Region-specific changes in brain kisspeptin receptor expression during estrogen depletion and the estrous cycle
AbstractKisspeptin acts as a potent neuropeptide regulator of reproduction through modulation of the hypothalamic –pituitary–gonadal axis. Previous studies revealed sex differences in brain expression patterns as well as regulation of expression by estrogen. Alternatively, sex differences and estrogen regulation of the kisspeptin receptor (encoded byKiss1r) have not been examined at cellular resolution. In the current study, we examined whetherKiss1r mRNA expression also exhibits estrogen sensitivity and sex-dependent differences using in situ hybridization. We comparedKiss1r mRNA expression between ovariectomi...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Characterization of blood –brain barrier integrity in a B-cell-dependent mouse model of multiple sclerosis
This study underscores that a leaky BBB is a characteristic feature of EAE, but it also suggests that extent and region specificity of BBB damage differs between individual EAE models that vary in the underlying immunopathology. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Osteoclasts secrete osteopontin into resorption lacunae during bone resorption
In this study, we characterized OPN and other glycoproteins found in the resorption lacunae to confirm the role of osteoclasts in OPN secretion using electron microscopy and mass spectrometry. Additionally, we examined the glycan epitopes of resorption pits and the effects of different glycan epitopes on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts. Osteoarthritic femoral heads were examined by immunohistochemistry to reveal the presence of OPN in areas of increased bone metabolism in vivo. Our results demonstrate that human osteoclasts secrete OPN into resorption lacunae on native human bone and on carbonated hydroxyap...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 7, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Alarin in different human intestinal epithelial cell types
AbstractAlarin (AL), a new member of the galanin family, has been localized in various CNS regions, mainly in rodents. Among other effects, it modulates food intake. Therefore, we analyzed the immunohistochemical distribution pattern of AL in human intestinal epithelia. Cryosections of 12 human bowel samples were immunohistochemically double-stained for AL and α-defensin 5 (αD; first set). Two further sets of sections were quadruple-stained either (second set) for AL, chromogranin (CG), synaptophysin (SY), and somatostatin (SO) or (third set) for AL, CG, Peptide Y (PY), and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Slides we...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 5, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

An update on the Golgi staining technique improving cerebellar cell type specificity
AbstractThe detailed morphological characterization of single cells was a major breakthrough in neuroscience during the turn of the twentieth century, enabling Ramon y Cajal to postulate the neuron doctrine. Even after 150 years, single cell analysis is an intriguing goal, newly motivated by the finding that autism might be caused by intricate and discreet changes in cerebellar morphology. Besides new single labelling technologies, the Golgi staining technique is still in use due to its whole cell labelling characteristics, its superior contrast performance over other methods and its apparent randomness of staining cells w...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 3, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Coping with formalin banning in pathology: under vacuum long-term tissue storage with no added formalin
This study aims to compare histology specimens stored by formalin immersion (FI) and specimens stored after fixation with UVS technique with no additional formalin, at different time periods. Twenty tissue samples (10FI; 10UVS) were stored for different time periods (15  days, 1–2–3–6–12 months) for a total of 120 samples, compared with regard to their morphology, histochemistry, immunoreactivity (24 specific antibodies) and DNA status. All samples showed well-preserved morphology and overlapping staining quality. A significant reduction in immunoreactivi ty was however identified in the v...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 2, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Differential expression of PKC α and -β in the zebrafish retina
AbstractThe retina is a complex neural circuit, which processes and transmits visual information from light perceiving photoreceptors to projecting retinal ganglion cells. Much of the computational power of the retina rests on signal integrating interneurons, such as bipolar cells. Commercially available antibodies against bovine and human conventional protein kinase C (PKC) α and -β are frequently used as markers for retinal ON-bipolar cells in different species, despite the fact that it is not known which bipolar cell subtype(s) they actually label. In zebrafish (Danio rerio) fiveprkc genes (coding for PKC pro...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 2, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

 In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 17, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histological processing of un-/cellularized thermosensitive electrospun scaffolds
