Acupuncture Activates a Direct Pathway from the Nucleus Tractus Solitarii to the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla.
Abstract Our previous studies have shown that electroacupuncture (EA) at the Jianshi-Neiguan acupoints (P5-6, overlying the median nerve) attenuates sympathoexcitatory responses through its influence on neuronal activity in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (rVLM). The nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) receives input from somatic nerve stimulation. Connections between the NTS and the rVLM during EA stimulation have not been investigated and thus were the focus of the present study. Seven to ten days after unilateral microinjection of a rhodamine-conjugated microsphere retrograde tracer (100 nl) into the rVLM, rats w...
Source: Brain Research - December 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Guo ZL, Malik S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Putative targets of direction-selective retinal ganglion cells in the tectum opticum of cyprinid fish.
Abstract Responses of direction selective (DS) units of retinal and tectal origin were recorded extracellularly from the tectum opticum (TO) of immobilized fish. The data were collected from three cyprinid species - goldfish, carp and roach. Responses of the retinal DS ganglion cells (GCs) were recorded from their axon terminals in the superficial layers of TO. According to their preferred directions DS GCs, characterized by small receptive fields (3-8°), can be divided in three distinct groups, each group containing ON and OFF subtypes approximately in equal quantity. Conversely, direction-selective tectal ne...
Source: Brain Research - December 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Damjanović I, Maximov PV, Aliper AT, Zaichikova AA, Gačić Z, Maximova EM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Progesterone effects on oligodendrocyte differentiation in injured spinal cord.
In this study, we have demonstrated that spinal cord injury enhanced oligodendrocyte precursor cell number and decreased mRNA expression of transcriptional inhibitors (Id2, Id4, hes5). However, mRNA expression of transcriptional activators (Olig2, Nkx2.2, Sox10 and Mash1) was down-regulated 3 days post injury. Interestingly, a differentiation factor such as progesterone increased transcriptional activator mRNA levels and the density of Olig2- expressing oligodendrocyte precursor cells. The differentiation program is regulated by extracellular signals which modify transcriptional factors and epigenetic players. As TGFβ...
Source: Brain Research - December 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Jure I, De Nicola AF, Labombarda F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Characteristic expressions of the natriuretic peptide family in the telencephalon of juvenile chick.
Abstract Elucidation of the genes regulating the critical (sensitive) period of imprinting behavior may shed light on the mechanism underlying neural plasticity in early childhood learning. We focused on the family of natriuretic peptides (NPs) as candidates involved in the regulation of the critical period. In avians, several structurally related molecules comprised the NP family, including renal NP (RNP), B-type NP (BNP) and C-type NP (CNP1, CNP3 and CNPP). To understand the functional roles of NPs in neural plastic changes, we aimed to characterize NPs and their receptors in chick brain. We found that CNP3 mRNA...
Source: Brain Research - December 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Nakamori T, Chiba Y, Fujitani K, Makita A, Okubo T, Hirai K, Takamatsu N, Ohki-Hamazaki H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Thrombin promotes pericyte coverage by Tie2 activation in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage.
We report herein that thrombin promotes pericyte coverage by activating Tie2 and the downstream signaling pathway PI3K/Akt in a rat model of ICH. ICH was induced by injection of autologous blood with or without thrombin inhibitor hirudin. Rats were treated with thrombin alone or in combination with a Tie2 inhibitor. The expression of total- and phospho-Tie2, PI3K and phospho-Akt, blood perfusion, pericyte coverage, IgG extravasation, neuron survival and neurological deficits were evaluated by western blot, fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate-dextran staining, immunohistochemistry, Nissl staining and modified neurological severity...
Source: Brain Research - December 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hu E, Hu W, Yang A, Zhou H, Zhou J, Luo J, Wang Y, Tang T, Cui H Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

MicroRNA-6807-3p promotes the tumorigenesis of glioma by targeting downstream DACH1.
