Prodromal dementia with lewy bodies manifesting as sertraline-induced parkinsonism: a case report.
CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, there has been no report of sertraline-induced or aggravated parkinsonian motor symptoms in DLB patients. Our patient had a short period with neither dementia nor parkinsonism during the early stage of his illness, and this period might have been regarded as the preclinical stage of DLB in the natural course of his illness. PMID: 21946016 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

NALP1/NLRP1 genetic variants are associated with Alzheimer disease.
Authors: Pontillo A, Catamo E, Arosio B, Mari D, Crovella S Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease. Genetic and molecular studies have confirmed that in the human brain, amyloid-β fibrils can induce, through the activation of NALP1 inflammosome, inflammatory and apoptotic responses involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Considering that AD pathogenesis is multifactorial, we hypothesized that NALP1/NLRP1 could be a susceptibility gene involved in the devolvement of the disease. The possible association between 9 selected polymorphisms in the NALP1/NLRP1 gene and AD was evaluated by ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Molecular genetic analysis of the APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 genes in Finnish patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease and frontotemporal lobar degeneration.
Authors: Krüger J, Moilanen V, Majamaa K, Remes AM Abstract Mutations in 3 genes, amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2), have been identified as causing a proportion of early-onset Alzheimer disease (eoAD) cases. A few PSEN mutations have also been previously detected in patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). In order to evaluate the role of these genes in a clinical series of Finnish eoAD and FTLD patients, we sequenced exons 16 and 17 of the APP gene and the coding regions of the PSEN1 and PSEN2 genes in 140 eoAD and 66 FTLD patients. No pathogenic m...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Long-standing prion dementia manifesting as posterior cortical atrophy.
We present the clinical and neuropathological features of a family with an early and long-standing dementia manifesting with posterior cortical atrophy and related to a 120 bp insertional mutation of the prion protein gene. Two cases exhibited mixed prion and Aβ pathology. The differential diagnosis with Alzheimer disease is discussed. PMID: 21959360 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Dystypia without aphasia associated with visuospatial memory impairment in a patient with acute stroke.
Authors: Ryu DW, Kim JS, Yang DW, Kim YI, Lee KS Abstract Keyboard typing is a multifunctional task related to language, visual-spatial and motor abilities. If one of these functions is impaired, difficulty during typing could occur. Here, a 64-year-old right-handed man is reported who developed a sudden typing disturbance without aphasia or neglect. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed discrete acute infarcts in the border-zone regions, bilaterally, predominantly in the left hemisphere. The neuropsychiatric testing showed an impaired visual-spatial memory domain; however, other cognitive functions were a...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Crossed aphasia in a dextral patient with logopenic/phonological variant of primary progressive aphasia.
CONCLUSIONS: This case report provides evidence that crossed PPA can present with a logopenic variant in addition to the nonfluent type demonstrated by others. Functional neuroimaging showed unexpected right-sided hypoperfusion in this case with only subtle structural brain asymmetry, implicating a reverse pattern of language dominance. PMID: 21959362 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities associated with apathy and depression in Alzheimer disease.
Authors: Kang JY, Lee JS, Kang H, Lee HW, Kim YK, Jeon HJ, Chung JK, Lee MC, Cho MJ, Lee DS Abstract The aim of this study was to identify brain areas related to apathy or depression in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD). Eighty-one AD patients were enrolled in this prospective study. (99m)Tc-HMPAO single photon emission computed tomography was performed to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). According to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory subscores of apathy and depression, 9 patients were classified as clinically significant (cs) depressed and non-cs-apathetic (D+) groups and 9 were classified as cs-apath...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

CORDIAL: cognitive rehabilitation and cognitive-behavioral treatment for early dementia in Alzheimer disease: a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial.
In this study, we evaluated the feasibility, acceptance, efficacy, and usefulness of a CR intervention in a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial on 201 patients with mild dementia in Alzheimer disease and their carers. The intervention comprised 12 individual weekly sessions and combined 4 established strategies adopted from neurorehabilitation and psychotherapy. Activities of daily living were chosen as the primary outcome. The results show that the feasibility, treatment adherence, and carer commitment were excellent. However, no effect of the intervention was demonstrable on everyday functioning. There were improve...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The SIST-M: predictive validity of a brief structured clinical dementia rating interview.
