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In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 18, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Clathrin-independent endocytosis: an increasing degree of complexity
This article aims at providing an update on the complexity of clathrin-independent endocytosis. It is now almost 30  years since we first wrote a review about its existence; at that time many people believed that with the exception of macropinocytosis, which will only be briefly mentioned in this review, all uptake could be accounted for by clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Now it is generally accepted that there are different clathrin-independent mechanisms, some of them regulated by ligands and membrane lipid composition. They can be both dynamin-dependent and -independent, meaning that the uptake cannot be accounted ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 17, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Moving into shape: cell migration during the development and histogenesis of the cerebellum
AbstractThe enormous expansion the vertebrate nervous system goes through from its first anlage to its adult shape and organization goes along with extensive rearrangements of its constituent cells and typical cellular migrations, often over long distances, and by convoluted pathways. Here, I try to summarize how the cells that form the cerebellum move and migrate during normal cerebellar histogenesis. The cerebellum is made up of a limited set of clearly distinguishable classes of cells, some of which are also readily accessible by genetic tools. Its structure and development have been the focus of studies dating back to ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 9, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

From glycophenotyping by (plant) lectin histochemistry to defining functionality of glycans by pairing with endogenous lectins
AbstractAbout 60  years ago, the efforts to identify blood group-specific haemagglutinins in plant extracts by broad-scale testing were beginning to make a large panel of these proteins available as laboratory tools. Their ability to ‘read’ cell surface signals like antibodies do was the reason for W. C. Boyd t o call them lectins, from Latinlegere (to read). These proteins turned out to be as widely present in nature as glycans (polysaccharides or carbohydrate chains of cellular glycoconjugates) are. Since carbohydrates have the virtue to facilitate high-density coding in a minimum of space and lectins (i...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Characterization of the endolysosomal system in human chordoma cell lines: is there a role of lysosomes in chemoresistance of this rare bone tumor?
AbstractChordoma is a rare tumor of the bone derived from remnants of the notochord with pronounced chemoresistance. A common feature of the notochord and chordoma cells is distinct vacuolization. Recently, the notochord vacuole was described as a lysosome-related organelle. Since lysosomes are considered as mediators of drug resistance in cancer, we were interested whether they may also play a role in chemoresistance of chordoma. We characterized the lysosomal compartment in chordoma cell lines by cytochemistry, electron microscopy (ELMI) and mutational analysis of genes essential for the physiology of lysosomes. Furtherm...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Morphology-oriented epigenetic research
AbstractCytosine methylation plays a major role in the regulation of sequential and tissue-specific expression of genes. De novo aberrant DNA methylation and demethylation are also crucial processes in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. The mechanisms of how and when such aberrant methylation and demethylation occur in tumor cells are still obscure, however. To evaluate subtle epigenetic alteration among minor subclonal populations, morphology-oriented epigenetic analysis is requisite, especially where heterogeneity and flexibility are as notable as in the process of cancer progression and cellular differentiation at cri...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The distribution patterns of COMP and matrilin-3 in septal, alar and triangular cartilages of the human nose
In conclusion, COMP and matrilin-3 were detected in mature human nasal cartilage but displayed different staining patterns that might be explained by the functional roles of the respective matrix protein; however, further research is necessary to identify and define the functional aspects of this morphological difference. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Computational simulation and modeling of the blood –brain barrier pathology
AbstractIn silico methods and models in the pathology of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or also called BBB"computational pathology", are based on using mathematical approaches together with complex, high-dimensional experimental data to evaluate and predict disease-related impacts on the CNS. These computational methods and tools have been designed to deal with BBB-linked neuropathology at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and organ levels. The molecular and cellular levels mainly include molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations (atomistic and coarse-grain) of mutated or misfolded tight junction protein...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Confocal micrographs: automated segmentation and quantitative shape analysis of neuronal cells treated with ostreolysin A/pleurotolysin B pore-forming complex