Abstract Accumulated evidence reveals that microRNAs play vital roles in various tumors, including gliomas. MiRNAs have been shown to participate in multiple cellular functions, including cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis. Here, we investigate the potential role of a novel miRNA, miR-6807-3p, in glioma. A quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot were applied to detect the expression of miR-6807-3p and its target molecule in glioma specimens and cultured cells. The direct targets of miR-6807-3p were predicted by bioinformatics software and were further verifi...
Source: Brain Research - December 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lu GF, Geng F, Xiao Z, Chen YS, Han Y, You CY, Gong NL, Xie ZM, Pan M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Metabolic responses in Antarctic Nototheniidae brains subjected to thermal stress.
Abstract Antarctic Nototheniidae is an attractive group for studying metabolic and physiological responses at high temperatures. The present work investigated the metabolic responses of the carbohydrate metabolism and antioxidant system to thermal stress at 8°C (for 2-144 h) in the brains of Notothenia rossii and Notothenia coriiceps. In N. coriiceps, glycogenolysis was essential in the first hours of exposure (2 h) at 8°C and, in addition to inhibiting glucose-6-phosphatase activity, was important for activating the pentose phosphate pathway. In N. rossii, anaerobic metabolism was reduced in the first hou...
Source: Brain Research - December 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: de Cassia Santos Przepiura T, Herrerias T, Kandalski PK, Zaleski T, Machado C, Forgati M, de Souza MRDP, Donatti L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The modulatory role of nicotine on cognitive and non-cognitive functions.
Abstract Nicotine, as the main component of tobacco, plays a key role in various behaviors of both humans and animals including reward, addiction, learning and memory, anxiety, pain as well as body weight and temperature. Nicotine exerts its function by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) which one highly expressed throughout the nervous system. The mesocorticolimbic dopamine system mediates the processing of reward, learning and memory behaviors produced by nicotine. In addition, some structures of the central nervous system, such as the hippocampus and amygdala, have a major role in mediation o...
Source: Brain Research - December 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Zarrindast MR, Khakpai F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Locomotor central pattern generator excitability states and serotonin sensitivity after spontaneous recovery from a neonatal lumbar spinal cord injury.
JL Abstract The spinal locomotor central pattern generator (CPG) in neonatal mice exhibits diverse output patterns, ranging from sub-rhythmic to multi-rhythmic to fictive locomotion, depending on its general level of excitation and neuromodulatory status (Sharples and Whelan, 2017). We have recently reported that the locomotor CPG in neonatal mice rapidly recovers the ability to produce neurochemically induced fictive locomotion following an upper lumbar spinal cord compression injury (Züchner et al., 2018). Here we address the question of recovery of multi-rhythmic activity and the serotonin-sensitivity of ...
Source: Brain Research - December 3, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kondratskaya E, Ievglevskyi O, Züchner M, Samara A, Glover JC, Boulland JL Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dopamine tunes prefrontal outputs to orchestrate aversive processing.
Abstract Decades of research suggest that the mesocortical dopamine system exerts powerful control over mPFC physiology and function. Indeed, dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in a vast array of processes, including working memory, stimulus discrimination, stress responses, and emotional and behavioral control. Consequently, even slight perturbations within this delicate system result in profound disruptions of mPFC-mediated processes. Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysregulation of mesocortical dopamine, including schizophrenia, depression, attention defi...
Source: Brain Research - December 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Weele CMV, Siciliano CA, Tye KM Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) neurons in the developing chick brain.
Abstract The present study was undertaken because no previous developmental studies exist on MCH neurons in any avian species. After validating a commercially-available antibody for use in chickens, immunohistochemical examinations first detected MCH neurons around embryonic day (E) 8 in the posterior hypothalamus. This population increased thereafter, reaching a numerical maximum by E20. MCH-positive cell bodies were found only in the posterior hypothalamus at all ages examined, restricted to a region showing very little overlap with the locations of hypocretin/orexin (H/O) neurons. Chickens had fewer MCH than H/...
