Is methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus a common pathogen in ventilation-associated pneumonia?: The experience of a tertiary teaching hospital in Jordan

Abstract: Ventilator-associated pneumonia is a life threatening device related infection in intensive care units. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considered a common contagious pathogen causing pneumonia and sepsis. To assess the prevalence of S aureus in comparison to other pathogens, and their antibacterial sensitivity profile in ventilator-associated pneumonia. Data regarding ventilator-associated pneumonia of adults admitted to the intensive care unit, at the Jordan University of Science and Technology Hospital, between 2012 and 2018 were extracted from the computerized system. Microorganisms and their susceptibility profiles were identified according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. There were 547 isolates, of which 35 (6.4%) were Gram positive, 59% were methicillin resistant. Gram-negative isolates were present in 507 (92.6%) isolates, of which 82% were multidrug resistant, and 1% were Candida species. Gram-negative bacterial infections were significantly associated with ventilation usage. S aureus was not the predominant pathogen.
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news

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Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Reissier S, Cattoir V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Streptogramins (pristinamycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin) can be interesting options for the treatment of infections due to Gram-positive cocci, especially multidrug-resistant isolates. AREAS COVERED: This review provides an updated overview on structural and activity characteristics, mechanisms of action and resistance, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical use of streptogramins. EXPERT OPINION: The streptogramin antibiotics act by inhibition of the bacterial protein synthesis. They are composed of two chemically distinct compounds, namely typ...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 9 October 2020Source: Journal of Genetics and GenomicsAuthor(s): Bing Song, Chunyu Liu, Yang Gao, Jordan Lee Marley, Weiyu Li, Xiaoqin Ni, Wangjie Liu, Yujie Chen, Fuxi Zhu, Huan Wu, Mingrong Lv, Qing Tan, Jiajia Wang, Chao Wang, Ping Zhou, Zhaolian Wei, Xiaojin He, Feng Zhang, Yunxia Cao
Source: Journal of Genetics and Genomics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
Abstract The main aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of an air membrane bioreactor (aMBR) for the treatment of gas-phase methanol. A laboratory-scale hollow fiber aMBR was operated for 150 days, at inlet methanol concentrations varying between 2 and 30 g m-3 and at empty bed residence times (EBRT) of 30, 10 and 5 s. Under steady-state conditions, a maximum methanol removal efficiency (RE) of 98% was obtained at an EBRT of 30 s and a decrease in RE of methanol was observed at lower EBRTs. On increasing the inlet loading rate, some portion of gas-phase MeOH was stripped into the li...
Source: Chemosphere - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Chemosphere Source Type: research
Publication date: October 2020Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, Volume 89Author(s): William H. Walker, O. Hecmarie Meléndez-Fernández, Jordan L. Pascoe, Ning Zhang, A. Courtney DeVries
Source: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Authors: Tamai H, Shingaki N, Ida Y, Shimizu R, Maeshima S, Okamura J, Kawashima A, Nakao T, Hara T, Matsutani H, Nishikawa I, Higashi K Abstract BACKGROUND: Although clinical use of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin has been approved for patients infected with genotype 2 hepatitis C virus, patients ≥ 75-years-old have not been included in previous clinical trials. AIM: To evaluate the real-world safety and efficacy of sofosbuvir plus ribavirin for elderly patients (≥ 75-years-old) compared to nonelderly patients, we conducted a post-marketing prospective cohort study. METHODS: We treated 265 patients with ge...
Source: World Journal of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: World J Hepatol Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The ultrasonography measure of right liver lobe diameter by itself can reliably identify patients with NAFLD with a good sensitivity and specificity, however, this can be improved by adding the LAP mathematical index in our population. PMID: 33031969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Annals of Hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Ann Hepatol Source Type: research
Authors: Yamaya T, Baba T, Hagiwara E, Ikeda S, Niwa T, Kitayama T, Murohashi K, Higa K, Sato Y, Ogura T Abstract Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been recognized as a worldwide pandemic. However, the clinical course of COVID-19 remains poorly characterized. Although some cases of pneumothorax have been reported, they all had pulmonary complications or were managed with mechanical ventilation. We herein report a case of pneumothorax that developed even though the patient had no pulmonary underlying diseases and had never been managed with mechanical ventilation. In the present case, a lung bulla was found on...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
Authors: Takahashi M, Horio Y, Takihara T, Enokida K, Miyaoka M, Hirabayashi K, Ohshinden K, Hattori S, Takahashi F, Takahashi G, Tanaka J, Takiguchi H, Niimi K, Ito Y, Hayama N, Oguma T, Asano K Abstract A 72-year-old man was treated with prednisolone and cyclosporine A for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A nodule with a diameter of 19 mm was found in the right lung and diagnosed as lung squamous cell carcinoma. Anti-cancer treatments were not performed because of the presence of advanced interstitial pneumonia and chronic respiratory failure. Cyclosporine A was tapered to avoid suppression of anti-tumor immunity, ...
Source: Internal Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Intern Med Source Type: research
This study investigated antibacterial-producing Streptomyces isolated from the gut of estuarine fish Chanos chanos, emphasizing screening for the producer of peptide-containing antibacterial compounds. Eighteen isolates were found during preliminary screening, in which four isolates showed the best antibacterial activities. Based on the morphological, physiological, and biochemical characterization, as well as 16S rRNA partial sequencing, all of the four isolates belonged to Streptomyces. Three isolates were suspected as novel isolate candidates based on homology presentations and phylogenetic tree analysis. Disk-diffusion...
Source: International Journal of Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Tags: Int J Microbiol Source Type: research
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