This study aimed to develop a procedure for accurate morphological analysis of cell shape and use it as a tool to estimate toxin activity. With the aim of optimizing the method of cell morphology analysis, we determined the influence of ostreolysin A and pleurotolysin B complex (OlyA/PlyB) on the morphology of murine neuronal NG108-15 cells. A computational method was introduced and successfully applied to quantify morphological attributes of the NG108-15 cell line before and after 30 and 60  min exposure to OlyA/PlyB using confocal microscopy. The modified circularity measure\(C_{2}^{n}(S)\) for shape analysis was ap...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Endorsing cellular competitiveness in aberrant epithelium of oral submucous fibrosis progression: neighbourhood analysis of immunohistochemical attributes
AbstractEpithelial abnormality during the transformation of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) into oral squamous cell carcinoma has been well studied and documented. However, the differential contribution of atrophy and hyperplasia for malignant potentiality of OSF is yet to be resolved. Existing diagnostic conjectures lack precise diagnostic attributes which may be effectively resolved by substantiation of specific molecular pathology signatures. Present study elucidates existence of cellular competitiveness in OSF conditions using computer-assisted neighbourhood analysis in quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) framework. ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 23, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Detection of pro-apoptotic Bax ∆2 proteins in the human cerebellum
AbstractBax ∆2 is a pro-apoptotic protein originally discovered in colon cancer patients with high microsatellite instability. Unlike most pro-apoptotic Bax family members, Bax∆2 mediates cell death through a non-mitochondrial caspase 8-dependent pathway. In the scope of analyzing the distribution of Bax∆ 2 expression in human tissues, we examined a panel of human brain samples. Here, we report four cerebellar cases in which the subjects had no neurological disorder or disease documented. We found Bax∆2 positive cells scattered in all areas of the cerebellum, but most strikingly concentrated in Pur kinje cell bodie...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 17, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Ultra-structure of the sperm head-to-tail linkage complex in the absence of the spermatid-specific LINC component SPAG4
AbstractTight connection between sperm head and tail is crucial for the transport of the male genome and fertilization. The linkage complex, the sperm head-to-tail coupling apparatus (HTCA), originates from the centrosome and anchors to the nuclear membrane. In contrast to its ultra-structural organization, which is already well known for decades, its protein composition largely still awaits future deciphering. SUN-domain proteins are essential components of a complex that links the cytoskeleton to the peripheral nucleoskeleton, which is the nuclear lamina. Here, we studied the impact of the SUN protein SPAG4/SUN4 on the f...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Reduced αGlcNAc glycosylation on gastric gland mucin is a biomarker of malignant potential for gastric cancer, Barrett’s adenocarcinoma, and pancreatic cancer
AbstractGastric gland mucin secreted from pyloric gland cells, mucous neck cells, and cardiac gland cells of the gastric mucosa harbors uniqueO-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linkedN-acetylglucosamine residues ( αGlcNAc), which are primarily attached to the scaffold mucin core protein MUC6. αGlcNAc acts as an antibiotic againstHelicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a microbe causing gastric cancer. In addition, mice deficient inA4gnt, which encodes the enzyme α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase ( α4GnT) that catalyzes αGlcNAc biosynthesis, spontaneously develop gastric differentiated-type ade...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cell cycle of the enamel knot during tooth morphogenesis
In this study, thymidine analogous (IdU, BrdU) staining was used to evaluate the cell cycle phase of the primary EK at the early casp stage (E13.0) and the gerbil embryo (E19) in a developing mouse embryo. The centerpiece of this study was to describe the cell cycle phasing and sequencing during proliferation in the IDE according to the expression of IdU and BrdU following their injection at calculated time points. The interval time between IdU injection and BrdU injection was set at 4  h. As a result, the cell cycle in the IDE of the mouse and gerbil was found to be synchronous. Conversely, the cell cycle in primary ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Soluble mucus component CLCA1 modulates expression of leukotactic cytokines and BPIFA1 in murine alveolar macrophages but not in bone marrow-derived macrophages
AbstractThe secreted airway mucus cell protein chloride channel regulator, calcium-activated  1, CLCA1, plays a role in inflammatory respiratory diseases via as yet unidentified pathways. For example, deficiency of CLCA1 in a mouse model of acute pneumonia resulted in reduced cytokine expression with less leukocyte recruitment and the human CLCA1 was shown to be capable of activating macro phages in vitro. Translation of experimental data between human and mouse models has proven problematic due to several CLCA species-specific differences. We therefore characterized activation of macrophages by CLCA1 in detail in sol...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Protein-bounded uremic toxin p -cresylsulfate induces vascular permeability alternations
