexibility, and Stressors
AbstractEngagement in daily valued action is a core component of psychological well-being. Although valued action is a common target of cognitive-behavioral intervention, the degree to which it fluctuates at a daily level —and its predictors—remain relatively untested. Thus, the present daily diary study examined the influence of daily stress and intrapersonal resources such as mindfulness, meaning, and psychological flexibility on valued action among 122 undergraduates. Results of multilevel modeling revealed si gnificant within-and between-person variance in daily valued action, predicted by daily fluctuation...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 20, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

“Help! I’m Afraid of Driving!” Review of Driving Fear and its Treatment
This article gives an overview of the current state of research on driving fear and its treatment. First, the main findings about the construct and diagnosis are summarized, including understandings of the epidemiology and etiology of driving fear. Second, existing treatment studies of cognitive and behavioral therapy, virtual reality therapy, trauma-focused and hypnosis-based interventions and treatment approaches using technological aids such as driving-simulators are presented. Until now, no randomized controlled trials (RCT) on the treatment of driving fear have been conducted. Suggestions for future research are made,...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Identifying the Most Effective Strategies for Improving Autobiographical Memory Specificity and Its Implications for Mental Health Problems: A Meta-analysis
AbstractThe purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the efficacy of psychological interventions, used to enhance autobiographical memory specificity, on their therapeutic targets. A systematic search identified 22 studies with 27 therapeutic effect sizes meeting the criteria for inclusion. The results showed that the aggregated effect size for all included interventions was computed asg = 1.08,p 
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

