Hide and Seek: The Interplay Between Zika Virus and the Host Immune Response

Zika virus (ZIKV) received worldwide attention over the past decade when outbreaks of the disease were found to be associated with severe neurological syndromes and congenital abnormalities. Unlike most other flaviviruses, ZIKV can spread through sexual and transplacental transmission, adding to the complexity of Zika pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. In addition, the spread of ZIKV in flavivirus-endemic regions, and the high degree of structural and sequence homology between Zika and its close cousin Dengue have raised questions on the interplay between ZIKV and the pre-existing immunity to other flaviviruses and the potential immunopathogenesis. The Zika epidemic peaked in 2016 and has affected over 80 countries worldwide. The re-emergence of large-scale outbreaks in the future is certainly a possibility. To date, there has been no approved antiviral or vaccine against the ZIKV. Therefore, continuing Zika research and developing an effective antiviral and vaccine is essential to prepare the world for a future Zika epidemic. For this purpose, an in-depth understanding of ZIKV interaction with many different pathways in the human host and how it exploits the host immune response is required. For successful infection, the virus has developed elaborate mechanisms to escape the host response, including blocking host interferon response and shutdown of certain host cell translation. This review provides a summary on the key host factors that facilitate ZIKV entry and replicatio...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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In this study, we exposed apically well-differentiated human NECs cultured at the ALI to the related flaviviruses ZIKV, JEV, WNV, and Usutu virus (USUV). We selected these viruses due to the recent increasing evidences of potential threat to humans (Cadar et al., 2017; Simonin et al., 2018). We show that NECs are particularly susceptible to JEV and WNV infection and to other flaviviruses included in this study. Infection with each virus led to shedding of infectious virus particles through the apical and basolateral surfaces and triggered host mechanisms at the level of inflammatory and antiviral mediators. Given...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we evaluated ATA as a potential antiviral drug against ZIKV replication. The antiviral activity of ATA against ZIKV replication in vitro showed median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 13.87 ± 1.09 μM and 33.33 ± 1.13 μM in Vero and A549 cells, respectively; without showing any cytotoxic effect in both cell lines (median cytotoxic concentration (CC50)> 1,000 μM). Moreover, ATA protected both cell types from ZIKV-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) and apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In addition, pre-treatment of Vero cells with ATA for up to 72 h also resulted...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusions Surveillance, risk assessment, and intervention were strengthened throughout Malaysia in response to the 2016 outbreak of ZIKV in neighboring Singapore. The Malaysian Ministry of Health undertook regular surveillance from June 2015 during the South American outbreak, but no ZIKV was detected in 784 samples tested up to August 2016 (https://kpkesihatan.com/2016/08/28/kenyataan-akhbar-kpk-28-ogos-2016-situasi-terkini-virus-zika-di-malaysia/). However, during the peak of the 2016 Singapore ZIKV outbreak from September through December 2016, eight out of 849 samples tested were positive for ZIKV (https://kpkesiha...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Zika virus’ status as a global health threat may officially be over, but the disease’s impact is far from contained.  The World Health Organization decided in November to end its designation of Zika virus as a public health emergency, but that doesn’t mean that Zika virus has disappeared, explained Dr. Carlos Pardo-Villamizar, a clinical neurologist with an expertise in infectious disorders at Johns Hopkins Medicine. Alongside pressing concerns about how to prevent a resurgence of the disease, health care systems in Brazil and other countries that saw births of babies infected with the disease in ute...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
Funding Opportunity ID: 287737 Opportunity Number: CDC-RFA-CK11-11060501SUPP16 Opportunity Title: CDC Mexico Co-Ag for Surveillance &EpidemiologyOpportunity Category: DiscretionaryOpportunity Category Explanation: Funding Instrument Type: Cooperative AgreementCategory of Funding Activity: HealthCategory Explanation: CFDA Number(s): 93.283Eligible Applicants: Others (see text field entitled "Additional Information on Eligibility" for clarification)Additional Information on Eligibility: Single Source competition for FUMEC. Directed award for bi-national vector surveillance efforts.Agency Code: HHS-CDC-N...
Source: Grants.gov - Category: Research Tags: Health Source Type: funding
Introduction The impacts of rubella infection during pregnancy have been recognized since the pioneering work of Norman Gregg following introductions of this pathogen into communities in Australia during the Second World War1. Theoretical research into the characteristics of the population burden of pathogens with this unique manifestation followed2; and the teratogenic outcomes of rubella3 and their implications across diverse demographic, epidemiological and control settings4,5,6,7 are currently well described. In particular, in an endemic setting, incomplete vaccination coverage can lead to an increase in the teratogeni...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
Discussion Prior to its emergence in Latin America in 2015–2016, Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific islands. An extension of its apparent global dispersion may be enabled by climate conditions suitable to support the population growth of A. aegypti and A. albopictus mosquitoes over an expanding geographical range. In addition, increased globalisation continues to pose a risk for the spread of infection. Further, suspicions of alternative modes of virus transmission (sexual and vertical), if proven, provide a platform for outbreaks in mosquito non...
Source: Infectious Diseases of Poverty - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Follow me at @JohnRossMD Last week, the government of El Salvador gave what might be the strangest public health advice of all time: don’t get pregnant for the next two years. Officials in Colombia, Ecuador, and Jamaica have also warned women to avoid pregnancy, although only for the next several months. The reason for these unusual recommendations? An outbreak of Zika virus, currently raging in 21 countries in the Americas and the Caribbean, as well as the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Samoa, and Cape Verde. Until recently, Zika was an obscure virus, confined to equatorial Africa and Asia, an...
Source: New Harvard Health Information - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Children's Health Family Planning and Pregnancy Infectious diseases Prevention Safety Source Type: news
The rapid spread of Zika virus through the Americas, together with the association of infection with microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome, have propelled this previously ignored virus into the limelight. What is this virus and where did it come from? History Zika virus was first identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey that was being used to monitor for the presence of yellow fever virus in the Zika Forest of Uganda. At this time cell lines were not available for studying viruses, so serum from the febrile monkey was inoculated intracerebrally into mice. All the mice became sick, and the virus isolated ...
Source: virology blog - Category: Virology Authors: Tags: Basic virology Information Brazil congenital defect Dengue flavivirus Guillain-Barré microcephaly mosquito vaccine viral viruses yellow fever virus Zika zika virus Source Type: blogs
A mosquito-borne virus that may have caused serious birth defects for thousands of babies in Brazil made its way to Puerto Rico by the end of last year, and experts are grappling with what this means -- if anything -- for North America. Zika has been characterized in the past as an annoying but generally harmless sickness, with symptoms like rash, fever, joint-pain and red eyes. In fact, about one in four who get infected with disease probably don't even notice they have it. But when the virus became widespread in Brazil in 2015, with an estimated 500,000 to 1.5 million residents contracting Zika, health officials noticed ...
Source: Science - The Huffington Post - Category: Science Source Type: news
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