AbstractThe goal of the present studies is to investigate that the impact ofp-cresylsulfate (PCS) on the endothelial barrier integrity via in situ exposure and systemic exposure. Vascular permeability changes induced by local injection of PCS were evaluated by the techniques of both Evans blue (EB) and India ink tracer. Rats were intravenously injected with EB or India ink followed by intradermal injections of various doses of PCS (0, 0.4, 2, 10 and 50  µmol/site) on rat back skins. At different time points, skin EB was extracted and quantified. The administration of India ink was used to demonstrate leaky micro...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 28, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Simpson –Golabi–Behmel syndrome human adipocytes reveal a changing phenotype throughout differentiation
This study analyzes SGBS transient phenotypic transformation by quantifying the heterogeneity of LDs, mitochondrial dy namics, and a panel of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation and browning. LDs at 21 days of differentiation were larger than in the previous stages, without any change in the number per cell. The expression of genes such as peroxisome peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, leptin, an d lipase E significantly raised from 0 to 21 days. Adiponectin was significantly upregulated at 14 days of differentiation. Brown-specific marker PR domain containing 16 was highly expressed ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cells with hematopoietic potential reside within mouse proepicardium
AbstractDuring embryonic development, hematopoietic cells are present in areas of blood-vessel differentiation. These hematopoietic cells emerge from a specific subpopulation of endothelial cells called the hemogenic endothelium. We have previously found that mouse proepicardium contained its own population of endothelial cells forming a network of vascular tubules. We hypothesize that this EC population contains cells of hematopoietic potential. Therefore, we investigated an in vitro hematopoietic potential of proepicardial cell populations. The CD31+/CD45−/CD71− cell population cultured for 10 days in Methocu...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Tryptase as a polyfunctional component of mast cells
AbstractMast cells are haematopoietic cells that arise from pluripotent precursors of the bone marrow. They play immunomodulatory roles in both health and disease. When appropriately activated, mast cells undergo degranulation, and preformed granule compounds are rapidly released into the surroundings. In many cases, the effects that mast cells have on various inflammatory settings are closely associated with the enzymatic characteristics of tryptase, the main granule compound of mast cells. Tryptase degranulation is often linked with the development of an immune response, allergy, inflammation, and remodelling of tissue a...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expression of serine peptidase inhibitor Kunitz type 1 in differentiated thyroid cancer
In conclusion, an overexpression of SPINT1 appears to be associated with an invasive phenotype in differentiated thyroid cancer. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB: Hard Tissue Biology
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Biological aspects of tissue-engineered cartilage
AbstractCartilage regenerative medicine has been progressed well, and it reaches the stage of clinical application. Among various techniques, tissue engineering, which incorporates elements of materials science, is investigated earnestly, driven by high clinical needs. The cartilage tissue engineering using a poly lactide scaffold has been exploratorily used in the treatment of cleft lip-nose patients, disclosing good clinical results during 3-year observation. However, to increase the reliability of this treatment, not only accumulation of clinical evidence on safety and usefulness of the tissue-engineered products, but a...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Three-dimensional reconstruction of the intercalated disc including the intercellular junctions by applying volume scanning electron microscopy
In this study, we generated 3-D datasets using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) and focused ion beam SEM (FIB-SEM), the latter resulting in datasets with 5  nm isotropic voxels. We visualized cardiomyocytes in murine ventricular heart tissue and, for the first time, we could three-dimensionally reconstruct the ID including desmosomes and GJs with 5 nm precision in a large volume. Results show in three dimensions a highly folded structure of the ID, w ith the presence of GJs and desmosomes in both plicae and interplicae regions. We observed close contact of GJs with mitochondria and a varia...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Bilateral activation of STAT3 by phosphorylation at the tyrosine-705 (Y705) and serine-727 (S727) positions and its nuclear translocation in primary sensory neurons following unilateral sciatic nerve injury
AbstractUnilateral sciatic nerve compression (SNC) or complete sciatic nerve transection (CSNT), both varying degrees of nerve injury, induced activation of STAT3 bilaterally in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons of lumbar (L4-L5) as well as cervical (C6 –C8) spinal cord segments. STAT3 activation was by phosphorylation at the tyrosine-705 (Y705) and serine-727 (S727) positions and was followed by their nuclear translocation. This is the first evidence of STAT3(S727) activation together with the well-known activation of STAT3(Y705) in primary sens ory neurons upon peripheral nerve injury. Bilateral activation of S...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 28, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Comparative immunohistochemical characterization of interstitial cells in the urinary bladder of human, guinea pig and pig