How Reliable Are Therapeutic Competence Ratings? Results of a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
This study aimed to provide an overview of the current evidence and to provide an average interrater reliability (IRR) of psychotherapeutic competence ratings. A systematic review was conducted, and 20 studies reported in 32 publications were collected. These 20 studies were included in a narrative synthesis, and 20 coefficients were entered into the meta-analysis. Most primary studies referred to cognitive-behavioral therapies and the treatment of depression, used the Cognitive Therapy Scale, based ratings on videos, and trained the raters. Our meta-analysis revealed a pooled ICC of 0.82, but at the same time severe heter...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 15, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Mediators and Moderators of Homework –Outcome Relations in CBT for Depression: A Study of Engagement, Therapist Skill, and Client Factors
AbstractHomework assignments are considered crucial to the generalization and maintenance of skills and cognitive reappraisal in cognitive behavior therapy (CBT). The present study examined the relationships among homework engagement (i.e., quantity and quality of adherence, taking into account task difficulties and obstacles), the theoretically meaningful determinants of engagement (i.e., client homework beliefs), therapist competence (i.e., in review, design, and planning of homework), and outcome in CBT for depression. Client factors (i.e., education level, marital status, and baseline depressive symptoms) were also exa...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 14, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Situational Context Training for Socially Anxious Children
AbstractThe processing of facial expressions is biased in social anxiety (SA). We tested whether a brief situational context training in the school setting might be helpful in changing biased facial processing and reducing relevant symptoms in children with SA. A final sample of 118 children aged 8 to 13  years with high vs. low SA were randomly assigned to a training group or a control group without intervention. During the training, the children were exposed to images depicting negative facial expressions with masked and later unmasked backgrounds, in order to demonstrate that negative expression s can also occur in...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 13, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Autobiographical Memory and Episodic Future Thinking in Severe Health Anxiety: A Comparison with Obsessive –Compulsive Disorder
AbstractSevere health anxiety is characterized by intrusive worries about harboring a serious illness. In the present study, 32 patients with severe health anxiety, 32 control participants and a clinical control group of 33 patients with obsessive –compulsive disorder (OCD) reported unprompted and anxiety-related autobiographical memories and episodic future thoughts. Compared to control participants, the patient groups displayed similar patterns in the characteristics of the reported events and regarding the maladaptive cognitive and behav ioral strategies used, when the events came to mind. Patients with severe hea...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 12, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Association of Trait Mindfulness and Self-compassion with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms: Results from a Large Survey with Treatment-Seeking Adults
AbstractLittle is known about the role of mindfulness and self-compassion in obsessive-compulsive disorder. This cross-sectional study examined associations of mindfulness and self-compassion with obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and with the obsessive beliefs and low distress tolerance thought to maintain them. Samples of treatment-seeking adults (N  =  1871) and non-treatment-seeking adults (N  =  540) completed mindfulness, self-compassion, obsessive-compulsive disorder, anxiety, depression, obsessive beliefs and distress tolerance questionnaires. Participants with clinically significan...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Fostering Cognitive Change in Cognitive Therapy of Depression: An Investigation of Therapeutic Strategies
AbstractThere is little evidence regarding which therapist strategies promote cognitive change in cognitive therapy (CT) of depression. Drawing from a sample of CT patients, we selected two consecutive sessions for which patients reported markedly different amounts of cognitive change (CC; i.e., a low and high cognitive change session). We then investigated whether four observer-rated psychotherapy process variables differentiated high and low CC sessions. Our analyses focused on 62 patients with large session-to-session differences in self-reported CC. Results from single predictor models showed the therapeutic alliance a...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 10, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Conservative Beliefs, Male Gender, and Beliefs About Means Safety Among Firearm Owners
This study examined how gender and social policy beliefs are associated with misconceptions about firearms and suicide. A total of 367 firearm owners took part in an anonymous online survey. Conservative firearm owners indicated firearm ownership and storage are less strongly related to suicide risk than did moderate or liberal indiv iduals. Conservative males had significantly higher belief in means substitution than moderate and liberal males and liberal females. Liberal females had significantly lower belief in means substitution than moderate males and females and liberal males. Effective messaging regarding firearm me...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Brief Worry Reappraisal Paradigm (REAP) Increases Coping with Worries
AbstractThe current study examined a novel computerized cognitive reappraisal paradigm (REAP) for worry management in college-aged adults with a range of PSWQ scores (n  = 98). Participants listed three current worries and were randomized to either REAP or a worry condition. For the REAP condition, participants selected positive reappraisal statements of their worries over negative ones. Before and after completing the reappraisal or worry task, participants di scussed each worry. Participants rated their worries on coping ability, distress, and probability the worry would materialize. Relative to worry, the ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Role of Fear of Fatness and Avoidance of Fatness in Predicting Eating Restraint
This study tested the hypothesis that eating restraint will be predicted by fear of fatness in a manner that is moderated by avoidance of fatness, with such predictive capacity being most evident in those who exhibit elevated avoidance of fatness. Seventy nine participants varying in eating restraint took part in the study. Fear of fatness was measured using an Implicit Association Test, and avoidance of fatness was measured using an Approach-Avoidance Task. The data supported the hypothesis under test. The avoidance of fatness measure moderated the association between the fear of fatness measure and the measure of eating ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - November 1, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Negative Self-imagery and Social Anxiety in a Clinically Diagnosed Sample
AbstractThe current study aimed to investigate the content of negative self-imagery (NSI) in Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and to explore the relationship between NSI and other maintaining variables. Eighty-six individuals (83.7% female) with SAD completed self-report questionnaires and a semi-structured imagery interview. Thematic analysis was used to assess core themes from the interview transcripts. Mediation analyses were employed to explore the relationship between NSI and other variables of interest. Imagery characteristics supported extant findings, such that they appeared distorted, from an observer perspective, an...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 25, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Forecasting the Future, Remembering the Past: Misrepresentations of Daily Emotional Experience in Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder
AbstractStudies have shown that individuals with emotional disorders expect and recall more negative and less positive information than healthy individuals. However, no study of emotional disorders has investigated affective forecastingand affective memory within the same individuals. Using ecological momentary assessment, we compared daily affective experiences to forecasts and memories in 145 adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD), comorbid GAD/MDD, or no psychopathology. All three clinical groups forecast, experienced, and remembered more negative affect than controls; positive a...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 22, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Cultivating Self-Compassion Promotes Disclosure of Experiences that Threaten Self-Esteem
AbstractThe present study investigated whether cultivating self-compassion facilitates disclosure of self-esteem threatening experiences to others, and whether it does so indirectly by reducing shame. Eighty-five female undergraduates recalled an event that threatened their self-esteem and were randomly assigned to write about it in a self-compassionate (n = 29), self-esteem enhancing (n = 30), or non-directive (free writing;n = 26) way. Participants then learned that self-disclosure can decrease distress and were invited to share their event in writing to a stranger. Contrary to t...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 21, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Perfectionism in Intensive Residential Treatment of Obsessive –Compulsive Disorder
This study administered measures of multidimensional perfectionism and OCD severity at admission and discharge in a large sample (N = 154) of adult OCD patients undergoing intensive residential treatment (IRT). Results indicated that more perfectionistic patients had slightly longer treatment duration. Adjusting for treatment duration and baseline severity, pre-treatment perfectionism did not significantly predict OCD outco mes. However, all domains of perfectionism significantly improved following treatment, and changes in perfectionism significantly predicted OCD outcomes. In particular, greater reduction i...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 17, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Correction to: Effects of Neuropsychological Systems on Psychopathology Through Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Individuals with Suicide Attempts
The original version of this article contains an error in the abstract section. The 3rd line of the abstract section “In a cross-sectional design, 399 suicide attempters completed the Carver and White BIS/BAS scales, the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire-Short version (CERQShort), the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSSI), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II)” should read as “In a cross-s ectional design, three hundred suicide attempters completed the Carver and White BIS/BAS scales, the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire-Short version (CERQShort), the Beck Scale for Suicidal I...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 16, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Impact of Negative Emotions on Drinking Among Individuals with Social Anxiety Disorder in Daily Life: The Moderating Effect of Maladaptive Emotion Regulation Strategies
This study aimed to investigate (1) the impact of within-person level negative emotions and maladaptive ER strategies on drinking among individuals with SAD, and (2) t he moderating effect of specific maladaptive ER strategies (avoidance, rumination, suppression) on the relationship between negative emotions and alcohol craving in daily life via an ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Results revealed that the SAD group (n = 66) showed a higher increase rate in alcohol craving when they were socially anxious, tense and lonely than the non-SAD group (n = 53). In moderation analyses, maladaptive...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 8, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Prior Beliefs About the Importance and Control of Thoughts are Predictive But Not Specific to Subsequent Intrusive Unwanted Thoughts and Neutralizing Behaviors
AbstractDysfunctional beliefs are the central element in cognitive-behavioral conceptualizations of obsessive –compulsive disorder (OCD). The purpose of this study was to further elucidate the etiological role of preexisting dysfunctional beliefs in the occurrence of unwanted intrusive thoughts and neutralizing behaviors after a critical event by examining their predictive value and specificity in a prosp ective study with undergraduate students. The dysfunctional belief domains importance/control of thoughts (ICT), responsibility/threat (RT), and perfectionism/certainty (PC) were assessed at baseline 8 weeks pr...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - October 3, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation of Default Mode Network Parietal Nodes Decreases Negative Mind-Wandering About the Past
AbstractMind-wandering is a cognitive process in which people spontaneously have thoughts that are unrelated to their current activities. The types of mind-wandering thoughts that people have when affected by a negative mood resemble thoughts associated with mood disorders (e.g., negative thoughts about the past). Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a form of noninvasive brain stimulation that can modulate cognition and affect in healthy and clinical populations. Ninety participants received either excitatory, inhibitory, or sham tDCS to bilateral inferior parietal lobe nodes of the default mode network (DMN)...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 27, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Pilot Study of Smartphone-Based Memory Bias Modification and Its Effect on Memory Bias and Depressive symptoms in an Unselected Population
AbstractMemory bias modification (MBM) is a relatively new approach at targeting biased processing —a central cognitive factor causing and maintaining depression. In this pilot study we aimed to develop a smartphone-based autobiographical memory training, a novel form of MBM. A total of 153 unselected participants were randomly allocated to one of three experimental training conditions (positiv e, negative or sham memory training) conducted over a period of three days. Autobiographical memory bias and depressive scores were assessed pre- and post-training, whilst recent event recall and explicit self-referent memory ...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 19, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Routine Cognitive Behavioural Therapy for Anxiety and Depression is More Effective at Repairing Symptoms of Psychopathology than Enhancing Wellbeing
This study investigates the extent to which classic CBT for anxiety and depression leads to symptom relief versus wellbeing enhancement, analysing routine outcomes in patients receiving CBT in high intensity Improving Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) Services in the UK. At intake, there were marked symptoms of anxiety and depression (a majority of participants scoring in the severe range) and deficits in wellbeing (a majority of participants classified as languishing, relative to general population normative data). CBT was more effective at reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression than repairing wellbeing. As a re...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 11, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