CONCLUSION: CDR scores based on items from this shortened interview had high predictive ability for AD-comparable to that using a lengthy clinical interview. PMID: 21986342 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Rapidly progressive dementia: experience in a tertiary care medical center.
In conclusion, nonprion neurodegenerative diseases are the most common cause of RPD in our center. Our results suggest that although CJD is often suspected as a cause of RPD, its frequency depends on the referral differences across specialized centers. PMID: 22001379 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Ghrelin-attenuated cognitive dysfunction in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
This study aimed to explore the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy and the mechanisms of ghrelin to ameliorate cognitive dysfunction in diabetic rats. Thirty-six streptozotocin diabetic rat models were established; 12 weeks later, all the rats were randomly divided into 3 groups [diabetic model group (D), ghrelin treatment group (T1), and ghrelin and D-lys-3-GHRP-6 treatment group (T2)] of 12 each. Twelve normoglycemic rats were classified in the normal group (N). Learning and memory behaviors were measured using a spatial version of the Morris water maze test. The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cAMP respon...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Sources of stress for family members of nursing home residents with advanced dementia.
Authors: Givens JL, Lopez RP, Mazor KM, Mitchell SL Abstract The sources of stress for families of nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia have not been well described. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 family members previously enrolled in the Choices, Attitudes, and Strategies for Care of Advanced Dementia at the End-of-Life study, a prospective cohort of 323 NH residents with advanced dementia and their family members. Questions were asked pertaining to the experience of having a family member in the NH, communication with health-care professionals, surrogate decision making, emotional ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The influence of chronic stress on dementia-related diagnostic change in older adults.
Authors: Peavy GM, Jacobson MW, Salmon DP, Gamst AC, Patterson TL, Goldman S, Mills PJ, Khandrika S, Galasko D Abstract Increased susceptibility of the aging brain to both chronic stress and incipient dementia-related neuropathology may accelerate cognitive decline. We investigated associations between chronic stress and diagnostic change in 62 individuals (mean age, 78.7 y) participating in an Alzheimer disease research center longitudinal study. The subjects, diagnosed at baseline as cognitively normal (CN) or with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), were followed for an average of 2.5 years. Senior neurologists, bl...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Agreement on diagnosis among patients, companions, and professionals after a dementia evaluation.
This study documents discrepancies that can arise in diagnostic communication, which could influence adjustment to a diagnosis of dementia and decisions regarding future planning and care. PMID: 22037598 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Alpha-synuclein in the cerebrospinal fluid differentiates synucleinopathies (Parkinson Disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy) from Alzheimer disease.
We examined the utility of quantification of α-synuclein (SNCA) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to differentiate patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), Parkinson disease (PD), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). METHODS: Thirty-seven patients were divided into 4 age-matched and sex-matched clinical groups: AD (n = 9), DLB (n = 6), PD (n = 11), and MSA (n = 11). Eleven subjects served as neurological disease controls. The total of 48 subjects included 27 men and 21 women, aged 66.5 ± 11.4 years. We performed a solid-phase sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, which enab...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Plasma levels of complement 4a protein are increased in Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Bennett S, Grant M, Creese AJ, Mangialasche F, Cecchetti R, Cooper HJ, Mecocci P, Aldred S Abstract Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that has been predicted to affect 106.2 million people worldwide by 2050. Currently, definitive diagnosis for this disease is given post mortem, and there is a need for biomarker identification to enable earlier diagnosis of this disease. Biomarkers of AD would ideally represent early disease process and will be present in peripheral tissue before cognitive decline develops in this population. Proteomic technologies offer a strategy to unde...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Predictive factors for the objective burden of informal care in people with dementia: a systematic review.
CONCLUSIONS: Many factors were found to be (potential) predictors of objective burden, reflecting its complex nature. Objective and subjective burdens are 2 different relevant aspects of informal care. Interventions aimed at countering behavioral problems and impairments regarding daily functioning could reduce objective burden. PMID: 22075941 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Sharing transnational experiences of psychogeriatric units dedicated to the management of behavioral and psychological symptoms in demented patients.
Authors: Bellelli G, Trabucchi M PMID: 22082623 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The Cognitive Change in Women study (CCW): informant ratings of cognitive change but not self-ratings are associated with neuropsychological performance over 3 years.
