Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1115: Resistance to Molecularly Targeted Therapies in Melanoma

Cancers, Vol. 13, Pages 1115: Resistance to Molecularly Targeted Therapies in Melanoma Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers13051115 Authors: Meet Patel Adam Eckburg Shahina Gantiwala Zachary Hart Joshua Dein Katie Lam Neelu Puri Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer with invasive growth patterns. In 2021, 106,110 patients are projected to be diagnosed with melanoma, out of which 7180 are expected to die. Traditional methods like surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy are not effective in the treatment of metastatic and advanced melanoma. Recent approaches to treat melanoma have focused on biomarkers that play significant roles in cell growth, proliferation, migration, and survival. Several FDA-approved molecular targeted therapies such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have been developed against genetic biomarkers whose overexpression is implicated in tumorigenesis. The use of targeted therapies as an alternative or supplement to immunotherapy has revolutionized the management of metastatic melanoma. Although this treatment strategy is more efficacious and less toxic in comparison to traditional therapies, targeted therapies are less effective after prolonged treatment due to acquired resistance caused by mutations and activation of alternative mechanisms in melanoma tumors. Recent studies focus on understanding the mechanisms of acquired resistance to these current therapies. Further research is needed for the development of bett...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Technol Cancer Res Treat. 2021 Jan-Dec;20:15330338211039952. doi: 10.1177/15330338211039952.ABSTRACTCholangiocarcinoma is a general term for intrahepatic and extrahepatic malignant tumors deriving in the biliary system. According to the location, it is divided into intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, hilar cholangiocarcinoma, and distal cholangiocarcinoma. Progressive cholangiocarcinoma yields poor outcomes with radiotherapy; therefore, there is an urgent need for new therapeutic breakthroughs. Immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI) therapy brings the treatment for cancer into a new field, with the use of drugs targeting PD-1/PD-L...
Source: Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
This article will review background data establishing efficacy of angiogenesis inhibitors and immunotherapy in the treatment of cervical cancer as well as results of prospective studies combining targeted therapies with standard CRT with the aim of improving outcomes. In addition, the role of immunotherapy and radiation on the tumor microenvironment (TME) will be discussed.
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The results of this review suggest that there are no important differences in OS when comparing the different current treatment modalities. Most of the differences found seem to be explained by the heterogenicity of the different studies and the presence of biases in their design, rather than actual extensions of patient survival.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: The random effects model showed comparable grade 3-4 toxicity in using ICI + RT compared to ICI alone in CNS melanoma metastases, NSCLC, and prostate cancer. ICI + RT is safe for future clinical trials in these cancers. PMID: 32717359 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Radiotherapy and Oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology - Category: Radiology Authors: Tags: Radiother Oncol Source Type: research
Abstract Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a remarkably aggressive thoracic malignancy with a limited survival of only 5-12 months. However, MPM still remains unresponsive to conventional standards of treatment, including pleurectomy and decortication, extrapleural pneumonectomy for resectable disease with or without chemotherapy, and/or radiation therapy. The mechanism of carcinogenesis has not been fully elucidated, although approximately 80% of cases can still be linked to asbestos exposure. The tumor immune microenvironment (TME) has been proven to play an important role in MPM pathogenesis and treatment...
Source: Current Drug Targets - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Curr Drug Targets Source Type: research
ConclusionPatients with CNS metastases from melanoma remain a population with high unmet medical need despite recent advances in treatment. Systemic treatments (eg, BRAF ‐targeted therapy and immunotherapy) and stereotactic radiosurgery demonstrated meaningful but modest improvements in OS. Further explorations of combinations of radiotherapy, BRAF‐targeted therapies, and immunotherapies are needed.
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL RESEARCH Source Type: research
ConclusionsCurrent clinical trials are exploring combination therapy and novel treatment strategies beyond immune checkpoint therapies and vaccine therapy such as CAR T cells. There is also an effort to establish synergy between immunotherapy and current standard of care. Furthermore, recent advances in personalized neoantigen vaccines suggest a shift towards personalized, patient-specific GBM treatment.
Source: Journal of Neuro-Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
To treat melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer, doctors have turned to surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and even immunotherapy, among other treatment options.
Source: CNN.com - Health - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
AbstractPurposeAnal mucosal melanoma is an uncommon malignancy of the anal canal, with few large studies available to establish clear trends in the treatment modalities presently available. The primary goal of this study was to identify the patterns of care in the treatment of anal melanoma and secondarily to determine outcomes.MethodsThis was a retrospective study performed utilizing the National Cancer Database (NCDB). A total of 787 patients diagnosed with anal melanoma between 2004 and 2014 were selected, of which 398 had staging information. The four treatment groups analyzed were surgical excision alone, surgical exc...
Source: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
This study was supported by the Shanghai Sailing Program [grant number 17YF1425200, 2017]; Chinese National Natural Science Funding [grant number 81702249, 2017]; Science and Technology Commission of Shanghai Municipality [grant number 17511103403, 2017]; The funder has no role in the study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Conflict of Interest Statement The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We acknowledge the ex...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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