The Relationship Between Parenting and Anxiety in Emerging Adulthood
This study sought to develop and evaluate a measure of CPB relevant to emerging adults (CPBQ-EA), and examine the relationship between anxiety and parenting behaviors, including; CPB, overprotection, rejection, and warmth. A sample of 442 18 –25 year-olds completed self-report measures of anxiety and parenting. Exploratory factor analysis revealed three CPB domains; social, novelty, and competition. Greater social CPB was associated with lower social anxiety scores in emerging adults, but only when exhibited by fathers. Greater rejec tion exhibited by both parents was associated with higher emerging adult&n...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 5, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

Effects of Neuropsychological Systems on Psychopathology Through Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies in Individuals with Suicide Attempts
This study aimed to evaluate direct and indirect effects of neuropsychological systems including behavioral activation system (BAS) and behavioral inhibition system (BIS) on psychopathology (e.g., depression and current suicidal ideation) through adaptive/non-adaptive cognitive emotion regulation strategies (CERSs). In a cross-sectional design, 399 suicide attempters completed the Carver and White BIS/BAS scales, the Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire-Short version (CERQ-Short), the Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSSI), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). The results of mediation analyses from cross-s...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - September 2, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research

A Network Approach to Understanding the Emotion Regulation Benefits of Aerobic Exercise
AbstractRegular and even single sessions of aerobic exercise may benefit emotional health. Experiments show that prior exercise hastens emotional recovery following a stressor despite not changing reports of rumination or other emotion regulation difficulties. We use network analyses to explore whether traditional approaches for conceptualizing and measuring rumination (i.e. sum scores) could be occluding exercise-induced changes to emotion regulation. Participants (n = 226) were randomly assigned to a cycling (n = 113) or stretching control condition (n = 113). They then underwent...
Source: Cognitive Therapy and Research - August 30, 2019 Category: Psychiatry & Psychology Source Type: research