AbstractInterstitial cells (ICs) are thought to play a functional role in urinary bladder. Animal models are commonly used to elucidate bladder physiology and pathophysiology. However, inter-species comparative studies on ICs are rare. We therefore analyzed ICs and their distribution in the upper lamina propria (ULP), the deeper lamina propria (DLP) and the detrusor muscular layer (DET) of human, guinea pig (GP) and pig. Paraffin slices were examined by immunohistochemistry and 3D confocal immunofluorescence of the mesenchymal intermediate filament vimentin (VIM), alpha-smooth muscle actin ( αSMA), platelet-derived g...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 20, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Origin and development of septoclasts in endochondral ossification of mice
AbstractSeptoclasts are mononuclear spindle-shaped phagocytes with their long processes in uncalcified cartilage matrices and locate adjacent to the capillary endothelium at the chondro-osseous junction of the growth plate. We have previously revealed a selective expression of epidermal-type fatty acid-binding protein (E-FABP/FABP5) in septoclasts. Although, pericytes are known to distribute along capillaries and directly surround their endothelial cells in a situation similar to septoclasts, no clear evidence is available on the relationship between septoclasts and pericytes. We investigated the chronological localization...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 20, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Changes in the axo-glial junctions of the optic nerves of cuprizone-treated mice
AbstractDemyelination induced by cuprizone in mice has served a useful model system for the study of demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. Severity of demyelination by cuprizone, however, varies across different regions of the central nervous system; the corpus callosum is sensitive, while the optic nerves are resistant. Here, we investigated the effects of cuprizone on optic nerves, focusing on the axo-glial junctions. Immunostaining for sodium channels, contactin-associated protein, neurofascins, and potassium channels revealed that there were no massive changes in the density and morphology of the axo-glia...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 19, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nestin expression is differently regulated between odontoblasts and the subodontoblastic layer in mice
AbstractTheNestin gene encodes type VI intermediate filament and is known to be expressed in undifferentiated cells during neurogenesis and myogenesis. To regulateNestin expression, the first or second intron enhancer is activated in a tissue-dependent manner, for example, the former in mesodermal cells and the latter in neural stem cells. AlthoughNestin has also been used as a differentiation marker for odontoblasts during tooth development, howNestin expression is regulated in odontoblasts remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the expression patterns ofNestin-GFP (green fluorescent protein) with that of...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histochemical examination on the peri-implant bone with early occlusal loading after the immediate placement into extraction sockets
AbstractEarly and immediate loading of dental implants has become a routine procedure in dental practices throughout the world, but the histological feature of peri-implant bone has not been fully understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the histological response of peri-implant bone bearing the early occlusal loading using rat models. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were subjected to extraction of their maxillary left first molars and had titanium implants inserted immediately into the post-extraction sockets. In experimental groups at 1  week after placement, implants were loaded for 1 or 2 weeks by adding a...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Fibroblasts potentiate melanoma cells in vitro invasiveness induced by UV-irradiated keratinocytes
In this study, we tested the effect of UV irradiation of normal keratinocytes and their consequent interaction with normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from melanoma, respectively. Using this model of UV influenced microenvironment, we measured melanoma cell migration in 3-D collagen gels. These interactions were studied using DNA microarray technology, immunofluorescence staining, single cell electrophoresis assay, viability (dead/life) cell detection methods, and migration analysis. We observed that three 10  mJ/cm2 fractions at equal intervals over 72  h applied on keratinocytes lead to a 50% increase (p 
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Inflammation, mesenchymal stem cells and bone regeneration
AbstractAchieving satisfactory reconstruction of bone remains an important goal in orthopedic and dental conditions such as bone trauma, osteoporosis, arthritis, osteonecrosis, and periodontitis. Appropriate temporal and spatial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is essential for postnatal bone regeneration. Additionally, an acute inflammatory response is crucial at the onset of bone repair, while an adaptive immune response has important implications during late bone remodeling. Various reports have indicated bidirectional interactions between MSCs and inflammatory cells or molecules. For example, inflammato...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Establishment of a myelinating co-culture system with a motor neuron-like cell line NSC-34 and an adult rat Schwann cell line IFRS1
AbstractCo-culture models of neurons and Schwann cells have been utilized for the study of myelination and demyelination in the peripheral nervous system; in most of the previous studies, however, these cells were obtained by primary culture with embryonic or neonatal animals. A spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell line IFRS1 from long-term cultures of adult Fischer rat peripheral nerves has been shown to retain fundamental ability to myelinate neurites in co-cultures with adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and nerve growth factor-primed PC12 cells. Our current investigation focuses on the establishment of stable co...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Functions of vitamin D in bone