Authors: Gavett R, Dunn JE, Stoddard A, Harty B, Weintraub S Abstract The value of self-reported memory complaints for identifying or predicting future cognitive decline or dementia is controversial, but observations from a third party, or "informant," may prove more useful. The relationship between Informant and Self-ratings of cognitive status and neuropsychological test scores was examined in a cohort of 384 nondemented, community-dwelling women, aged 60 years and older, participating in a single-site Women's Health Initiative ancillary study. Each participant and her respective informant separately co...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Neuropsychiatric profiles in dementia.
Authors: Johnson DK, Watts AS, Chapin BA, Anderson R, Burns JM Abstract We compared patterns of neuropsychiatric symptoms across 4 dementia types [Alzheimer disease (AD), vascular dementia (VAD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and Parkinson disease dementia], and 2 mixed groups (AD/VAD and AD/DLB) in sample of 2,963 individuals from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center Uniform Data Set between September 2005 and June 2008. We used confirmatory factor analysis to compare neuropsychiatric symptom severity ratings made by collateral sources on the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire for people with Clin...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine dynamics differ between Alzheimer disease patients and elderly controls.
Authors: Llano DA, Li J, Waring JF, Ellis T, Devanarayan V, Witte DG, Lenz RA Abstract The time courses of levels of multiple plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and in age-matched control subjects were compared. Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p70, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, interferon-γ, and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were measured 7 times over a 24-hour period in plasma and CSF using a lumbar catheter. Baseline plasma and CSF cytokine levels were found to be similar in AD and control subjects. However,...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Historical changes in the severity of dementia and accompanying neuropsychiatric symptoms in persons presenting for evaluation in a multiracial urban dementia center.
CONCLUSION: Over the period 1992 to 2008, patients were increasingly more likely to present with early stages of dementia and fewer symptoms of psychoses and agitation, and racial differences in illness severity and neuropsychiatric symptoms disappeared. If our sample reflects trends in the United States, then it suggests that more persons will be in care for longer periods of time, previous research findings derived from dementia centers must be considered historically specific, and clinicians must be prepared to work with persons with milder forms of neurocognitive disorders. PMID: 22089639 [PubMed - in process] (Sou...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Cerebrospinal fluid proteins predict longitudinal hippocampal degeneration in early-stage dementia of the Alzheimer type.
CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small sample size, we found that Αβ1-42 related and tau-related CSF measures were associated with hippocampal degeneration in individuals with clinically diagnosed early AD and may reflect an association with a common underlying disease mechanism. PMID: 22156755 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Age-specific and sex-specific prevalence and incidence of mild cognitive impairment, dementia, and Alzheimer dementia in blacks and whites: a report from the Einstein Aging Study.
Authors: Katz MJ, Lipton RB, Hall CB, Zimmerman ME, Sanders AE, Verghese J, Dickson DW, Derby CA Abstract As the population ages, the need to characterize rates of cognitive impairment and dementia within demographic groups defined by age, sex, and race becomes increasingly important. There are limited data available on the prevalence and incidence of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and nonamnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) from population-based studies. The Einstein Aging Study, a systematically recruited community-based cohort of 1944 adults aged 70 or older (1168 dementia free at baseline; mean...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Smoking, death, and Alzheimer disease: a case of competing risks.
In this study, we demonstrate that the effect of smoking on AD differs in models that are and are not adjusted for competing risks. PMID: 22185783 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The cornell-brown scale for quality of life in dementia: spanish adaptation and validation.
This study is the first to report the factor structure of the CBS. These results indicate that CBS is a useful tool in assessing persons with dementia. Replication of these results with larger samples is advised. The Spanish version of the CBS is reliable and valid in persons with mild/moderate dementia who are living at home and with a known caregiver. PMID: 22193352 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Montreal cognitive assessment: validation study for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.
This study aims to validate the MoCA for screening Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) through an analysis of diagnostic accuracy and the proposal of cut-offs. Patients were classified into 2 clinical groups according to standard criteria: MCI (n=90) and AD (n=90). The 2 control groups (C-MCI: n=90; C-AD: n=90) consisted of cognitively healthy community dwellers selected to match patients in sex, age, and education. The MoCA showed consistently superior psychometric properties compared with the MMSE, and higher diagnostic accuracy to discriminate between MCI (area under the curve=0.856; 95% confidenc...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Prior transient ischemic attack and dementia after subsequent ischemic stroke.
