Genetics in Degenerative Dementia: Current Status and Applicability
An increasing number of hereditary neurodegenerative diseases, including autosomal-dominant Alzheimer disease (AD), familial autosomal-dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and heritable Lewy body disease (LBD) have been defined at the molecular level in recent years, making it possible to determine the genotype before the onset of symptoms. The identification of deterministic genes for these common adult-onset genetic diseases is moving the field of genetic counseling toward a new and challenging direction. With the identification of genes associated with AD and FTD, there is considerable interest in the clinical applic...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - July 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Review Article Source Type: research

Alzheimer Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Predict Cognitive Decline In Healthy Elderly Over 2 Years
Aim:The aim of this study is to check the ability of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (CSF-BMK-AD) to make a discrimination checklist within a healthy group, according to their cognitive development at 2 years of obtaining the sample. Materials and Methods:Between 2008 and 2010, 67 subjects without cognitive or behavioral disorders were included as a control group in a study on CSF-AD-BMK. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline and at follow-up had been carried out 2 years later. CSF was obtained at the inclusion. It was analyzed by Innotest reagents to measure amyloid-β (Aβ1-42), total-&tau...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - July 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Diagnostic Criteria for Vascular Cognitive Disorders: A VASCOG Statement
Conclusions:The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathologic validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved. (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - July 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Practice Effects and Amyloid Deposition: Preliminary Data on a Method for Enriching Samples in Clinical Trials
Clinical trials in Alzheimer disease are moving toward prevention studies in prodromal individuals with amyloid burden. However, methods are needed to identify individuals expected to be amyloid positive for these studies to be feasible and cost-effective. The current study sought to determine whether short-term practice effects on cognitive tests can identify those with notable uptake on amyloid imaging. Twenty-five, nondemented older adults (15 cognitively intact, 10 with mild cognitive impairment) underwent amyloid imaging through 18F-flutemetamol and 2 cognitive testing sessions across 1 week to determine practice effe...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - July 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Can Mirtazapine Counteract the Weight Loss Associated With Alzheimer Disease? A Retrospective Open-label Study
Weight loss is a frequent complication of Alzheimer disease (AD), associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Increased appetite and weight gain are known side effects of the antidepressant mirtazapine. This analysis was undertaken to assess the safety and potential utility of mirtazapine to counteract weight loss in patients with AD or mixed AD (AD with cerebrovascular lesions). We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of all outpatients attending our memory clinic for AD or mixed AD, who had received mirtazapine (30 mg daily) with the specific purpose of inducing weight or appetite gain. Data ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - July 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Personality Changes in Dementia: Are They Disease Specific and Universal?
Previous studies about personality changes in dementia suggest that they may be due to the disruption of the biological basis of personality traits, and hence, that they are disease specific and universal. However, evidence about its specificity is still limited and scarce regarding culturally diverse populations. Accordingly, our aim was to compare personality changes in Argentinean patients with Alzheimer disease, behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. The closest living relatives of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer disease (n=19), behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (n...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - July 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Association Between Neuropathology and Brain Volume in The Framingham Heart Study
Studies of clinical and community cohorts have shown that antemortem imaging measures of hippocampal volume have correlated with postmortem Alzheimer pathology. Fewer studies have examined the relationship between both Alzheimer and cerebrovascular pathology, and antemortem brain imaging. The aim of this study was to correlate antemortem brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes with postmortem brain pathology (both Alzheimer-related and cerebrovascular) in a community-derived cohort from the Framingham Heart Study. Participants (n=59) from the Framingham Heart Study were included if they were enrolled in the brain au...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - July 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Quality of Life in Alzheimer Disease: A Comparison of Patients' and Caregivers' Points of View.
This study identified variables related to patients' QoL and examined the agreement between patients' and caregivers' QoL ratings. A total of 135 dyads (patient and principal caregiver) were enrolled in the study. Patients' QoL evaluations showed a negative relationship with depressive mood and a positive relationship with Activities of Daily Living (ADL), whereas caregivers' QoL ratings showed a negative relationship with patients' depressive mood and behavioral disturbances. Caregivers tended to underestimate patients' QoL compared with the patients' own self-evaluations, with patients' dependency in performing ADL and b...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - June 19, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Errors in Self-Reports of Health Services Use: Impact on Alzheimer Disease Clinical Trial Designs.
