How to distinguish between different cell lineages sharing common markers using combinations of double in-situ-hybridization and immunostaining in avian embryos: CXCR4-positive mesodermal and neural crest-derived cells

In this study, we present a new method for the simultaneous detection of CXCR4, mesodermal markers and NCCs markers during chicken embryo developmental stages HH18 –HH25 by combining double whole-mount in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunostaining on floating vibratome sections. The simultaneous detection of CXCR4 and markers for the mesodermal and neural crest cells in multiple labelling allowed us to compare complex gene expression patterns and it could b e easily used for a wide range of gene expression pattern analyses of other chicken embryonic tissues. All steps of the procedure, including the preparation of probes and embryos, prehybridization, hybridization, visualization of the double labelled transcripts and immunostaining, are described in d etail.
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

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Sabine L. Laguë, Catherine M. Ivy, Julia M. York, Beverly A. Chua, Luis Alza, Rebecca Cheek, Neal J. Dawson, Peter B. Frappell, Anthony P. Farrell, Kevin G. McCracken, Graham R. Scott, and William K. Milsom The cardiovascular system is critical for delivering O2 to tissues. Here, we examined the cardiovascular responses to progressive hypoxia in four high-altitude Andean duck species compared with four related low-altitude populations in North America, tested at their native altitude. Ducks were exposed to stepwise decreases in inspired partial pressure of O2 while we monitored heart rate, O2 consumption rate, blood O2 ...
Source: Journal of Experimental Biology - Category: Biology Authors: Tags: RESEARCH ARTICLE Source Type: research
Abstract The authors of the original challenge hypothesis proposed influential hypotheses concerning the relationship between testosterone concentrations in the blood and aggressive social behaviors. Many of the key observations were made in avian species studied in the wild and in captivity. In this review we evaluate some remaining questions about the ideas discussed in the challenge hypothesis from a neuroendocrine perspective. For example, a rise in testosterone in response to a social aggressive stimulus might involve complex social information being processed by the brain and an appropriate signal sent to th...
Source: Hormones and Behavior - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Horm Behav Source Type: research
Reena Goswami1, Gayatri Subramanian2, Liliya Silayeva1, Isabelle Newkirk1, Deborah Doctor1, Karan Chawla2, Saurabh Chattopadhyay2, Dhyan Chandra3, Nageswararao Chilukuri1 and Venkaiah Betapudi1,4* 1Neuroscience Branch, Research Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, Aberdeen, MD, United States 2Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, University of Toledo College of Medicine and Life Sciences, Toledo, OH, United States 3Roswell Park Comprehensive Cancer Center, Buffalo, NY, United States 4Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Case Western Reserve University, Clev...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, a link between mitochondrial changes and infant temperament has also been suggested. Maternal psychosocial stress and lifetime trauma have been associated with decreased mitochondrial DNA copy number in the placenta (115, 116).IndividualityChronic stress links changes in the epigenetic landscape with health conditions (117). Different cell types are characterized by distinct patterns of gene expression due to developmental, environmental, physiological, and pathological reasons (117). Epigenetic mechanisms affect gene function in a dynamic way as a result of different environmental exposures during fetal dev...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
AbstractMany developmental disorders of the inner ear are manifested clinically as delayed motor development and challenges in maintaining posture and balance, indicating involvement of central vestibular circuits. How the vestibular circuitry is rewired in pediatric cases is poorly understood due to lack of a suitable animal model. Based on this, our lab designed and validated a chick embryo model to study vestibular development in congenital vestibular disorders. The developing inner ear or “otocyst” on the right side of 2-day-old chick embryos (E2) was surgically rotated 180° in the anterior–poster...
Source: JARO - Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology - Category: ENT & OMF Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2018Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - General SubjectsAuthor(s): Shuping Li, Fei Gao, Jiaqiang Huang, Yuanyuan Wu, Sen Wu, Xin Gen LeiAbstractBackgroundSelenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient required by avian species. Dietary Se/vitamin E deficiency induces three classical diseases in chicks: exudative diathesis, nutritional pancreatic atrophy, and nutritional muscular dystrophy.Scope of reviewThis review is to summarize and analyze the evolution, regulation, and function of avian selenogenome and selenoproteome and their relationship with the three classical Se/v...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) General Subjects - Category: Biochemistry Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: There are 24 selenoproteins confirmed in chicks, with two avian-specific members (SELENOU and SELENOP2) and two missing mammalian members (GPX6 and SELENOV). There are two forms of SELENOP containing 1 or 13 selenocysteine residues. In addition, a Gallus gallus gene was conjectured to be the counterpart of the human SEPHS2. Expression of selenoprotein genes in the liver, pancreas, and muscle of chicks seemed to be highly responsive to dietary Se changes. Pathogeneses of the Se/vitamin E deficient diseases in the chicks were likely produced by missing functions of selected selenoproteins in regulating cellular ...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Biochim Biophys Acta Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2017 Source:Stem Cell Reports Author(s): Kwaku Dad Abu-Bonsrah, Dongcheng Zhang, Andrew R. Bjorksten, Mirella Dottori, Donald F. Newgreen Adrenomedullary chromaffin cells are catecholamine (CA)-producing cells originating from trunk neural crest (NC) via sympathoadrenal progenitors (SAPs). We generated NC and SAPs from human embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in vitro via BMP2/FGF2 exposure, ascertained by qPCR and immunoexpression of SOX10, ASCL1, TFAP2α, and PHOX2B, and by fluorescence-activated cell sorting selection for p75NTR...
Source: Stem Cell Reports - Category: Stem Cells Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Neuroendocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Original Article Source Type: research
Abstract Whereas it is clear from anatomical studies that all birds have complex interaural canals connecting their middle ears, the effect of interaural coupling on directional hearing has been disputed. A reason for conflicting results in earlier studies may have been that the function of the tympanic ear and hence of the interaural coupling is sensitive to variations in the intracranial air pressure. In awake birds, the middle ears and connected cavities are vented actively through the pharyngotympanic tube. This venting reflex seems to be suppressed in anesthetized birds, leading to increasingly lower pressure...
Source: Biological Cybernetics - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Biol Cybern Source Type: research
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