Cerebrospinal fluid proteins predict longitudinal hippocampal degeneration in early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small sample size, we found that Αβ1-42 related and tau-related CSF measures were associated with hippocampal degeneration in individuals with clinically diagnosed early AD and may reflect an association with a common underlying disease mechanism. PMID: 22156755 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Age-specific and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer dementia in blacks and whites: a report from the Einstein Aging Study.
Authors: Katz MJ, Lipton RB, Hall CB, Zimmerman ME, Sanders AE, Verghese J, Dickson DW, Derby CA Abstract As the population ages, the need to characterize rates of cognitive impairment and dementia within demographic groups defined by age, sex, and race becomes increasingly important. There are limited data available on the prevalence and incidence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) from population-based studies. The Einstein Aging Study, a systematically recruited community-based cohort of 1944 adults aged 70 or older (1168 dementia free at baseline; mean...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Smoking, death, and Alzheimer disease: a case of competing risks.
In this study, we demonstrate that the effect of smoking on AD differs in models that are and are not adjusted for competing risks. PMID: 22185783 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The cornell-brown scale for quality of life in dementia: spanish adaptation and validation.
This study is the first to report the factor structure of the CBS. These results indicate that CBS is a useful tool in assessing persons with dementia. Replication of these results with larger samples is advised. The Spanish version of the CBS is reliable and valid in persons with mild/moderate dementia who are living at home and with a known caregiver. PMID: 22193352 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Montreal cognitive assessment: validation study for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.
This study aims to validate the MoCA for screening Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) through an analysis of diagnostic accuracy and the proposal of cut-offs. Patients were classified into 2 clinical groups according to standard criteria: MCI (n=90) and AD (n=90). The 2 control groups (C-MCI: n=90; C-AD: n=90) consisted of cognitively healthy community dwellers selected to match patients in sex, age, and education. The MoCA showed consistently superior psychometric properties compared with the MMSE, and higher diagnostic accuracy to discriminate between MCI (area under the curve=0.856; 95% confidenc...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Prior transient ischemic attack and dementia after subsequent ischemic stroke.
Authors: Jacquin A, Aboa-Eboulé C, Rouaud O, Osseby GV, Binquet C, Durier J, Moreau T, Bonithon-Kopp C, Giroud M, Béjot Y Abstract Although functional recovery and survival after ischemic stroke seem to improve in patients with prior transient ischemic attack (TIA), little is known about the effect of prior TIA on poststroke cognition. To evaluate the impact of prior TIA on dementia, 1697 nonaphasic patients who survived the first month after their first-ever ischemic stroke were identified from the population-based registry of Dijon, France, from 1985 to 2007 and divided into 3 groups according to th...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Subjective cognitive complaints of older adults at the population level: an item response theory analysis.
Authors: Snitz BE, Yu L, Crane PK, Chang CC, Hughes TF, Ganguli M Abstract Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) are increasingly a focus in studies on prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD) and risk for dementia. Little is known about the optimal approach to measure SCCs. We used item response theory (IRT) to examine the characteristics of 24 SCC items in a sample of 3495 older adults pooled from 4 community-based studies. We investigated the potential advantages of IRT scoring over conventional scoring on the basis of participants' item response patterns. Items most likely endorsed by individuals low in SCC severity r...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Determinants of care costs of patients with dementia or cognitive impairment.
CONCLUSIONS: : Cognitive functioning and instrumental activities of daily living are important variables to include in health care decision models. We recommend also including caregiver burden and patient sex in decision models for health policy decision makers to fully reflect the heterogeneity of the disease progression of cognitive disorders. PMID: 22214890 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Characterization of apathy in persons with frontotemporal dementia and the impact on family caregivers.
In conclusion, apathy has been defined as a condition of diminished motivation that is difficult to operationalize. Among patients with frontotemporal dementia, apathy was associated with lower levels of activity, greater number of bouts of immobility, and longer immobility bout duration. Apathy and diminished daytime activity appeared to have an impact on the caregiver. Objective measures of behavioral output may help in formulation of a more precise definition of apathy. PMID: 22261729 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Scales for the evaluation of end-of-life care in advanced dementia: sensitivity to change.
This study extends the psychometric properties of the EOLD scales by showing the sensitivity to clinically meaningful change in these scales to specific outcomes related to end-of-life care and quality of life among residents with end-stage advanced dementia and their HCPs. PMID: 22273800 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Maternal transmission of Alzheimer disease.