AbstractVitamin D, synthesized in the skin or absorbed from the diet, undergoes multi-step enzymatic conversion to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], followed by interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR), to modulate target gene expression. Loss-of function mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes regulating these processes, or in the VDR, result in human diseases, which have demonstrated the paramount role of 1,25(OH)2D in mineral and skeletal homeostasis. Mouse genetics has been used to create disease phenocopies which have produced considerable insight into the mechanisms of 1,25(OH)2D regula...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Three-dimensional ultrastructure of osteocytes assessed by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)
AbstractThe aim of this study is to demonstrate the application of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy, FIB-SEM for revealing the three-dimensional features of osteocytic cytoplasmic processes in metaphyseal (immature) and diaphyseal (mature) trabeculae. Tibiae of eight-week-old male mice were fixed with aldehyde solution, and treated with block staining prior to FIB-SEM observation. While two-dimensional backscattered SEM images showed osteocytes ’ cytoplasmic processes in a fragmented fashion, three-dimensional reconstructions of FIB-SEM images demonstrated that osteocytes in primary metaphyseal trabecula...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 9, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Ultrastructure and biological function of matrix vesicles in bone mineralization
AbstractBone mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles, small extracellular vesicles secreted by osteoblasts, inducing the nucleation and subsequent growth of calcium phosphate crystals inside. Although calcium ions (Ca2+) are abundant throughout the tissue fluid close to the matrix vesicles, the influx of phosphate ions (PO43 −) into matrix vesicles is a critical process mediated by several enzymes and transporters such as ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), ankylosis (ANK), and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). The catalytic activity of ENPP1 in osteoblasts generates in...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

1700108J01Rik and 1700101O22Rik are mouse testis-specific long non-coding RNAs
AbstractLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs;>  200 nucleotides in length) have attracted attention as fine-tuners of gene expression. However, little is known about the cell- and stage-specific expression pattern and function of lncRNAs in spermatogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify mouse testis-associated lncRNAs using a combi nation of computational and experimental approaches. We first used the FANTOM5 database to survey lncRNA expression in the mouse testis and performed reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses. In silico an...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

P2X7R: independent modulation of aquaporin 5 expression in CdCl 2 -injured alveolar epithelial cells
AbstractThe expression of aquaporin 5 in alveolar epithelial type I cells under conditions of cadmium-induced injury has not yet been discovered. We investigated the effect of the P2X7R agonist BzATP under this condition, since P2X7R is involved in altered regulation of aquaporin 5 in pulmonary fibrosis. CdCl2/TGF- β1 treatment of lung epithelial MLE-12 cells was leading to increasing P2X7R, and aquaporin 5 protein levels. The aquaporin 5 expression was P2X7R-independent in MLE-12 cells under cadmium, as was shown in blocking experiments with oxATP. Further, the expression of both proteins increased after 24  h C...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Recent advances in osteoclast biology
AbstractThe bone is an essential organ for locomotion and protection of the body, as well as hematopoiesis and mineral homeostasis. In order to exert these functions throughout life, bone tissue undergoes a repeating cycle of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. The osteoclast is a large, multinucleated cell that is differentiated from monocyte/macrophage lineage cells by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand (RANKL). RANKL transduces its signal through the signaling receptor, RANK. RANKL/RANK signaling activates NFATc1, the master re...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In vivo live imaging of bone cells
AbstractThere are as many as 200 cell types in the body, and highly sophisticated and varied life phenomena are carried out by cell migration to appropriate places at appropriate times following the appropriate interactions. Recent advances in optical imaging technology using multi-photon excitation microscopy have enabled visualization inside intact bone tissues in living animals without thin sectioning. Using such advanced techniques, the dynamic behaviors of living bone cells on intact bone tissue structures can be elucidated. Here, we focus on recent findings using intravital multi-photon imaging of dynamic biological ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 23, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Pathologic conditions of hard tissue: role of osteoclasts in osteolytic lesion