Source: Brain Research - November 14, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Li S, Yip A, Bird J, Seok BS, Chan A, Godden KE, Tam LD, Ghelardoni S, Balaban E, Martinez-Gonzalez D, Pompeiano M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Levetiracetam-mediated improvement of decreased NMDA-induced glutamate release from nerve terminals during hypothermia.
Abstract A combination of a beneficial neuroprotectant, hypothermia, with targeted medication is a perspective therapeutic approach. Here, we analyzed both non-specific (deep and profound hypothermia, 27 °C and 17 °C, respectively) and targeted (anticonvulsant drug levetiracetam) modulation of l-[14C]glutamate release induced by activation of presynaptic NMDA, AMPA, and kainate receptors in rat brain nerve terminals (synaptosomes). Gradual dynamics of hypothermia-mediated decrease in synaptosomal l-[14C]glutamate release evoked by the receptor agonists NMDA-, AMPA-, and kainate (250 μM) has been d...
Source: Brain Research - October 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Pastukhov A, Borisova T Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition alleviated cognitive impairments via NRG1/ErbB4 signaling after chronic cerebral hypoperfusion induced by bilateral carotid artery stenosis in mice.
Abstract Cerebral ischemic stroke is associated with a high rate of incidence, prevalence and mortality globally. Carotid artery stenosis, which is mainly caused by atherosclerosis plaque, results in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and predominantly increases the risk of ischemic stroke. In the present study, we used bilateral common carotid artery stenosis (BCAS) model by placing microcoils of 0.18 mm diameter encompassing both common carotid arteries respectively, to mimic the pathogenesis of carotid artery atherosclerosis and intensively explore the pathology. We found that BCAS injury for 1 month impaired s...
Source: Brain Research - October 24, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Hao J, Chen Y, Yao E, Liu X Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Retraction notice to "Primary Microglia Isolation from Mixed Cell Cultures of Neonatal Mouse Brain Tissue" [Brain Res. 1689 (2018) 21-29].
Retraction notice to "Primary Microglia Isolation from Mixed Cell Cultures of Neonatal Mouse Brain Tissue" [Brain Res. 1689 (2018) 21-29]. Brain Res. 2018 Nov 15;1699:195 Authors: Roy J PMID: 30340653 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Roy J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Event-Related Neural Oscillation Changes Following Reasoning Training in Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment.
Abstract Emerging evidence suggests cognitive training programs targeting higher-order reasoning may strengthen not only cognitive, but also neural functions in individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). However, research on direct measures of training-induced neural changes, derivable from electroencephalography (EEG), is limited. The current pilot study examined effects of Gist Reasoning training (n=16) compared to New Learning training (n=16) in older adults with amnestic MCI on measures of event-related neural oscillations (theta and alpha band power) corresponding to Go/NoGo tasks during basic and supe...
Source: Brain Research - October 17, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mudar RA, Nguyen LT, Eroh J, Chiang HS, Rackley A, Chapman SB Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Stimulating muscarinic M1 receptors in the anterior cingulate cortex reduces mechanical hypersensitivity via GABAergic transmission in nerve injury rats.
Abstract Cholinergic systems modulate synaptic transmission across the neuraxis and play an important role in higher brain function including cognition, arousal and nociception. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a fundamental brain region for nociception and chronic pain, and receives cholinergic projections mainly from basal forebrain. Recently, we found that the activation of muscarinic M1 receptors in the ACC produced antinociceptive behavior in response to mechanical stimulation. However, it has not been tested whether stimulating muscarinic receptors in the ACC can reduce mechanical hypersensitivity in a...
Source: Brain Research - October 16, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Koga K, Matsuzaki Y, Migita K, Shimoyama S, Eto F, Nakagawa T, Matsumoto T, Terada K, Mishima K, Furue H, Honda K Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Neuro-protective role of nanocapsulated curcumin against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion induced oxidative injury.
Abstract Cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (CIR) accelerates the progression of neurodegeneration by causing mitochondrial dysfunction to overproduce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Curcumin shows protective effects against CIR-induced oxidative damage. Free curcumin (FC) is effective at high doses due to its poor bioavailability. Also the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the passage of substances from circulation into the cerebral region. Thus, formulation of curcumin within polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated polylactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) nanoparticles (NC) was applied orally to aged rats to explore its role against C...