Authors: Heggeli KA, Crook J, Thomas C, Graff-Radford N Abstract Some researchers propose maternal Alzheimer disease (AD) inheritance. We compared dementia family histories in AD cases and cognitively normal controls. We expected more mothers to have AD in both groups. If maternal risk was not only due to female longevity, more AD cases' than controls' mothers should have dementia. We matched 196 AD cases to 200 controls by sex and age. We obtained parent dementia status and age of death for 348 AD and 319 control parents. Twenty-four (12%) controls' fathers, 26 (13%) AD patients' fathers, 58 (29%) controls' mother...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The impact of dementia severity on caregiver burden in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease.
This study is the first to show that caregivers of SemDem, PNFA, and AD patients show similar burden, while confirming that bvFTD caregivers show higher burden than AD caregivers. More importantly, this study demonstrates that burden worsens with disease progression in FTD. PMID: 22314247 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Predicting the Risk of Dementia Among Canadian Seniors: A Useable Practice-friendly Diagnostic Algorithm.
Authors: Meng X, D'Arcy C, Morgan D, Mousseau DD Abstract Research has not provided feasible models to identify dementia in primary care. We construct a broadly based diagnostic algorithm synthesizing information from known risk factors, such as poor cognition, sociodemographic factors, and health history. Data were from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) Phase I. Dementia was diagnosed by clinical consensus. All subjects had a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and a Modified MMSE (3MS) score. Multiple logistic regression was used to build our diagnostic algorithm, which was then tested for clas...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Hippocampal atrophy and ventricular enlargement in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Apostolova LG, Green AE, Babakchanian S, Hwang KS, Chou YY, Toga AW, Thompson PM Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia worldwide. Hippocampal atrophy and ventricular enlargement have been associated with AD but also with normal aging. We analyzed 1.5-T brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 cognitively normal elderly individuals (NC), 33 mild cognitive impairment and 43 AD patients. Hippocampal and ventricular analyses were conducted with 2 novel semiautomated segmentation approaches followed by the radial distance mapping technique. Multiple linear regression was used ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Correlation of amyloid PET ligand florbetapir F 18 binding with Aβ aggregation and neuritic plaque deposition in postmortem brain tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Florbetapir F 18 selectively binds Aβ in human brain tissue. The binding intensity was quantitatively correlated with the density of Aβ plaques identified by standard neuropathologic techniques and correlated with the density of Aβ measured by immunohistochemistry. As Aβ plaques are a defining neuropathologic feature for Alzheimer disease, these results support the use of florbetapir F 18 as an amyloid positron emission tomography ligand to identify the presence of Alzheimer disease pathology in patients with signs and symptoms of progressive late-life cognitive impairment. PMID: 223541...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Falls and risk factors for falls in community-dwelling adults with dementia (NutriAlz trial).
Authors: Salvà A, Roqué M, Rojano X, Inzitari M, Andrieu S, Schiffrin EJ, Guigoz Y, Vellas B Abstract To estimate the number of fallers and risk factors for falls in a cohort with dementia, we did a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial (NutriAlz) in 11 outpatient and day care centers in Catalonia (Spain) including 626 community-dwelling patients with dementia, followed for 12 months. Participants' characteristics were assessed at baseline, at 6 and 12 months [fall in the earlier 6 mo, anthropometric data, comorbidities, Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating, Ba...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Extended kindred with recessive late-onset Alzheimer disease maps to locus 8p22-p21.2: a genome-wide linkage analysis.
Authors: Baron M, Gomez-Tortosa E, Bochdanovits Z, Gobernado I, Rabano A, Munoz DG, Heutink P, Jimenez-Escrig A Abstract Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is a complex genetic disorder. Although genes involved in early-onset forms were discovered more than a decade ago, LOAD research has only been able to point out small effect loci, with the exception of APOE. We mapped the gene predisposing to LOAD in an extended inbred family coming from a genetically isolated region (24 sampled individuals, 12 of whom are affected), completing a genome-wide screen with an Affymetrix10 K single nucleotide polymorphism microarr...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

An FP-CIT PET Comparison of the Differences in Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss Between Idiopathic Parkinson Disease With Dementia and Without Dementia.