Authors: Jacquin A, Aboa-Eboulé C, Rouaud O, Osseby GV, Binquet C, Durier J, Moreau T, Bonithon-Kopp C, Giroud M, Béjot Y Abstract Although functional recovery and survival after ischemic stroke seem to improve in patients with prior transient ischemic attack (TIA), little is known about the effect of prior TIA on poststroke cognition. To evaluate the impact of prior TIA on dementia, 1697 nonaphasic patients who survived the first month after their first-ever ischemic stroke were identified from the population-based registry of Dijon, France, from 1985 to 2007 and divided into 3 groups according to th...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Subjective cognitive complaints of older adults at the population level: an item response theory analysis.
Authors: Snitz BE, Yu L, Crane PK, Chang CC, Hughes TF, Ganguli M Abstract Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) are increasingly a focus in studies on prodromal Alzheimer disease (AD) and risk for dementia. Little is known about the optimal approach to measure SCCs. We used item response theory (IRT) to examine the characteristics of 24 SCC items in a sample of 3495 older adults pooled from 4 community-based studies. We investigated the potential advantages of IRT scoring over conventional scoring on the basis of participants' item response patterns. Items most likely endorsed by individuals low in SCC severity r...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Determinants of care costs of patients with dementia or cognitive impairment.
CONCLUSIONS: : Cognitive functioning and instrumental activities of daily living are important variables to include in health care decision models. We recommend also including caregiver burden and patient sex in decision models for health policy decision makers to fully reflect the heterogeneity of the disease progression of cognitive disorders. PMID: 22214890 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Characterization of apathy in persons with frontotemporal dementia and the impact on family caregivers.
In conclusion, apathy has been defined as a condition of diminished motivation that is difficult to operationalize. Among patients with frontotemporal dementia, apathy was associated with lower levels of activity, greater number of bouts of immobility, and longer immobility bout duration. Apathy and diminished daytime activity appeared to have an impact on the caregiver. Objective measures of behavioral output may help in formulation of a more precise definition of apathy. PMID: 22261729 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Scales for the evaluation of end-of-life care in advanced dementia: sensitivity to change.
This study extends the psychometric properties of the EOLD scales by showing the sensitivity to clinically meaningful change in these scales to specific outcomes related to end-of-life care and quality of life among residents with end-stage advanced dementia and their HCPs. PMID: 22273800 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Maternal transmission of Alzheimer disease.
Authors: Heggeli KA, Crook J, Thomas C, Graff-Radford N Abstract Some researchers propose maternal Alzheimer disease (AD) inheritance. We compared dementia family histories in AD cases and cognitively normal controls. We expected more mothers to have AD in both groups. If maternal risk was not only due to female longevity, more AD cases' than controls' mothers should have dementia. We matched 196 AD cases to 200 controls by sex and age. We obtained parent dementia status and age of death for 348 AD and 319 control parents. Twenty-four (12%) controls' fathers, 26 (13%) AD patients' fathers, 58 (29%) controls' mother...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

The impact of dementia severity on caregiver burden in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer disease.
This study is the first to show that caregivers of SemDem, PNFA, and AD patients show similar burden, while confirming that bvFTD caregivers show higher burden than AD caregivers. More importantly, this study demonstrates that burden worsens with disease progression in FTD. PMID: 22314247 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Predicting the Risk of Dementia Among Canadian Seniors: A Useable Practice-friendly Diagnostic Algorithm.
Authors: Meng X, D'Arcy C, Morgan D, Mousseau DD Abstract Research has not provided feasible models to identify dementia in primary care. We construct a broadly based diagnostic algorithm synthesizing information from known risk factors, such as poor cognition, sociodemographic factors, and health history. Data were from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA) Phase I. Dementia was diagnosed by clinical consensus. All subjects had a Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score and a Modified MMSE (3MS) score. Multiple logistic regression was used to build our diagnostic algorithm, which was then tested for clas...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Hippocampal atrophy and ventricular enlargement in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Apostolova LG, Green AE, Babakchanian S, Hwang KS, Chou YY, Toga AW, Thompson PM Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia worldwide. Hippocampal atrophy and ventricular enlargement have been associated with AD but also with normal aging. We analyzed 1.5-T brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 46 cognitively normal elderly individuals (NC), 33 mild cognitive impairment and 43 AD patients. Hippocampal and ventricular analyses were conducted with 2 novel semiautomated segmentation approaches followed by the radial distance mapping technique. Multiple linear regression was used ...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Correlation of amyloid PET ligand florbetapir F 18 binding with Aβ aggregation and neuritic plaque deposition in postmortem brain tissue.