Source: Brain Research - October 13, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mukherjee A, Sarkar S, Jana S, Swarnakar S, Das N Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Beyond contraception and hormone replacement therapy: advancing Nestorone to a neuroprotective drug in the clinic.
Abstract Neurological diseases such as ischemic stroke can be debilitating and have limited treatments available. The progestin Nestorone® (segesterone acetate) has been evaluated for use in birth control and hormone replacement therapy due to its potency and high affinity for the progesterone receptor. Interestingly, Nestorone also exerts neuroprotection in animals afflicted with various central nervous system diseases, including stroke, which implicates its potential for treating these maladies in clinical settings. In fact, a recent Brain Research paper by Tanaka and colleagues demonstrates Nestorone's abil...
Source: Brain Research - October 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Tuazon JP, Sitruk-Ware R, Borlongan CV Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

FGF represses metastasis of neuroblastoma regulated by MYCN and TGF- β1 induced LMO1 via control of let-7 expression.
CONCLUSIONS: FGF regulates MYCN and TGF-β1-induced LMO1 and metastasis of NB cells via let-7 miRNA. PMID: 30321496 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 12, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wang XH, Wu HY, Gao J, Wang XH, Gao TH, Zhang SF Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Comparisons of SOCS mRNA and Protein Levels in Xenopus Provide Insights into Optic Nerve Regenerative Success.
Abstract In vertebrates from fishes to mammals, optic nerve injury induces increased expression ofSuppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3(SOCS3) mRNA, a modulator of cytokine signaling that is known to inhibit CNS axon regeneration. Unlike amniotes, however, anamniotes successfully regenerate optic axons, despite this increase. To address this seeming paradox, we examined the SOCS3 response to optic nerve injury in the frog,Xenopus laevis, at both the mRNA and protein levels. Far from being only transiently induced, SOCS3 mRNA expression increased throughout regeneration in retinal ganglion cells, but immunostaining an...
Source: Brain Research - October 10, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Priscilla R, Szaro BG Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Pavlovian-instrumental interactions in active avoidance: The bark of neutral trials.
Abstract In active avoidance tasks, subjects have to learn to execute particular actions in order to avoid an aversive stimulus, such as a shock. Such paradigms pose a number of psychological and neural enigmas, and so have attracted substantial computational interest. However, the ratio of conjecture to confirmation remains high. Here, we perform a theoretical inquiry into a recent experiment by Gentry, Lee, and Roesch ('Phasic dopamine release in the rat nucleus accumbens predicts approach and avoidance performance', Nat.Commun., 7:13154) who measured phasic dopamine concentrations in the nucleus accumbens core ...
Source: Brain Research - October 8, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lloyd K, Dayan P Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Ventral pallidal modulation of aversion processing.
Abstract Responding to aversive and rewarding stimuli is essential to survival. The ventral pallidum (VP) is a critical node in the mesolimbic network, being the primary output of the nucleus accumbens and projecting to the lateral habenula (LHb) and ventral tegmental area (VTA). The VP is thus poised to modulate the habenula-tegmental circuitry and contribute to processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli. Here, we integrate human functional imaging, behavioral pharmacology in rodents, and recent optogenetic circuit dissection studies of the VP with a focus on the role of the neurochemically-distinct subpopula...
Source: Brain Research - October 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wulff AB, Tooley J, Marconi LJ, Creed MC Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dopamine signals related to appetitive and aversive events in paradigms that manipulate reward and avoidability.
Abstract Using environmental cues to acquire good and avoid harmful things is critical for survival. Rewarding and aversive outcomes both drive behavior through reinforcement learning and sometimes occur together in the environment, but it remains unclear how these signals are encoded within the brain and if signals for positive and negative reinforcement are encoded similarly. Recent studies demonstrate that the dopaminergic system and interconnected brain regions process both positive and negative reinforcement necessary for approach and avoidance behaviors, respectively. Here, we review these data with a specia...