AbstractHistological processing of thermosensitive electrospun poly( ε-caprolactone)/poly(l-lactide) (PCL/PLA) scaffolds fails, as poly( ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is characterized by its low-melting temperature (Tm = 60 °C). Here, we present an optimized low-temperature preparation method for the histological processing of un-/cellularized thermosensitive PCL/PLA scaffolds.Our study is aimed at the establishment of an optimized dehydration and low-melting-point paraffin-embedding method of electrospun PCL/PLA scaffolds (un-/cellularized). Furthermore, we compared this method with (a) auto...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 17, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Correction to: P2X7R-dependent regulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3 β and claudin-18 in alveolar epithelial type I cells of mice lung
Correction to: Histochem Cell Biol (2016). (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 11, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

α-Parvin and β-parvin in the rat uterus during decidualisation and uterine receptivity
This study demonstrates that the changing balance and localisation of the two PARVA proteins are dependent on the time of uterine receptivity, suggesting a co-dependent role in the cytoskeletal re-organisation crucial to the changing conditions necessary for implantation and decidualisation. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 5, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histone deacetylase inhibitors suppress transdifferentiation of gonadotrophs to prolactin cells and proliferation of prolactin cells induced by diethylstilbestrol in male mouse pituitary
AbstractDiethylstilbestrol (DES), an estrogen agonist, increases prolactin (PRL) cells through transdifferentiation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) cells to PRL cells as well as proliferation of PRL cells in adult male mouse pituitary. Since hyperacetylation of histone H3 is implicated in the regulation of activation of various genes, we examined the effect of DES on the state of histone H3 acetylation. DES significantly reduced the immunohistochemical signal for acetylated histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9ac) in PRL, LH and FSH cells, but not for H3K18ac or H3K23ac. DES-treated mice were inje...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Detection of herpesvirus capsids in transmission electron microscopy images using transfer learning
AbstractThe detailed analysis of secondary envelopment of theHuman betaherpesvirus 5/human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms underlying the formation of infectious virions. As a step towards a software-based quantification of different stages of HCMV virion morphogenesis in TEM, we developed a transfer learning approach based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs) that automatically detects HCMV nucleocapsids in TEM images. In contrast to existing image analysis techniques that require time-consuming manual definition of stru...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 28, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Correction to: The proliferation marker pKi-67 becomes masked to MIB-1 staining after expression of its tandem repeats
In the PubMed citation records, the author ’s name shows. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 20, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Molecular imaging with nanoparticles: the dwarf actors revisited 10  years later
AbstractWe explore present-day trends and challenges in nanomedicine. Creativity in the laboratories continues: the published literature on novel nanoparticles is now vast. Nanoagents are discussed here which are composed entirely of strongly photoluminescent materials, tunable to desired optical properties and of inherently low toxicity. We focus on “quantum nanoparticles” prepared from allotropes of carbon. The principles behind strong, tunable photoluminescence are quantum mechanical: we present them in simple outline. The major industries racing to develop these materials can offer significant technical gui...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 16, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Wound healing mechanism in Mongolian gerbil skin
In this study, we compared the wound healing process of gerbil and mouse back skin. At 3 days after wounding, the TGF-β1 level was downregulated in gerbil skin wound healing compa red mouse. In addition, gerbils have fewer integrin signals related to the regulation of TGF-β activation and signaling. Despite lacking these factors, the wound healing results in the gerbil are similar to those for skin wound healing in mice. In contrast, in gerbil skin wound healing, the basal s kin layer showed hyperplasia in re-epithelialization, more production of hair follicles, and low probability of collagen infiltration at the...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

How high resolution 3-dimensional imaging changes our understanding of postnatal lung development