CONCLUSIONS: Florbetapir F 18 selectively binds Aβ in human brain tissue. The binding intensity was quantitatively correlated with the density of Aβ plaques identified by standard neuropathologic techniques and correlated with the density of Aβ measured by immunohistochemistry. As Aβ plaques are a defining neuropathologic feature for Alzheimer disease, these results support the use of florbetapir F 18 as an amyloid positron emission tomography ligand to identify the presence of Alzheimer disease pathology in patients with signs and symptoms of progressive late-life cognitive impairment. PMID: 223541...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Falls and risk factors for falls in community-dwelling adults with dementia (NutriAlz trial).
Authors: Salvà A, Roqué M, Rojano X, Inzitari M, Andrieu S, Schiffrin EJ, Guigoz Y, Vellas B Abstract To estimate the number of fallers and risk factors for falls in a cohort with dementia, we did a secondary analysis of a cluster-randomized controlled trial (NutriAlz) in 11 outpatient and day care centers in Catalonia (Spain) including 626 community-dwelling patients with dementia, followed for 12 months. Participants' characteristics were assessed at baseline, at 6 and 12 months [fall in the earlier 6 mo, anthropometric data, comorbidities, Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating, Ba...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Extended kindred with recessive late-onset Alzheimer disease maps to locus 8p22-p21.2: a genome-wide linkage analysis.
Authors: Baron M, Gomez-Tortosa E, Bochdanovits Z, Gobernado I, Rabano A, Munoz DG, Heutink P, Jimenez-Escrig A Abstract Late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD) is a complex genetic disorder. Although genes involved in early-onset forms were discovered more than a decade ago, LOAD research has only been able to point out small effect loci, with the exception of APOE. We mapped the gene predisposing to LOAD in an extended inbred family coming from a genetically isolated region (24 sampled individuals, 12 of whom are affected), completing a genome-wide screen with an Affymetrix10 K single nucleotide polymorphism microarr...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

An FP-CIT PET Comparison of the Differences in Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss Between Idiopathic Parkinson Disease With Dementia and Without Dementia.
Authors: Song IU, Kim YD, Cho HJ, Chung SW, Chung YA Abstract Previous studies have demonstrated a decreased density of dopamine transporters (DAT) in basal ganglia in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD) using I-n-fluoropropyl-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-(4-iodophenyl) nortropane (FP-CIT), and the reductions in striatal DAT levels were inversely correlated with the severity of motor dysfunction in IPD. However, there has been no study on the correlation of DAT levels between IPD patients with and without cognitive dysfunction. Thus, we evaluated the differences in regional DAT density in the brain of patients w...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Improving burden and coping skills in frontotemporal dementia caregivers: a pilot study.
Authors: Mioshi E, McKinnon C, Savage S, O'Connor CM, Hodges JR PMID: 22354158 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders)
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Patterns of striatal degeneration in frontotemporal dementia.
Authors: Halabi C, Halabi A, Dean DL, Wang PN, Boxer AL, Trojanowski JQ, Dearmond SJ, Miller BL, Kramer JH, Seeley WW Abstract Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and semantic dementia have been associated with striatal degeneration, but few studies have delineated striatal subregion volumes in vivo or related them to the clinical phenotype. We traced caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens on magnetic resonance images to quantify volumes of these structures in behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia, semantic dementia, Alzheimer disease, and healthy controls (n=12 per group). We further related these str...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Magnetic Resonance Imaging in E200K and V210I Mutations of the Prion Protein Gene.
Authors: Breithaupt M, Romero C, Kallenberg K, Begue C, Sanchez-Juan P, Eigenbrod S, Kretzschmar H, Schelzke G, Meichtry E, Taratuto A, Zerr I Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), is a useful diagnostic investigation for Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Amendment of the diagnostic criteria for sporadic CJD (sCJD) to include defined MRI alterations has just recently been proposed. We analyzed MRI scans with FLAIR and/or DWI available of 29 patients with the E200K or the V210I mutation, and a control group of 29 sCJD patients...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Theory of mind and recognition of facial emotion in dementia: challenge to current concepts.