Source: Brain Research - October 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Gentry RN, Schuweiler DR, Roesch MR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

A competitive model for striatal action selection.
Abstract The direct and indirect pathway striatal medium spiny neurons (dMSNs and iMSNs) have long been linked to action selection, but the precise roles of these neurons in this process remain unclear. Here, we review different models of striatal pathway function, focusing on the classic "go/no-go" model which posits that dMSNs facilitate movement while iMSNs inhibit movement, and the "complementary" model, which argues that dMSNs facilitate the selection of specific actions while iMSNs inhibit potentially conflicting actions. We discuss the merits and shortcomings of these models and propose ...
Source: Brain Research - October 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bariselli S, Fobbs WC, Creed MC, Kravitz AV Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Evaluation of performance monitoring ERPs through difficulty manipulation in a response-feedback paradigm.
In this study, we used a modified version of the flanker task, measuring the impact of task difficulty on the amplitudes of response-locked and feedback-locked performance monitoring ERPs in a single trial. We observed a functional differentiation between fronto-central (ERN/CRN and FRN) and centro-parietal (Pe/Pc and P300) components: the former seem to be only sensitive to accuracy, whereas the latter seem to be mainly modulated by task difficulty. The use of a surface Laplacian transformation, estimating current source density, on our data also supported an effect of difficulty on centro-parietal response-locked and fee...
Source: Brain Research - October 6, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Somon B, Campagne A, Delorme A, Berberian B Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Corrigendum to "Antidepressant activity of vorinostat is associated with amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation in a corticosterone-induced chronic stress model in mice." [Behav. Brain Res. 344 (2018) 73-84].
Corrigendum to "Antidepressant activity of vorinostat is associated with amelioration of oxidative stress and inflammation in a corticosterone-induced chronic stress model in mice." [Behav. Brain Res. 344 (2018) 73-84]. Behav Brain Res. 2018 Oct 05;: Authors: Kv A, Madhana RM, Js IC, Lahkar M, Sinha S, Naidu VGM PMID: 30297317 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kv A, Madhana RM, Js IC, Lahkar M, Sinha S, Naidu VGM Tags: Behav Brain Res Source Type: research

The cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in acutely dissociated subfornical organ (SFO) neurons of rats: spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations and Ca2+ oscillations induced by picomolar concentrations of angiotensin II.
Abstract Characteristics of subfornical organ (SFO) neurons were examined by measuring the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in acutely dissociated neurons of the rat. SFO neurons, defined by the responsiveness to 50 mM K+ (n=67) responded to glutamate (86%), angiotensin II (AII) (50%), arginine vasopressin (AVP) (66%) and/or carbachol (CCh) (61%), at their maximal concentrations, with marked increases in [Ca2+]i. More than a half (174/307) of SFO neurons examined exhibited spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations, while the remainder showed a relatively stable baseline under unstimulated conditions. Spontaneous Ca2+ os...
Source: Brain Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Izumisawa Y, Tanaka-Yamamoto K, Ciriello J, Kitamura N, Shibuya I Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Cell type- and pathway-specific synaptic regulation of orexin neurocircuitry.
Abstract Orexin-expressing neurons are located exclusively in the lateral hypothalamic and perifornical areas and exhibit complex connectivity. The intricate wiring pattern is evident from a diverse function for orexin neurons in regulating many diverse physiological processes and behaviors including sleep, metabolism, circadian cycles, anxiety, and reward. Nevertheless, the precise synaptic and circuitry-level mechanisms mediating these processes remain enigmatic, partially due to the wide connectivity of the orexin system, complex neurochemistry of orexin neurons, and previous lack of suitable tools to address i...