AbstractDuring the last 10  + years biologically and clinically significant questions about postnatal lung development could be answered due to the application of modern cutting-edge microscopic and quantitative histological techniques. These are in particular synchrotron radiation based X-ray tomographic microscopy (SRXT M), but also3Helium Magnetic Resonance Imaging, as well as the stereological estimation of the number of alveoli and the length of the free septal edge. First, the most important new finding may be the following: alveolarization of the lung does not cease after the maturation of the alveolar...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The micromechanics of lung alveoli: structure and function of surfactant and tissue components
AbstractThe mammalian lung ´s structural design is optimized to serve its main function: gas exchange. It takes place in the alveolar region (parenchyma) where air and blood are brought in close proximity over a large surface. Air reaches the alveolar lumen via a conducting airway tree. Blood flows in a capillary network emb edded in inter-alveolar septa. The barrier between air and blood consists of a continuous alveolar epithelium (a mosaic of type I and type II alveolar epithelial cells), a continuous capillary endothelium and the connective tissue layer in-between. By virtue of its respiratory movements, the lung...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 2, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Genes responsible for proliferation, differentiation, and junction adhesion are significantly up-regulated in human ovarian granulosa cells during a long-term primary in vitro culture
This study aimed to find the new marker genes, encoding proteins that regulate human GCs in vitro capability for proliferation and differentiation during long-term primary culture. The human follicular GCs were collected from hyper-stimulated ovarian follicles during IVF procedures and transferred to a long-term in vitro culture. The culture lasted for 30 days, with RNA samples isolated at days 1, 7, 15, 30. Transcriptomic analysis was then performed with the use of Affymetrix microarray. Obtained results were then subjected to bioinformatical evaluation and sorting. After subjecting the datasets to KEGG analysis, three di...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 31, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The role of autophagy in morphogenesis and stem cell maintenance
AbstractDuring embryonic development, cells need to undergo a number of morphological changes that are decisive for the shaping of the embryo ’s body, initiating organogenesis and differentiation into functional tissues. These remodeling processes are accompanied by profound changes in the cell membrane, the cytoskeleton, organelles, and extracellular matrix composition. While considerably detailed insight into the role of autophagy in stem cells biology has been gained in the recent years, information regarding the participation of autophagy in morphogenetic processes is only sparse. This review, therefore, focuses ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 31, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Restriction of drug transport by the tumor environment
AbstractAs in the systemic treatment of any disease, it is crucial for anti-cancer drugs to reach their target at a sufficient that is a therapeutically effective dose. However, unlike normal organs, solid tumors have a tendency to be undersupplied and hypoxic. This not only leads to insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrients but also to inefficient transport of drugs into tumors. As a consequence, administered doses have to be raised, resulting in increased side effects and often premature termination of treatment. A better understanding of the mechanisms that hamper transport of drugs into tumors could lead to the devel...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Moonlighting nuclear pore proteins: tissue-specific nucleoporin function in health and disease
AbstractThe nuclear pore complex is the main transportation hub for exchange between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. It is built from nucleoporins that form distinct subcomplexes to establish this huge protein complex in the nuclear envelope. Malfunctioning of nucleoporins is well known in human malignancies, such as gene fusions ofNUP214 andNUP98 in hematological neoplasms and overexpression of NUP88 in a variety of human cancers. In the past decade, the incremental utilization of next-generation sequencing has unraveled mutations in nucleoporin genes in the context of an increasing number of hereditary diseases, often in ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Vascular impairment of adenosinergic system in hypertension: increased adenosine bioavailability and differential distribution of adenosine receptors and nucleoside transporters
AbstractAdenosinergic system regulates vascular tonicity through the complex system of adenosine, adenosine receptors (ARs) and nucleoside transporters. This work aimed at evaluating the impact of hypertension on adenosine bioavailability and expression/distribution profile of AR subtypes (A1, A2A, A2B, A3) and equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT1, ENT2, ENT3, ENT4). Adenosine was  measured in vascular tissue extracts by HPLC (fluorescence detection); immunoreactivities (ARs/ENTs) in mesenteric arteries/veins from normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were analyzed by hi...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Diversity of enteroendocrine cells investigated at cellular and subcellular levels: the need for a new classification scheme