CONCLUSIONS:: Use of self-report data in clinical trials of Alzheimer disease treatments may inflate sample size needs. Even when adequate power is achieved by increasing sample size, reporting errors can result in a biased estimate of the true effect size of the intervention. PMID: 24845761 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - May 23, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Variably Protease-sensitive Prionopathy in an Apparent Cognitively Normal 93-Year-Old.
Authors: Ghoshal N, Perry A, McKeel D, Schmidt RE, Carter D, Norton J, Zou WQ, Xiao X, Puoti G, Notari S, Gambetti P, Morris JC, Cairns NJ PMID: 24845762 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - May 23, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The Effect of APOE ε4 Allele on Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Patients With Alzheimer Disease: Evaluation of the Feasibility of Resting State Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging.
The Effect of APOE ε4 Allele on Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Patients With Alzheimer Disease: Evaluation of the Feasibility of Resting State Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2014 Apr-Jun;28(2):122-7 Authors: Wang L, Day J, Roe CM, Brier MR, Thomas JB, Benzinger TL, Morris JC, Ances BM Abstract This work is to determine whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modulates the effect of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment on resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We ret...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - May 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Genetics in Degenerative Dementia: Current Status and Applicability.
Authors: Bruni AC, Conidi ME, Bernardi L Abstract An increasing number of hereditary neurodegenerative diseases, including autosomal-dominant Alzheimer disease (AD), familial autosomal-dominant frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and heritable Lewy body disease (LBD) have been defined at the molecular level in recent years, making it possible to determine the genotype before the onset of symptoms. The identification of deterministic genes for these common adult-onset genetic diseases is moving the field of genetic counseling toward a new and challenging direction. With the identification of genes associated with AD and ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - May 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Why are Spousal Caregivers More Prevalent than Nonspousal Caregivers as Study Partners in AD Dementia Clinical Trials?
This study examines the association between caregiver relationship to the patient and willingness to enroll in an AD clinical trial and how caregiver burden and research attitudes modify willingness. DESIGN:: Interviews with 103 AD caregivers who met criteria for ability to serve as a study partner. RESULTS:: A total of 54% of caregivers were spouses or domestic partners and the remaining were adult children. Willingness to enroll a patient in a clinical trial was associated with being a spouse [odds ratio (OR)=2.53, P=0.01], increasing age (OR=1.39, P=0.01), and increasing scores on the Research Attitudes Questionnaire (OR=1.39, P
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - May 10, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Vascular Disease and Risk Factors are Associated With Cognitive Decline in the Alzheimer Disease Spectrum.
Authors: Lorius N, Locascio JJ, Rentz DM, Johnson KA, Sperling RA, Viswanathan A, Marshall GA, for the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Abstract We investigated the relationship between vascular disease and risk factors versus cognitive decline cross-sectionally and longitudinally in normal older control, mild cognitive impairment, and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia subjects. A total of 812 participants (229 normal older control, 395 mild cognitive impairment, 188 AD) underwent cognitive testing, brain magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical evaluations at baseline and over a period of 3 yea...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - May 3, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The Dementia Severity Rating Scale Predicts Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes Scores.
Authors: Moelter ST, Glenn MA, Xie SX, Chittams J, Clark CM, Watson M, Arnold SE PMID: 24770371 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 29, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Alterations in Cholesterol and Ganglioside GM1 Content of Lipid Rafts in Platelets From Patients With Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Liu L, Zhang K, Tan L, Chen YH, Cao YP Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the protein, cholesterol, and ganglioside GM1 content of lipid rafts in platelets from patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and identify potential blood biomarkers of the disease. A total of 31 Chinese patients with AD and 31 aged-matched control subjects were selected. Lipid rafts were isolated from platelets using Optiprep gradient centrifugation. The protein content of lipid rafts was evaluated using Micro BCA assay, the cholesterol content using molecular probes, ganglioside GM1 content using colori...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 25, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Normative Data for 8 Neuropsychological Tests in Older Blacks and Whites From the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
This study provides age, race, and education-specific normative data for 8 cognitive tests derived from 320 black and 392 white participants aged 61 to 82 years (mean 71 y) in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study without clinical or subclinical/latent neurological disease. Normative data are provided for the Delayed Word Recall Test, Logical Memory Parts I and II, the Word Fluency Test, Animal Naming, the Trail Making Test Parts A and B and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test. Age, race, and education-specific mean and -1.5 SD scores are given in tabular form and graphically, as well as regression-based equa...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 25, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Mild Cognitive Impairment Due to Alzheimer Disease is Less Likely Under the Age of 65.
