Xanthatin Induces Leishmanicidal Activity by  Affecting Carbon Metabolism in Amastigotes

Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania and spread by sandflies. The standard therapy for this ailment is the first-line medication of pentavalent antimonial and the second drug line of pentamidine amphotericin B. All are practiced over the years and exhibit adverse toxicity effects. Herbal product-derived medicine is a promising potential source for treating parasitic diseases. Xanthatin, a xanthanolide sesquiterpene lactone, is isolated from Xanthium strumarium L. treats several ailments in many countries. In the present study, we investigated the leishmanicidal activity of the xanthatin by using a metabolomics-based analysis in J774 macrophages and amastigotes phases in Leishmania major. Xanthatin was isolated and identified by NMR spectroscopy. Macrophage toxicity of xanthatin performed by MTT assay. Macrophages infected by the L. major's promastigote stationary phase, the infection rate (IR), and multiplication index (MI) were calculated. Axenic amastigotes were treated with xanthatin. Cell quenching and metabolite extraction were performed, and the metabolome profile was analyzed with NMR spectroscopy. Outliers were classified by using multivariate statistical analysis software, and relevant metabolites and pathways were worked out. The xanthatin IC50 rate defined 0.75µg/mL base on macrophages viability and also in-vitro activity of xanthatin on amastigotes showed the best leishmanicidal activity in ...
Source: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research

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Contributors : Kalesh Karunakaran ; Wenbin WeiSeries Type : Expression profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Leishmania mexicanaWe compared the relative abundance of RNAs in the UV- cross-linked (CL) and non-cross-linked (NC) samples using total RNA-seq of both promastigotes and axenic amastigotes of L. mexicana parasites. Irradiation of the Leishmania parasites with UV-dose of 525 mJ/cm2 followed by sequential AGPC phase partitioning and proteinase-treatment of the final interface provided the CL samples for the RNA-seq analyses. The abundance of RNA species in CL and NC samples were different; ncRNAs and prot...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Expression profiling by high throughput sequencing Leishmania mexicana Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we disclose the conservation of the active site and interface regions, but also unique features of LbGS showing the potential of XLMS to probe structural information and explore new drugs.PMID:35019070 | DOI:10.1590/0074-02760210209
Source: Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
The parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas’ disease; both heme and ionic Fe are required for its optimal growth, differentiation, and invasion. Fe is an essential cofactor in many metabolic pathways. Fe is also harmful due to catalyzing the formation of reactive O2 species; for this reason, all living systems develop mechanisms to control the uptake, metabolism, and storage of Fe. However, there is limited information available on Fe uptake by T. cruzi. Here, we identified a putative 39-kDa Fe transporter in T. cruzi genome, TcIT, homologous to the Fe transporter in Leishmania amazonensis and Arabidopsis thaliana. ...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Dogs are the reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, the agent of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is transmitted by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. The sand fly Phlebotomus perniciosus is the main...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Short report Source Type: research
Leishmaniasis is endemic in Tunisia and presents with different clinical forms, caused by the species Leishmania infantum, Leishmania major, and Leishmania tropica. The life cycle of Leishmania is complex and inv...
Source: Parasites and Vectors - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
In this report 5 compounds were synthesized and structural and their photophysical characterization was performed (ΦΔ and Φf). Furthermore, in this in vitro study, their biological activity against Leishmania panamensis was evaluated. The photophysical behavior of these compounds was measured and high ΦΔ and low Φf was observed. Besides, DFT quantum calculations on the electronic structures were performed. Finally, the biological activity was determined by means of the compounds capacity to inhibit the viability of parasites using the MTT assay. The inclusion of the metal ions substantially modi...
Source: Biometals - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Infect Genet Evol. 2022 Jan 3:105203. doi: 10.1016/j.meegid.2021.105203. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTLeishmaniasis is a disease of the subtropical and tropical spheres of the earth and has various clinical manifestations. The different form of leishmaniasis includes cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, most lethal visceral leishmaniasis and PKDL form. These different forms depend on many factors such as parasite and vector species, geographical, environmental conditions and population ethnicity. Host genetic factors have been widely investigated for their role in developing the disease in various infecti...
Source: Infection, Genetics and Evolution - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Source Type: research
J Biol Inorg Chem. 2022 Jan 4. doi: 10.1007/s00775-021-01919-y. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTIn a quest to discover new formulations for the treatment of various parasitic diseases, a series of heteroleptic triorganobismuth(V) biscarboxylates of type [BiR3(O2CR')2], where R=C6H5 for 1-4 and p-CH3C6H4 for 5-8, were synthesized, characterized and evaluated for their biological potential against L. tropica. All the synthesized complexes were fully characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, multinuclear (1H and 13C) NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. The crystal structures for [BiPh3(O2CC6H4(o-Br))2] (1), [BiPh3(O2C...
Source: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry : JBIC - Category: Chemistry Authors: Source Type: research
Leishmaniasis continues to afflict known and newer endemic sites despite global efforts towards its control and elimination. In this regard, the emergence of newer endemic sites with unusual disease formats is recognized wherein Leishmania donovani complex classically known to cause visceral disease is demonstrated to cause cutaneous manifestation. In this context, atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) cases caused by L. donovani genetic variants from the newer endemic state of Himachal Pradesh (HP) in India are beginning to be understood in terms of parasite determinants. The atypical CL manifestation further needs to be ...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Leishmania infantum, the etiological agent of canine leishmaniosis (CanL) in Europe, was responsible of the largest outbreak of human leishmaniosis in Spain. The parasite infects and survives within myeloid lineage cells, causing a potentially fatal disease if left untreated. The only treatment option relies on chemotherapy, although immunotherapy strategies are being considered as novel approaches to prevent progression of the disease. To this aim, a deeper characterization of the molecular mechanisms behind the immunopathogenesis of leishmaniosis is necessary. Thus, we evaluated, for the first time, the host immune respo...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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