Source: Brain Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu JJ, Mirabella V, Pang ZP Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Plasma Levels of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor in Patients with Parkinson Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: PD patients had reduced serum BDNF levels compared to HC, regardless of presence of co-morbid depression. PD is at least equally effective in reducing serum BDNF levels as depression. Motor progression predicts serum BDNF downregulation in PD. Acute exercise improves motor function and depressive symptoms in PD probably via BDNF upregulation. The paradoxical rise in serum BDNF in advance PD is probably compensatory in nature. PMID: 30296429 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Rahmani F, Saghazadeh A, Rahmani M, Teixeira AL, Rezaei N, Aghamollaei V, Ardebili HE Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Long-Term Deficits in Risky Decision-Making after Traumatic Brain Injury on a Rat Analog of the Iowa Gambling Task.
This study opens up the investigation of psychiatric-like dysfunction in animal models of TBI and tasks such as the RGT will be useful in identifying therapeutics for the chronic post-injury period. PMID: 30296430 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 5, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Shaver TK, Ozga JE, Zhu B, B A, Anderson KG, Martens KM, Vonder Haar C Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

NO-sGC-cGMP signaling influence the anxiolytic like effect of lithium in mice in Light and dark box and elevated pus maze.
Abstract Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter implicated in the pathogenesis of psychiatric disorders. Glutamate results in the activation of an enzyme called glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) acting through N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Impaired expression of GSK-3 affects behavior and neurochemicals level in the brain responsible for the pathogenesis of mood disorders. It has been reported that lithium acts as an inhibitor of GSK-3 and inhibit the enzyme GSK-3 in an uncompetitive manner. In the present study, anxiolytic like effect of lithium in mice is investigated through light and dark box (L...
Source: Brain Research - October 4, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Walia V, Garg C, Garg M Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) improves detection of simple bright stimuli by amblyopic Long Evans rats in the SLAG task and produces an increase of parvoalbumin labelled cells in visual cortices.
-Escámez F Abstract In this work visual functional improvement of amblyopic Long Evans rats treated with tDCS has been assessed using the "slow angled-descent forepaw grasping" (SLAG) test. This test is based on an innate response that does not requires any memory-learning component and has been used before for measuring visual function in rodents. The results obtained show that this procedure is useful to assess monocular but not binocular deficits, as controls and amblyopic animals showed significant differences during monocular but not during binocular assessment. On the other hand, parvoalbumi...
Source: Brain Research - October 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Castaño-Castaño S, Martinez-Navarrete G, Morales-Navas M, Fernadez-Jover E, Sanchez-Santed F, Nieto-Escámez F Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Oxidative stress in status epilepticus: a clinical-radiological correlation.
CONCLUSION: Oxidative stress is increased in the patients with SE. Further study is needed in larger sample size to explore probable adjunctive treatment option. PMID: 30287343 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Kalita J, Misra UK, Singh LS, Tiwari A Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Hydrogen-rich saline protects rat from oxygen glucose deprivation and reperusion-induced apoptosis through VDAC1 via Bcl-2.
CONCLUSIONS: HRS ameliorated OGD/RP-induced PC-12 cell apoptosis and provides a novel treatment option for ischemia. PMID: 30287344 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Mo XY, Li XM, She CS, Lu XQ, Xiao CG, Wang SH, Huang GQ Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Coconut Oil Decreases Expression of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) and Secretion of Amyloid Peptides throughInhibitionof ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (ARF1).
CONCLUSION: These results suggest that coconut oil decreases intracellular ARF1 expression, thereby resulting in an inhibition of APP and amyloid β secretion. This study reveals a novel mechanism for intracellular APP processing in neuronal cells. PMID: 30287345 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - October 1, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Bansal A, Kirschner M, Zu L, Cai D, Zhang L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of MHY908, a PPAR α/γ dual agonist, in a MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model.
Neuroprotective effects of MHY908, a PPAR α/γ dual agonist, in a MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease model. Brain Res. 2018 Sep 28;: Authors: Lee Y, Cho JH, Lee S, Lee W, Chang SC, Chung HY, Moon HR, Lee J Abstract Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors and are considered promising therapeutic targets in several neurodegenerative diseases. A number of PPAR agonists have been shown to have neuroprotective properties in the presence of oxidative stress, neuroinflammatory response, and apoptosis in various neurodegenerative disease. MHY908 is a novel PPAR &alph...