Authors: Song IU, Kim YD, Cho HJ, Chung SW, Chung YA Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated a decreased density of dopamine transporters (DAT) in basal ganglia in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) using I-n-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT), and the reductions in striatal DAT levels were inversely correlated with the severity of motor dysfunction in IPD. However, there has been no study on the correlation of DAT levels between IPD patients with and without cognitive dysfunction. Thus, we evaluated the differences in regional DAT density in the brain of patients w...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Improving burden and coping skills in frontotemporal dementia caregivers: a pilot study.
Authors: Mioshi E, McKinnon C, Savage S, O'Connor CM, Hodges JR PMID: 22354158 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Patterns of striatal degeneration in frontotemporal dementia.
Authors: Halabi C, Halabi A, Dean DL, Wang PN, Boxer AL, Trojanowski JQ, Dearmond SJ, Miller BL, Kramer JH, Seeley WW Abstract Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia have been associated with striatal degeneration, but few studies have delineated striatal subregion volumes in vivo or related them to the clinical phenotype. We traced caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens on magnetic resonance images to quantify volumes of these structures in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia, Alzheimer disease, and healthy controls (n=12 per group). We further related these str...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in E200K and V210I Mutations of the Prion Protein Gene.
Authors: Breithaupt M, Romero C, Kallenberg K, Begue C, Sanchez-Juan P, Eigenbrod S, Kretzschmar H, Schelzke G, Meichtry E, Taratuto A, Zerr I Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), is a useful diagnostic investigation for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Amendment of the diagnostic criteria for sporadic CJD (sCJD) to include defined MRI alterations has just recently been proposed. We analyzed MRI scans with FLAIR and/or DWI available of 29 patients with the E200K or the V210I mutation, and a control group of 29 sCJD patients...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Theory of mind and recognition of facial emotion in dementia: challenge to current concepts.
This study challenges the concepts that ToM is preserved in AD and that recognition of facial emotion is impaired in bvFTD. ToM, recognition of facial emotion, and identification of emotions associated with video vignettes were studied in bvFTD, AD, and normal controls. ToM was assessed using false-belief and visual perspective-taking tasks. Identification of facial emotion was tested using Ekman and Friesen's pictures of facial affect. After adjusting for relevant covariates, there were significant ToM deficits in bvFTD and AD compared with controls, whereas neither group was impaired in the identification of emotions ass...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Relating memory to functional performance in normal aging to dementia using hierarchical bayesian cognitive processing models.
Authors: Shankle WR, Pooley JP, Steyvers M, Hara J, Mangrola T, Reisberg B, Lee MD Abstract Determining how cognition affects functional abilities is important in Alzheimer disease and related disorders. A total of 280 patients (normal or Alzheimer disease and related disorders) received a total of 1514 assessments using the functional assessment staging test (FAST) procedure and the MCI Screen. A hierarchical Bayesian cognitive processing model was created by embedding a signal detection theory model of the MCI Screen-delayed recognition memory task into a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The signal detection theo...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

MR, 18F-FDG, and 18F-AV45 PET Correlate With AD PSEN1 Original Phenotype.
We report the case of a 37-year-old man suffering from insidious visual agnosia and spastic paraparesis due to a PSEN1 mutation. His mother was diagnosed with Alzheimer disease after a biopsy. He was assessed by multimodal neuroimaging, including new in vivo positron emission tomography amyloid imaging (F-AV45). His data were compared with those from healthy participants and patients with sporadic predemential Alzheimer disease. He exhibited posterior cortical thickness reduction, posterior hypometabolism, and increased amyloid ligand uptake in the posterior cortex and the striatum. We show that F-AV45 positron emission to...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Microbleeds in Postmortem Brains of Patients With Alzheimer Disease: A T2*-weighted Gradient-Echo 7.0 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.
This study aims to determine the distribution and to quantify microbleeds (MBs) in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) on T2*-weighted gradient-echo 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-eight AD brains were compared with 5 controls. The AD brains were subdivided further: 18 without and 10 with additional severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy (AD-CAA). The distribution and the number of cortical focal signal intensity losses, representing MBs, were assessed on coronal sections at the frontal, the central, and the occipital level of a cerebral hemisphere. MBs prevailed in the central sections (P=0.005)...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Spongiform Change in Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Sherzai A, Edland SD, Masliah E, Hansen L, Pizzo DP, Sherzai A, Corey-Bloom J Abstract BACKGROUND:: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized neuropathologically by brainstem and cortical Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, neuronal loss in brainstem nuclei, and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Previous studies have suggested that spongiform change in the entorhinal cortex may also be a pathologic feature; however, this change has not been well characterized. DESIGN/METHOD:: An autopsy series of 40 subjects with DLB and 40 subjects with AD were matched on age, sex, and last Mini Mental State Examination...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

COGNOS: Care for People With Cognitive Dysfunction: A National Observational Study.