This study challenges the concepts that ToM is preserved in AD and that recognition of facial emotion is impaired in bvFTD. ToM, recognition of facial emotion, and identification of emotions associated with video vignettes were studied in bvFTD, AD, and normal controls. ToM was assessed using false-belief and visual perspective-taking tasks. Identification of facial emotion was tested using Ekman and Friesen's pictures of facial affect. After adjusting for relevant covariates, there were significant ToM deficits in bvFTD and AD compared with controls, whereas neither group was impaired in the identification of emotions ass...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Relating memory to functional performance in normal aging to dementia using hierarchical bayesian cognitive processing models.
Authors: Shankle WR, Pooley JP, Steyvers M, Hara J, Mangrola T, Reisberg B, Lee MD Abstract Determining how cognition affects functional abilities is important in Alzheimer disease and related disorders. A total of 280 patients (normal or Alzheimer disease and related disorders) received a total of 1514 assessments using the functional assessment staging test (FAST) procedure and the MCI Screen. A hierarchical Bayesian cognitive processing model was created by embedding a signal detection theory model of the MCI Screen-delayed recognition memory task into a hierarchical Bayesian framework. The signal detection theo...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

MR, 18F-FDG, and 18F-AV45 PET Correlate With AD PSEN1 Original Phenotype.
We report the case of a 37-year-old man suffering from insidious visual agnosia and spastic paraparesis due to a PSEN1 mutation. His mother was diagnosed with Alzheimer disease after a biopsy. He was assessed by multimodal neuroimaging, including new in vivo positron emission tomography amyloid imaging (F-AV45). His data were compared with those from healthy participants and patients with sporadic predemential Alzheimer disease. He exhibited posterior cortical thickness reduction, posterior hypometabolism, and increased amyloid ligand uptake in the posterior cortex and the striatum. We show that F-AV45 positron emission to...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Microbleeds in Postmortem Brains of Patients With Alzheimer Disease: A T2*-weighted Gradient-Echo 7.0 T Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study.
This study aims to determine the distribution and to quantify microbleeds (MBs) in postmortem brains of patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) on T2*-weighted gradient-echo 7.0 T magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-eight AD brains were compared with 5 controls. The AD brains were subdivided further: 18 without and 10 with additional severe cerebral amyloid angiopathy (AD-CAA). The distribution and the number of cortical focal signal intensity losses, representing MBs, were assessed on coronal sections at the frontal, the central, and the occipital level of a cerebral hemisphere. MBs prevailed in the central sections (P=0.005)...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Spongiform Change in Dementia With Lewy Bodies and Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Sherzai A, Edland SD, Masliah E, Hansen L, Pizzo DP, Sherzai A, Corey-Bloom J Abstract BACKGROUND:: Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is characterized neuropathologically by brainstem and cortical Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites, neuronal loss in brainstem nuclei, and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology. Previous studies have suggested that spongiform change in the entorhinal cortex may also be a pathologic feature; however, this change has not been well characterized. DESIGN/METHOD:: An autopsy series of 40 subjects with DLB and 40 subjects with AD were matched on age, sex, and last Mini Mental State Examination...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

COGNOS: Care for People With Cognitive Dysfunction: A National Observational Study.
COGNOS: Care for People With Cognitive Dysfunction: A National Observational Study. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2012 Apr 25; Authors: Mets T, De Deyn PP, Pals P, De Lepeleire J, Vandewoude M, Ventura M, Ivanoiu A, Albert A, Seghers AK, on behalf of the COGNOS group Abstract Care plans are intended to improve the independence and functioning of patients with cognitive dysfunction and support the caregivers involved. They are an integral part of the Belgian reimbursement procedure for cholinesterase inhibitors. This nationwide, multicenter, observational study examined the content and implementation of the ca...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research

Male Sex Hormones and Systemic Inflammation in Alzheimer Disease.
Authors: Butchart J, Birch B, Bassily R, Wolfe L, Holmes C Abstract Several studies have shown that the levels of sex hormones in men with Alzheimer disease (AD) differ from men without AD. Therefore, male sex hormones have been postulated as risk modifiers in AD, possibly through immunomodulatory effects on known inflammatory AD risk factors, such as tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). We conducted a cross-sectional study of sex hormones and TNF-α levels in 94 community-dwelling men with AD. Comparisons were made with normal values derived from the literature. Men with AD had lower free testosterone...
Source: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders - March 9, 2013 Category: Psychiatry Tags: Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord Source Type: research