AbstractEnteroendocrine cells were historically classified by a letter code, each linked to a single hormone, deduced to be the only hormone produced by the cell. One type, the L cell, was recognised to store and secrete two products, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-related peptides. Many other exceptions to the one-cell one-hormone classifications have been reported over the last 40  years or so, and yet the one-hormone dogma has persisted. In the last 6 years, a plethora of data has appeared that makes the concept unviable. Here, we describe the evidence that multiple hormone transcripts and their products reside...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The membrane palmitoylated protein, MPP6, is involved in myelin formation in the mouse peripheral nervous system
In this study, we created M PP6-deficient mice and evaluated myelin structure and MPP6 protein complexes. In SLIs in MPP6-deficient nerves, Lin7 was rarely detected by immunohistochemistry and western blotting, but the localization and amount of CADM4 and 4.1G were not altered. Motor activity was not significantly impaired in a tail-suspension test, but the sciatic nerves of MPP6-deficient mice had thicker myelin in internodes by electron microscopy compared to that of wild-type mice. These results indicate that the MPP6–Lin7 complex regulates myelin formation. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Characteristics of the tissue section that influence the staining outcome in immunohistochemistry
AbstractImmunohistochemistry (IHC) is influenced by several factors such as cold ischemia time, fixative, fixation time, paraffin, storage time, antibody, antigen retrieval technique and detection systems. In the setting of post-mortem tissue, not only post-mortem delay, but also agonal state is of interest. Here, we assessed an additional variable, i.e., the thickness of the section, and noted that this variable also influenced the IHC outcome. This is of significance when the extent of labelling is a parameter to be assessed, for example when assigning a stage or grade of a disease. Furthermore, when assessing brain tiss...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Serum affects keratinization and tight junctions in three-dimensional cultures of the mouse keratinocyte cell line COCA through retinoic acid receptor-mediated signaling
In conclusion, mouse keratinocytes derived from the epidermis formed non-keratinized structures in 3D cultures in response to vitamin A in serum. The results suggest that retinoic acid receptor-mediated signaling may be inhibited in the mouse epithelia in the oral cavity, esophagus, and forestomach as well as the epidermis, leading to the keratinization of these epithelia. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 17, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Morphological and molecular criteria allow the identification of putative germ stem cells in a lophotrochozoan, the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas
AbstractWhile our knowledge of bivalve gametogenesis recently progressed, data on early stages of gametogenesis remain to be developed, especially when dealing with germinal stem cells (GSC) and their niche in these organisms. Here, we wish to develop a strategy to identify putative GSC in Pacific oysterCrassostrea gigas based on morphological criteria combined with vasa marker expression. A histological quantitative approach, based on stereology, allowed us to identify two types of early germ cells in the germinal epithelium, one presenting round nuclei and the other irregular ones. Both early germ cell types present slig...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 15, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Versican silencing in BeWo cells and its implication in gestational trophoblastic diseases
AbstractVersican is a proteoglycan known to interact with cells to influence their ability to proliferate, differentiate, migrate, invade and assemble extracellular matrix, with all of these cell functions present during placentation. In the placenta, cytotrophoblast cells have the ability to differentiate into the syncytiotrophoblast, a mechanism that is greatly increased in gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). Nevertheless, the molecular signaling underlying the increased syncytiotrophoblast differentiation are still being unveiled and may result in novel therapeutic targets for GTD. Versican expression was investig...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 8, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anisomycin, a JNK and p38 activator, suppresses cell –cell junction formation in 2D cultures of K38 mouse keratinocyte cells and reduces claudin-7 expression, with an increase of paracellular permeability in 3D cultures