Source: Brain Research - September 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lee Y, Cho JH, Lee S, Lee W, Chang SC, Chung HY, Moon HR, Lee J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

TRPM2 confers susceptibility to social stress but is essential for behavioral flexibility.
In this study, TRPM2-deficient mice were examined in a series of behavioral tests. TRPM2-deficient mice did not significantly differ from wild-type littermates in muscle strength, light/dark transition test, rotarod, elevated plus maze, social interaction, prepulse inhibition, Y-maze, forced swim test, cued and contextual fear conditioning, and tail suspension test. In the Barnes circular maze, TRPM2-deficient mice learned the fixed escape box position at similar extent to wild-type littermates, suggesting normal reference memory. However, performance of the first reversal trial and probe test were significantly impaired i...
Source: Brain Research - September 28, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Andoh C, Nishitani N, Hashimoto E, Nagai Y, Takao K, Miyakawa T, Nakagawa T, Mori Y, Nagayasu K, Shirakawa H, Kaneko S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

TIGAR inclusion pathology is specific for Lewy body diseases.
CONCLUSIONS: TIGAR protein, is present in SN Lewy bodies of both sporadic PD and DLB. The absence of TIGAR protein in the pathological inclusions of MND or MSA suggests disease specificity and further raises the possibility that TIGAR may be involved in PD pathogenesis. PMID: 30267647 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Robles López KL, Simpson JE, Watson LC, Mortiboys H, Hautbergue GM, Bandmann O, Highley JR Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Challenging Spontaneity: Do Seizures Really Arise Out of Thin Air?
Authors: PMID: 30267648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

New Developments and Future Directions in Understanding Locus Coeruleus - Norepinephrine (LC-NE) Function.
PMID: 30267649 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 26, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Foote SL, Berridge CW Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Role of Zeb2/Sip1 in neuronal development.
Abstract Zeb2 (Sip1, Zfhx1b) is a transcription factor that plays essential role in neuronal development. Sip1 mutation in humans was shown to cause Mowat-Wilson syndrome, a syndromic form of Hirschprung's disease. Affected individuals exhibit multiple severe neurodevelopmental defects. Zeb2 can act as both transcriptional repressor and activator. It controls expression of a wide number of genes that regulate various aspects of neuronal development. This review addresses the molecular pathways acting downstream of Zeb2 that cause brain development disorders. PMID: 30266271 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] ...
Source: Brain Research - September 25, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Epifanova E, Babaev A, Newman A, Tarabykin V Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The diagnostic value of serum UCHL-1 and S100-B levels in differentiate epileptic seizures from psychogenic attacks.
Abstract OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of postictal serum Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase (UCHL-1), a neuronal biomarker, and S100-B, a glial biomarker, levels, in differentiate epileptic seizures (ES) form psychogenic attacks. METHODS: In this analytical cross-sectional study, serum UCHL-1 and S100-B levels were measured within six hours of occurring seizure, in 43 patients with ES, 20 patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES) and 19 healthy individuals by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. RESULTS: Both serum UCHL-1 and S100-B levels were significantly higher in patients with ES than PNES (P
Source: Brain Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Asadollahi M, Simani L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dendrobiumpolysaccharides attenuate cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 mice via modulation of microglial activation.
Abstract Dendrobium is one of the most important traditional Chinese medicinal foods used to treat age-related disorders. However, it remains unclear whether Dendrobium affects the progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, we investigated the effects of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharides (DOP) on the BV2 microglial cell line and the senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mouse strain. In vitro experiments showed that DOP pretreatment contributed to BV2 cells shifting from proinflammatory to anti-inflammatory phenotypes with enhanced Aβ clearance in response to Aβ insults. Fo...
Source: Brain Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Feng CZ, Cao L, Luo D, Ju LS, Yang JJ, Xu XY, Yu YP Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

The basolateral amygdala orexin 1 and 2 receptors' involvement in modulating spatial reference memory.