Authors: Shin S, Kim JH, Cho JH, Kim GS, Choi SA, Lee JH, For the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative Abstract Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are considered to have a high risk for Alzheimer dementia (AD). Even high positive predictive values, however, cannot be guaranteed even by tests with high sensitivity and specificity when disease prevalence is low. If we regard the clinical criteria for aMCI as a test for predicting aMCI due to AD, the positive predictive value of the criteria will be low by definition in young patients with aMCI (age below 65 years) because of the low ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 25, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Distinctive RNA Expression Profiles in Blood Associated With Alzheimer Disease After Accounting for White Matter Hyperintensities.
CONCLUSIONS:: RNA expression is altered in AD blood irrespective of WMH status. Some genes are shared with AD brain. PMID: 24731980 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Intracranial Stenosis, Cerebrovascular Diseases, and Cognitive Impairment in Chinese.
Authors: Hilal S, Saini M, Tan CS, Catindig JA, Dong YH, Holandez RL, Niessen WJ, Vrooman HA, Ting E, Wong TY, Chen C, Venketasubramanian N, Ikram MK Abstract Extracranial carotid artery disease has been shown to be related to cognitive deficits. However, limited data are available on intracranial stenosis (ICS) and cognitive impairment. We investigate the association between ICS and cognitive impairment in Chinese. Subjects (n=278), recruited from the Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study, underwent comprehensive clinical evaluation, neuropsychological testing, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), inc...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability in Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Lattanzi S, Viticchi G, Falsetti L, Buratti L, Luzzi S, Provinciali L, Silvestrini M Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate visit-to-visit blood pressure (BP) variability in a cohort of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and healthy controls. Patients with clinically diagnosed mild or moderate AD and cognitively normal controls matched for age and sex were recruited and followed up for 6 months. To characterize the BP status of each individual, mean, maximum and minimum values, SD, and coefficient of variation were obtained for both systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP). Seventy AD patients an...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 17, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Olfactory Deficit and Hippocampal Volume Loss for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer Disease: A Pilot Study
Conclusions:Our findings suggest the potential utility of olfactory test and hippocampal volume loss for early detection of AD. (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Cerebral Microbleeds and Cognition: The Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are considered to be a novel marker of cerebral small vessel disease. However, the link with cognitive impairment remains unclear. We investigated whether CMBs—independent of other traditional markers of cerebral small vessel disease—are related to cognition. Chinese subjects from the population-based Singapore Chinese Eye Study, who failed an initial cognitive screening and were recruited into the ongoing Epidemiology of Dementia in Singapore Study, underwent neuropsychological testing and 3 T brain magnetic resonance imaging. The presence and number of CMBs were graded using Brain ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

How Well Do MCI Criteria Predict Progression to Severe Cognitive Impairment and Dementia?