COGNOS: Care for People With Cognitive Dysfunction: A National Observational Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Apr 25; Authors: Mets T, De Deyn PP, Pals P, De Lepeleire J, Vandewoude M, Ventura M, Ivanoiu A, Albert A, Seghers AK, on behalf of the COGNOS group Abstract Care plans are intended to improve the independence and functioning of patients with cognitive dysfunction and support the caregivers involved. They are an integral part of the Belgian reimbursement procedure for cholinesterase inhibitors. This nationwide, multicenter, observational study examined the content and implementation of the ca...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Male Sex Hormones and Systemic Inflammation in Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Butchart J, Birch B, Bassily R, Wolfe L, Holmes C Abstract Several studies have shown that the levels of sex hormones in men with Alzheimer disease (AD) differ from men without AD. Therefore, male sex hormones have been postulated as risk modifiers in AD, possibly through immunomodulatory effects on known inflammatory AD risk factors, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). We conducted a cross-sectional study of sex hormones and TNF-α levels in 94 community-dwelling men with AD. Comparisons were made with normal values derived from the literature. Men with AD had lower free testosterone...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Health Care Utilization and Costs Among Patients With AD With and Without Dysphagia.
CONCLUSIONS:: This study suggests that patients with AD and dysphagia have higher health care utilization and costs compared with patients without dysphagia. PMID: 22596081 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Self-Reference Effect and Autonoetic Consciousness in Alzheimer Disease: Evidence for a Persistent Affective Self in Dementia Patients.
This study focused on the self-reference effect and examined emotional valence, as it has been shown that emotional content can enhance memory in AD. A task involving recognition of emotional versus neutral adjective traits after self-reference versus semantic encoding, and using the Remember/Know/Guess paradigm was administered to 22 AD patients and 18 normal controls. Results for AD patients show that self-reference increased autonoetic consciousness only for emotional and particularly negative trait adjectives. This interesting result indicates that neutral valence does not allow properties of the self to emerge in AD p...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Rivastigmine in the Treatment of Hypersexuality in Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Canevelli M, Talarico G, Tosto G, Troili F, Lenzi GL, Bruno G Abstract Inappropriate sexual behaviors (ISB) represent uncommon and often misdiagnosed clinical disorders among patients with Alzheimer disease. So far, no randomized clinical trials regarding the treatment of ISB in demented people have been conducted, but available data from case series and isolated case reports suggest the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), antipsychotics, antiandrogens, and H2-receptor antagonists. Controversial data exist on the therapeutic influence of cholinesterase inhibitors on sexual disorder...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Body Height and Late-Life Cognition Among Patients With Atherothrombotic Disease.
CONCLUSIONS:: Among our sample of coronary heart disease patients, a higher stature is associated with a lower risk of impairment in the visual-spatial function and with better cognitive performance. PMID: 22683666 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Translating current knowledge into dementia prevention.
Authors: Román GC, Nash DT, Fillit H Abstract Considerable knowledge has been gained from epidemiologic studies and randomized clinical trials regarding risk factors for dementia, including Alzheimer disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Most identified risk factors for dementia are similar to vascular disease risk factors for heart disease and stroke. In 2010, the National Institutes of Health Conference concluded that there are no validated modifiable factors to reduce the incidence of AD or to change its course. This research perspective specifically concerning AD disregards the fact that in community...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The Demographic and Medical Correlates of Plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42.
The Demographic and Medical Correlates of Plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Jun 22; Authors: Metti AL, Cauley JA, Ayonayon HN, Harris TB, Rosano C, Williamson JD, Yaffe K, for the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study Abstract Plasma amyloid β-42 (Aβ42) and Aβ42/Aβ40 are increasingly recognized as biomarkers for dementia, with low levels indicating increased risk. Little is known about the demographic and medical correlates of plasma Aβ40 or Aβ42. In 997 community-dwelling, nondemented older adults from the Health, Aging, and Body Composition S...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Presenting as Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia With Speech Apraxia.