PMID: 30253124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 22, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ardeshiri MR, Hosseinmardi N, Akbari E Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Time dependent neuroprotection of dexamethasone in experimental focal cerebral ischemia: the involvement of NF- κB pathways.
Time dependent neuroprotection of dexamethasone in experimental focal cerebral ischemia: the involvement of NF-κB pathways. Brain Res. 2018 Sep 21;: Authors: Sun WH, He F, Zhang NN, Zhao ZA, Chen HS Abstract We propose that the neuroprotective effect of glucocorticoid in ischemic damage may be time dependent. The present study was designed to test the proposal and its possible mechanismin cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury model. Reperfusion injury was induced after 120 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Atdifferenttimepoints after MCAO, rats ...
Source: Brain Research - September 21, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Sun WH, He F, Zhang NN, Zhao ZA, Chen HS Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Pregabalin increases food intake through dopaminergic systems in the hypothalamus.
In conclusion, the present results suggest that pregabalin increases food intake through the inhibition of dopaminergic functions in the LH. PMID: 30244110 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Ikeda H, Yonemochi N, Ardianto C, Yang L, Kamei J Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

CT Perfusion Imaging of Cerebral Microcirculatory Changes Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits: Specific Role of Endothelin-1 Receptor Antagonist.
CONCLUSION: CTP can quantify the therapeutic effect of BQ123 after SAH; Selective blockade of ET-1 endothelin receptor, BQ123 significantly improved microcirculatory perfusion along with a reduction in resultant vasogenic inflammatory responses. The effect of BQ123 on the cerebral microcirculation was lobe dependent. PMID: 30244111 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Wu Q, Zheng R, Wang J, Wang J, Li S Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Dopamine D1 receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex mediates anxiety-like behaviors induced by blocking glutamatergic activity of the ventral hippocampus in rats.
Abstract The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) receives direct and indirect projections from the ventral hippocampus (VH) and plays an important role in the regulation of anxiety. However, the effect of the mPFC dopamine D1 receptor on anxiety-like behaviors induced by inhibition of glutamatergic activity in the VH has not been described. Here, we examined the effects of SKF38393, a selective dopamine D1 receptor agonist, on anxiety-like behaviors induced by NMDA receptor inhibition in the VH and neuron firing activity of mPFC. Injection of MK-801 (6 μg/0.5 μl) into the VH produced anxiety-like behaviors in th...
Source: Brain Research - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Liu L, Zhang L, Wang T, Chen L Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Resveratrol and dimethyl fumarate ameliorate depression-like behaviour in a rat model of chronic unpredictable mild stress.
In conclusion, our study revealed that resveratrol and DMF exerted promising antidepressant-like effects in CUMS rats that are mediated in part by suppressing the neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis and up-regulating hippocampal BDNF and β-catenin levels. Serum serotonin analysis may be a reliable indicator for monitoring depression. PMID: 30244113 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Brain Research)
Source: Brain Research - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: El-Fattah AAA, Fahim AT, Sadik NAH, Mohamed Ali B Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research

Acute hypoxic exposure and prolyl-hydroxylase inhibition improves synaptic transmission recovery time from a subsequent hypoxic insult in rat hippocampus.
In this study we have assessed the effects of hypoxic exposure and PHD inhibition on synaptic transmission in the rat CA1 hippocampus. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were elicited by stimulation of the Schaffer collatoral pathway. 30 min hypoxia (gas mixture 95% N2/5% CO2) resulted in a significant and fully reversible decrease in fEPSP slope associated with decreases in partial pressures of tissue oxygen. 15-30 min of hypoxia was sufficient to induce stabilization of HIF in hippocampal slices. Exposure to a second hypoxic insult after 60 min resulted in a similar depression of fEPSP slope but with a sig...
Source: Brain Research - September 20, 2018 Category: Neurology Authors: Lanigan S, Corcoran AE, Wall A, Mukandala G, O'Connor JJ Tags: Brain Res Source Type: research