Background:The International Working Group (IWG) criteria for mild cognitive impairment have variable utility in predicting progression to dementia, partly depending on the setting. We explored an empiric approach to optimize the criteria and cutoff points in a population study. Methods:In a cohort of adults aged 65 years or older, we identified 1129 individuals with normal or only mildly impaired cognition by cognitive classification, and 1146 individuals without dementia (Clinical Dementia Rating (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Demographic and Neuropsychiatric Factors Associated With Off-label Medication Use in Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer’s Disease
Objectives:Off-label medication use for treating cognitive impairments and neuropsychiatric symptoms occurs in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer disease (AD). We compared the use of cognitive and psychiatric medications in FTD and AD and evaluated the relationship between neuropsychiatric symptoms and medication use. Methods:Cognitive and psychiatric medication use, demographic variables, and Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) subscale symptoms were obtained from the National Alzheimer’s Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set (n=3958, 8.1% FTD). Bivariate statistics and logistic regressions were calculated to e...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Novel TARDBP Sequence Variant and C9ORF72 Repeat Expansion in a Family With Frontotemporal Dementia
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a genetically heterogenous syndrome and has been associated most recently with a hexanucleotide repeat expansion within the C9ORF72 gene. Pathogenic TDP-43 gene (TARDBP) mutations have been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the role of TARDBP mutations in FTLD is more contradictory. To investigate the role of TARDBP mutations in a clinical series of Finnish FTLD patients, we sequenced TARDBP exons 1 to 6 in 77 FTLD patients. No evident pathogenic mutations were found. We identified a novel heterozygous c.876_878delCAG sequence variant in 2 related patients with beh...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Brief Reports Source Type: research

Validation and Diagnostic Utility of the Dementia Rating Scale in a Mixed Dementia Population
This study suggests that the DSRS improves detection of dementia and requires minimal effort to implement. (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Life Enhancing Activities for Family Caregivers of People With Frontotemporal Dementia
Aberrant psychological and behavioral symptoms are common in patients with dementia. These symptoms have negative consequences for family caregivers, causing stress and burden. Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) symptoms cause more pronounced stress and burden on caregivers than those associated with Alzheimer dementia. In this randomized, attention control pilot study, we delivered 5-weekly, one-on-one, positive affect intervention sessions to family caregivers of people with FTD. The program, Life Enhancing Activities for Family Caregivers: LEAF was conducted in-person or by videoconference with caregivers across the United S...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Mild Cognitive Impairment Stage of Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Parkinson Disease: A Comparison of Cognitive Profiles
Conclusions:Our results demonstrate that patients with DLB-MCI have more severe cognitive impairment in frontal executive, memory, and visuospatial functions than those with PD-MCI. These data suggest that differences in pathologic substrates between PDD and DLB may begin in the MCI stage of the 2 diseases and may lead to differences in cognitive profiles. (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Comparison of 2 Informant Questionnaire Screening Tools for Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment: AD8 and IQCODE
We examined 186 consecutive patients (44 controls, 13 with MCI, and 129 with dementia). Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to examine the ability of AD8 and IQCODE to discriminate between controls and MCI or dementia. Sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, and likelihood ratios were reported. Results:AD8 differentiated healthy controls from MCI (P (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

Medication Adherence in Patients With Dementia: An Austrian Cohort Study
Sustained treatment with effective doses of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine is crucial to transfer treatment effects in dementia. Numerous studies, with often small samples sizes, describe low adherence rates. The purpose of current study was to examine the medical adherence of antidementia therapy in Austria. We analyzed the data of 10 Austrian Health Insurance Funds, including treatment-naive dementia patients. Study outcome measures were discontinuation, switching, number of days on therapy, Medication-Possession-Ratio, and compliance. A total of 15,809 patients (mean age: 79.9 y, female: 67.3%) met the study&rsq...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Effect of APOE ε4 Allele on Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Patients With Alzheimer Disease: Evaluation of the Feasibility of Resting State Functional Connectivity Magnetic Resonance Imaging
This work is to determine whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype modulates the effect of cholinesterase inhibitor (ChEI) treatment on resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fcMRI) in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). We retrospectively studied very mild and mild AD participants who were treated (N=25) or untreated (N=19) with ChEIs with respect to rs-fcMRI measure of 5 resting state networks (RSNs): default mode, dorsal attention (DAN), control (CON), salience (SAL), and sensory motor. For each network, a composite score was computed as the mean of Pearson correlations between pairwise t...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - April 1, 2014 Category: Geriatrics Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research

The Effects of Spaced Retrieval Combined With Errorless Learning in Institutionalized Elders With Dementia: Recall Performance, Cognitive Status, and Food Intake.
Authors: Wu HS, Lin LC, Su SC, Wu SC Abstract The purpose of this study was to explore the effects on recall performance, cognitive status, and food intake when using accumulating cues in a spaced retrieval (SR) paradigm. In a double-blinded experimental design, 32 participants in the SR combined with errorless learning (SR/EL) group and 29 participants in the SR-only group were trained in a variety of eating-related actions. Accumulating cues were used within each SR trial in the SR/EL group. The participants' recall performance, the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores, and the portion of a meal that parti...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Angina Pectoris Severity Among Coronary Heart Disease Patients is Associated With Subsequent Cognitive Impairment.
CONCLUSIONS:: In people with preexisting CHD, severity of AP is associated with late-life poorer cognitive performance, independent of other vascular risk factors. PMID: 24632987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Alzheimer Disease Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers Predict Cognitive Decline In Healthy Elderly Over 2 Years.