AbstractHard tissue homeostasis is regulated by the balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. This physiologic process allows adaptation to mechanical loading and calcium homeostasis. Under pathologic conditions, however, this process is ill-balanced resulting in either over-resorption or over-formation of hard tissue. Local over-resorption by osteoclasts is typically observed in osteolytic metastases of malignancies, autoimmune arthritis, and giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). In tumor-related local osteolysis, tumor-derived osteoclast-activating factors induce bone resorption not by ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Runx2, an inducer of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation
AbstractRunx2 is a transcription factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte maturation. Ihh, expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes, is required for the specification of Runx2+ osteoprogenitors in endochondral bone development. Runx2 induces Sp7, an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. Canonical Wnt signaling is also required for osteoblast differentiation. Runx2+ osteoprogenitors retain the capacity to differentiate into chondrocytes, and Sp7 and canonical Wnt signaling direct cells to osteoblasts, thereby inhibiting chondrocyte differentiation. Th...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

NKG2D ligands in glioma stem-like cells: expression in situ and in vitro
AbstractGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor. Tumor stem cells have a major influence on tumor malignancy, and immunological escape mechanisms, involving the Natural Killer Group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor-ligand-system, are key elements in tumor immuno-surveillance. We analyzed the expression profile and localization of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) and embryonic and neural stem cell markers in solid human GBM and stem-like cells isolated from glioma cell lines by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, including quantitative analysis. We also evaluated the effect of Temozolomide (TMZ), the standard chemot...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histomorphometric analyses of human adipose tissues using intact, flash-frozen samples
AbstractHistomorphometric analyses of adipose tissue usually require formalin fixation of fresh samples. Our objective was to determine if intact, flash-frozen whole adipose tissue samples stored at − 80 °C could be used for measurements developed for fresh-fixed adipose tissues. Portions of adipose tissue samples were either formalin-fixed immediately upon sampling or flash-frozen and stored at − 80 °C and then formalin-fixed during the thawing process. Mean adipocyte diameter was measured. Immunohistochemistry was performed on additional samples to identify macrophage subtypes ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Growth plate-derived hedgehog-signal-responsive cells provide skeletal tissue components in growing bone
This study provides a precise outline for assessing the skeletal lineage commitment of osteo-progenitors in response to growth-plate-derived regulatory signals during endochondral bone formation. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The epitope-mediated MMP activation assay: detection and quantification of the activation of Mmp2 in vivo in the zebrafish embryo
AbstractMatrix remodeling is a consequence of tightly regulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMPs are synthesized as inactive precursors with auto-inhibitory N-terminal propeptides, the proteolytic removal of which exposes the catalytic zinc ion, rendering the protease active. The regulation of MMP activation has been investigated primarily in tissue culture and biochemical assays that lack important biological context. Here we present the epitope-mediated MMP activation (EMMA) assay and use it to observe the activation of Mmp2 (gelatinase A) by endogenous mechanisms in the intact zebrafish embryo. The hemagglu...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 19, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 15, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A small protein probe for correlated microscopy of endogenous proteins
AbstractProbes are essential to visualize proteins in their cellular environment, both using light microscopy as well as electron microscopy (EM). Correlated light microscopy and electron microscopy (CLEM) requires probes that can be imaged simultaneously by both optical and electron-dense signals. Existing combinatorial probes often have impaired efficiency, need ectopic expression as a fusion protein, or do not target endogenous proteins. Here, we present FLIPPER-bodies to label endogenous proteins for CLEM. Fluorescent Indicator and Peroxidase for Precipitation with EM Resolution (FLIPPER), the combination of a fluoresc...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 11, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Heparan sulfate accumulation and perlecan/HSPG2 up-regulation in tumour tissue predict low relapse-free survival for patients with glioblastoma
This study examined HS content and distribution in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tissues in the context of potential molecular mechanisms underlying its deregulation in brain tumours. Totally, 42 tissue samples and paraffin-embedded tissues for 31 patients with different prognosis were investigated. HS expression was demonstrated in 50 –55% of the GBM tumours by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while almost no HS content was detected in the surrounding paratumourous brain tissues. Heterogeneous HS distribution in the HS-positive tumours was more related to the necrosis or glandular-like brain zones rather than glioma cell...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 10, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research