Authors: Kobylecki C, Thompson JC, Jones M, Mills SJ, Shaunak S, Ironside JW, Snowden JS, Richardson AM Abstract Progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA) is typically associated with pathological changes consistent with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. A 65-year-old male presented with effortful speech, markedly impaired naming and features of speech apraxia, consistent with PNFA. Perceptuospatial function, calculation and executive function were intact. Brain SPECT showed left perisylvian hypoperfusion. He deteriorated profoundly over the subsequent eight months, with appearances on diffusion-weighted magnetic reso...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Can Mirtazapine Counteract the Weight Loss Associated With Alzheimer Disease? A Retrospective Open-label Study.
Authors: Segers K, Surquin M Abstract Weight loss is a frequent complication of Alzheimer disease (AD), associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Increased appetite and weight gain are known side effects of the antidepressant mirtazapine. This analysis was undertaken to assess the safety and potential utility of mirtazapine to counteract weight loss in patients with AD or mixed AD (AD with cerebrovascular lesions). We performed a retrospective analysis of the clinical records of all outpatients attending our memory clinic for AD or mixed AD, who had received mirtazapine (30 mg daily) with the specific purp...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Rapid-onset Apathy May Be the Only Clinical Manifestation After Dorsal Striatum Hemorrhagic Lesion: A Case Report.
Authors: Spalletta G, Cravello L, Piras F, Iorio M, Sancesario G, Marchi A, Caltagirone C, Cacciari C Abstract Apathy is a common clinical feature of stroke patients and it is often correlated with cognitive deficits, functional impairment and depression. Here we report the case of a 70-year-old woman with no history of neuropsychiatric disorders who showed abrupt onset of pure apathy after the onset of a right brain vascular lesion located in the head of the caudate nucleus, the anterior part of the putamen, and the genu and the anterior limb of the internal capsule. A complete neuropsychological and neurological ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The Value of Hippocampal and Temporal Horn Volumes and Rates of Change in Predicting Future Conversion to AD.
Authors: Macdonald KE, Bartlett JW, Leung KK, Ourselin S, Barnes J, for the ADNI investigators Abstract Hippocampal pathology occurs early in Alzheimer disease (AD), and atrophy, measured by volumes and volume changes, may predict which subjects will develop AD. Measures of the temporal horn (TH), which is situated adjacent to the hippocampus, may also indicate early changes in AD. Previous studies suggest that these metrics can predict conversion from amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD with conversion and volume change measured concurrently. However, the ability of these metrics to predict future conve...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Rivastigmine Patch Ameliorates Depression in Mild AD : Preliminary Evidence From a 6-Month Open-label Observational Study.
Authors: Spalletta G, Gianni W, Giubilei F, Casini AR, Sancesario G, Caltagirone C, Cravello L Abstract Here we investigated the effect of the rivastigmine patch alone on depression in 50 mild Alzheimer's Disease (AD) patients with comorbid major depressive episode (MDE). First diagnosis acetyl-cholinesterase inhibitor and psychoactive drug-free outpatients (n=50) were recruited in memory clinics and reassessed after 3 and 6 months. Global cognitive functioning, depressive symptoms and MDE frequency were evaluated with the Mini Mental State Examination, the CERAD Dysphoria scale and the modified DSM-IV criteria for...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Ecological Evaluation of Executive Functions in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: da Costa Armentano CG, Porto CS, Nitrini R, Dozzi Brucki SM Abstract Executive deficits characterize the initial phases of Alzheimer disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and are clinically correlated to neuropsychiatric symptoms and functional loss. The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of the Behavioral Assessment of the Dysexecutive Syndrome test (BADS) for comparing the performance between patients with amnestic MCI (aMCI) and mild AD and for detecting early signs of alterations in executive functions. BADS was performed on 60 healthy controls, 20 patients with aMCI, and 40 mi...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Inhibitory Dysfunction in Frontotemporal Dementia: A Review.
Authors: O'Callaghan C, Hodges JR, Hornberger M Abstract Failure of inhibitory control is an early and consistent feature in patients suffering from frontotemporal dementia (FTD). This appears because of their pervasive ventromedial prefrontal atrophy-particularly in the orbitofrontal cortex-which has been linked to inhibitory dysfunction in studies on human and monkey lesions. However, the range of measures currently available to assess inhibitory processes in FTD is limited, and, as such, inhibitory dysfunction in FTD remains relatively underexplored. Subjective caregiver questionnaires are useful for defining di...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Cultural Diversity and Views on Alzheimer Disease in Older African Americans.