Authors: Gasparini Berenguer R, Monge Argilés JA, Muñoz Ruiz C, Sánchez Payá J, Blanco Cantó MA, Leiva Santana C Abstract AIM:: The aim of this study is to check the ability of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (CSF-BMK-AD) to make a discrimination checklist within a healthy group, according to their cognitive development at 2 years of obtaining the sample. MATERIALS AND METHODS:: Between 2008 and 2010, 67 subjects without cognitive or behavioral disorders were included as a control group in a study on CSF-AD-BMK. Neuropsychological assessment at baseline and...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The Rest-Activity Rhythm and Physical Activity in Early-Onset Dementia.
Authors: Hooghiemstra AM, Eggermont LH, Scheltens P, van der Flier WM, Scherder EJ Abstract BACKGROUND:: A substantial part of elderly persons with dementia show rest-activity rhythm disturbances. The rest-activity rhythm is important to study in people with early-onset dementia (EOD) for rest-activity rhythm disturbances are predictive of institutionalization, and caregivers of young patients suffer from high distress. OBJECTIVE:: The aim of this study was to study (1) whether EOD patients have more rest-activity rhythm disturbances compared with cognitively intact adults; and (2) which factors contribute to a...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Diagnostic Criteria for Vascular Cognitive Disorders: A VASCOG Statement.
CONCLUSIONS:: The proposed criteria for VCD provide a coherent approach to the diagnosis of this diverse group of disorders, with a view to stimulating clinical and pathologic validation studies. These criteria can be harmonized with the DSM-5 criteria such that an international consensus on the criteria for VCD may be achieved. PMID: 24632990 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Factors Associated With Primary Care Physicians' Recognition of Cognitive Impairment in Their Older Patients.
Authors: Tierney MC, Naglie G, Upshur R, Jaakkimainen L, Moineddin R, Charles J, Ganguli M Abstract Although there are accurate screens for cognitive impairment, there is as yet no evidence that screening improves outcomes including primary care physicians' (PCP) medical decision making. PCPs' recognition of cognitive impairment being suboptimal, we investigated factors associated with improved recognition. Eligible patients were aged 65 years and above, without documented dementia or previous work-up for dementia, seen consecutively over 2 months by one of 13 PCPs. PCPs indicated whether they, the patient, or the ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 20, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Association Between Neuropathology and Brain Volume in The Framingham Heart Study.
Authors: Kaur B, Himali JJ, Seshadri S, Beiser AS, Au R, McKee AC, Auerbach S, Wolf PA, Decarli CS Abstract Studies of clinical and community cohorts have shown that antemortem imaging measures of hippocampal volume have correlated with postmortem Alzheimer pathology. Fewer studies have examined the relationship between both Alzheimer and cerebrovascular pathology, and antemortem brain imaging. The aim of this study was to correlate antemortem brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumes with postmortem brain pathology (both Alzheimer-related and cerebrovascular) in a community-derived cohort from the Framingham ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Practice Effects and Amyloid Deposition: Preliminary Data on a Method for Enriching Samples in Clinical Trials.
Authors: Duff K, Foster NL, Hoffman JM Abstract Clinical trials in Alzheimer disease are moving toward prevention studies in prodromal individuals with amyloid burden. However, methods are needed to identify individuals expected to be amyloid positive for these studies to be feasible and cost-effective. The current study sought to determine whether short-term practice effects on cognitive tests can identify those with notable uptake on amyloid imaging. Twenty-five, nondemented older adults (15 cognitively intact, 10 with mild cognitive impairment) underwent amyloid imaging through F-flutemetamol and 2 cognitive tes...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Is Bilingualism Associated With a Lower Risk of Dementia in Community-living Older Adults? Cross-sectional and Prospective Analyses.
CONCLUSIONS:: We did not find any association between speaking>1 language and dementia. PMID: 24614266 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Progressive Changes in Hippocampal Resting-state Connectivity Across Cognitive Impairment: A Cross-sectional Study From Normal to Alzheimer Disease.
In this study, we were able to quantify the deterioration of resting-state hippocampal connectivity with disease severity and formation of compensatory recruitment in the early stages of AD. PMID: 24614267 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

How Preserved is Emotion Recognition in Alzheimer Disease Compared With Behavioral Variant Frontotemporal Dementia?
Authors: Bertoux M, de Souza LC, Sarazin M, Funkiewiez A, Dubois B, Hornberger M PMID: 24614268 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Personality Changes in Dementia: Are They Disease Specific and Universal?
Authors: Torrente F, Pose M, Gleichgerrcht E, Torralva T, López P, Cetkovich-Bakmas M, Manes F Abstract Previous studies about personality changes in dementia suggest that they may be due to the disruption of the biological basis of personality traits, and hence, that they are disease specific and universal. However, evidence about its specificity is still limited and scarce regarding culturally diverse populations. Accordingly, our aim was to compare personality changes in Argentinean patients with Alzheimer disease, behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia, and primary progressive aphasia. The closest...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Erythrocyte Membrane Stability to Hydrogen Peroxide is Decreased in Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Gilca M, Lixandru D, Gaman L, Vîrgolici B, Atanasiu V, Stoian I Abstract The brain and erythrocytes have similar susceptibility toward free radicals. Therefore, erythrocyte abnormalities might indicate the progression of the oxidative damage in Alzheimer disease (AD). The aim of this study was to investigate erythrocyte membrane stability and plasma antioxidant status in AD. Fasting blood samples (from 17 patients with AD and 14 healthy controls) were obtained and erythrocyte membrane stability against hydrogen peroxide and 2,2'-azobis-(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH), serum Trolox equivalen...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Alzheimer Caregivers.
This study aimed to explore the impact of cognitive and behavioral therapy (CBT) group intervention on AD patients' caregivers. In particular, reduction in caregivers' global care needs and in anxiety and depression has been investigated. About 100 caregivers were divided into the following groups: CBT group intervention, self-help manual, and control have been enrolled in the study. CBT group intervention seems to be more effective than the other 2 conditions in reducing caregivers' anxiety. Furthermore, only caregivers of the CBT group showed significant needs related to reduction in care. The proposed treatment could be...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Community Engagement in Diverse Populations for Alzheimer Disease Prevention Trials.
Authors: Romero HR, Welsh-Bohmer KA, Gwyther LP, Edmonds HL, Plassman BL, Germain CM, McCart M, Hayden KM, Pieper C, Roses AD Abstract The recruitment of asymptomatic volunteers has been identified as a critical factor that is delaying the development and validation of preventive therapies for Alzheimer disease (AD). Typical recruitment strategies involve the use of convenience samples or soliciting participation of older adults with a family history of AD from clinics and outreach efforts. However, high-risk groups, such as ethnic/racial minorities, are traditionally less likely to be recruited for AD prevention s...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Deficient Symbol Processing in Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Toepper M, Steuwe C, Beblo T, Bauer E, Boedeker S, Thomas C, Markowitsch HJ, Driessen M, Sammer G Abstract Symbols and signs have been suggested to improve the orientation of patients suffering from Alzheimer disease (AD). However, there are hardly any studies that confirm whether AD patients benefit from signs or symbols and which symbol characteristics might improve or impede their symbol comprehension. To address these issues, 30 AD patients and 30 matched healthy controls performed a symbol processing task (SPT) with 4 different item categories. A repeated-measures analysis of variance was run to ident...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Feasibility and Validity of the Self-administered Computerized Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment With Older Primary Care Patients.
Authors: Tierney MC, Naglie G, Upshur R, Moineddin R, Charles J, Liisa Jaakkimainen R Abstract We investigated whether a validated computerized cognitive test, the Computerized Assessment of Mild Cognitive Impairment (CAMCI), could be independently completed by older primary care patients. We also determined the optimal cut-off for the CAMCI global risk score for mild cognitive impairment against an independent neuropsychological reference standard. All eligible patients aged 65 years and older, seen consecutively over 2 months by 1 family practice of 13 primary care physicians, were invited to participate. Patient...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 13, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The Role of Cerebellar Volume in Cognition in the General Elderly Population.
CONCLUSIONS:: We only found a minor relationship between larger cerebellar volume and better cognition in healthy older adults, which further attenuated after correcting for cerebral volume. Our findings support the notion that cerebellar volume has an influence on cognition in aging, but that it is not the major leading structure. PMID: 24577204 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 1, 2014 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research