Authors: Rovner BW, Casten RJ, Harris LF Abstract Cultural constructs prevalent in older African Americans may influence their risk perceptions and knowledge of Alzheimer disease (AD). To examine this issue, we administered 3 sociocultural scales, the AD Knowledge Scale, and a Risk Perception questionnaire to 271 older African Americans who were recruited from a large community senior center and local churches. Higher Present Time Orientation was significantly related to perceptions of having little control over risks to health (P=0.004), God's Will in determining AD (P=0.001), and lower AD knowledge (P
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Improved Statistical Power of Alzheimer Clinical Trials by Item-Response Theory: Proof of Concept by Application to the Activities of Daily Living Scale.
Improved Statistical Power of Alzheimer Clinical Trials by Item-Response Theory: Proof of Concept by Application to the Activities of Daily Living Scale. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Aug 6; Authors: Ard MC, Galasko DR, Edland SD Abstract Discovery of effective treatment for Alzheimer disease (AD) depends upon the availability of outcome measures that exhibit good sensitivity to rates of longitudinal decline on global functional performance. The Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Activities of Daily Living inventory (ADCS-ADL) is a frequently used functional endpoint in clinical trials for AD that ass...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The APOE ε4 Allele Is Associated With Increased Frontally Mediated Neurobehavioral Symptoms in Amnestic MCI.
The APOE ε4 Allele Is Associated With Increased Frontally Mediated Neurobehavioral Symptoms in Amnestic MCI. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Aug 6; Authors: Mikos AE, Piryatinsky I, Tremont G, Malloy PF Abstract The apolipoprotein E ε4 allele is a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer disease (AD), and the frontal lobes may be among the regions that manifest effects of ε4 even early in the disease. We predicted that among patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and AD, ε4 would be associated with increased neurobehavioral symptoms when assessed using a measure...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Clomipramine in the Treatment of Compulsive Behavior in Frontotemporal Dementia: A Case Series.
We report three cases of probable bvFTD associated with compulsive behaviors that responded well to treatment with clomipramine at daily dosages varying from 20 to 175 mg. The titration approach involved an initial 10-mg dose that was subsequently increased in 10 mg increments on a weekly basis until symptom relief without intolerable side effects. Our case series supports the consideration for a therapeutic trial with clomipramine in bvFTD when compulsive behavior occurs in these patients. It also highlights the need for further research on pharmacological treatments in bvFTD. PMID: 22892646 [PubMed - as supplied by p...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Novel TARDBP Sequence Variant and C9ORF72 Repeat Expansion in a Family With Frontotemporal Dementia.
Authors: Kaivorinne AL, Moilanen V, Kervinen M, Renton AE, Traynor BJ, Majamaa K, Remes AM Abstract Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a genetically heterogenous syndrome and has been associated most recently with a hexanucleotide repeat expansion within the C9ORF72 gene. Pathogenic TDP-43 gene (TARDBP) mutations have been identified in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the role of TARDBP mutations in FTLD is more contradictory. To investigate the role of TARDBP mutations in a clinical series of Finnish FTLD patients, we sequenced TARDBP exons 1 to 6 in 77 FTLD patients. No evident pathogenic mutations we...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Patient Adherence to Transdermal Rivastigmine After Switching From Oral Donepezil: A Retrospective Claims Database Study.
CONCLUSIONS:: Switching from donepezil to the rivastigmine patch seems to be associated with increased adherence, especially in patients who switched within the first year of initiating donepezil. PMID: 22892648 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of CHF5074 After Short-term Administration in Healthy Subjects.
Authors: Imbimbo BP, Frigerio E, Breda M, Fiorentini F, Fernandez M, Sivilia S, Giardino L, Calzà L, Norris D, Casula D, Shenouda M Abstract CHF5074 has been shown to inhibit brain β-amyloid deposition and attenuate memory deficits in different transgenic mice models of Alzheimer disease. We evaluated the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of 3 ascending dose regimens of CHF5074 (200, 400, and 600 mg/d for 14 d) in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study involving 48 healthy subjects. Plasma, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were collected for measuring drug and ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Rapidly Progressive Dementia as Presenting Feature in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
Authors: Papathanasiou A, Nikakis P, Bonakis A, Kilidireas K, Dimitrakopoulos A, Michopoulos S, Kalfakis N, Papageorgiou SG PMID: 22975749 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Involvement in Activities and Wandering in Nursing Home Residents With Cognitive Impairment.
CONCLUSIONS:: Involvement of residents in meaningful activities should be tested for reducing the incidence of problematic wandering and for decrease in usage of antipsychotic medications. PMID: 22975750 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research