AbstractKeratinocytes in the oral mucosal epithelium, which is a non-keratinized stratified epithelium, are exposed to various stimuli from the oral cavity. JNK and p38 are stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are phosphorylated by various stimuli and are involved in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJs) in keratinocytes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of stress-activated MAPKs on TJs in a mouse keratinocyte cell line during cell –cell junction formation in two-dimensional (2D) cultures or stratification to form non-keratinized epithelium in 3D cultures. In 2D cultur...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dynamics of WNT signaling components in the human ovary from development to adulthood
AbstractWNT signaling has been shown to play a pivotal role in mammalian gonad development and sex differentiation; however, its role in the developing human ovary has not been investigated. We analyzed a quantitative mass spectrometry dataset to determine the expression of WNT signaling components between 47 and 137 days of development and in adult ovarian cortex tissue. WNT signaling was identified within the top ten canonical pathways of proteins detected at every developmental stage examined. We further examined the specific localization of WNT signaling components glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3B), frizzled 2 (FZD2),...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anisomycin, a JNK and p38 activator, suppresses cell –cell junction formation in 2D cultures of K38 mouse keratinocyte cells and reduces claudin-7 expression, with an increase of paracellular permeability in 3D cultures
AbstractKeratinocytes in the oral mucosal epithelium, which is a non-keratinized stratified epithelium, are exposed to various stimuli from the oral cavity. JNK and p38 are stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are phosphorylated by various stimuli and are involved in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJs) in keratinocytes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of stress-activated MAPKs on TJs in a mouse keratinocyte cell line during cell –cell junction formation in two-dimensional (2D) cultures or stratification to form non-keratinized epithelium in 3D cultures. In 2D cultur...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dynamics of WNT signaling components in the human ovary from development to adulthood
AbstractWNT signaling has been shown to play a pivotal role in mammalian gonad development and sex differentiation; however, its role in the developing human ovary has not been investigated. We analyzed a quantitative mass spectrometry dataset to determine the expression of WNT signaling components between 47 and 137 days of development and in adult ovarian cortex tissue. WNT signaling was identified within the top ten canonical pathways of proteins detected at every developmental stage examined. We further examined the specific localization of WNT signaling components glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3B), frizzled 2 (FZD2),...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

How cancer cells attach to urinary bladder epithelium in vivo: study of the early stages of tumorigenesis in an orthotopic mouse bladder tumor model
AbstractThe majority of bladder cancers in humans are non-muscle-invasive cancers that recur frequently after standard treatment procedures. Mouse models are widely used to develop anti-tumor treatments. The purpose of our work was to establish an orthotopic mouse bladder tumor model and to explore early stages of implantation of cancerous MB49 cells in vivo using various labeling and microscopic techniques. To distinguish cancer cells from normal urothelial cells in mouse urinary bladders, we performed molecular characterization of MB49 cells before intravesical injection experiments. In this new approach we applied inter...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Air –blood barrier thickening and alterations of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in mouse lungs with disrupted hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system
In conclusion, disruption of systemic iron homeostasis affects the ultrast ructure of interalveolar septa which is characterized by membrane-bound iron storage in AE1 cells, thickening of the air–blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant pools. The functional relevance of these findings requires further analys is to better understand the impact of iron on intra-alveolar surfactant function. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

How cancer cells attach to urinary bladder epithelium in vivo: study of the early stages of tumorigenesis in an orthotopic mouse bladder tumor model
AbstractThe majority of bladder cancers in humans are non-muscle-invasive cancers that recur frequently after standard treatment procedures. Mouse models are widely used to develop anti-tumor treatments. The purpose of our work was to establish an orthotopic mouse bladder tumor model and to explore early stages of implantation of cancerous MB49 cells in vivo using various labeling and microscopic techniques. To distinguish cancer cells from normal urothelial cells in mouse urinary bladders, we performed molecular characterization of MB49 cells before intravesical injection experiments. In this new approach we applied inter...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Air –blood barrier thickening and alterations of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in mouse lungs with disrupted hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system
In conclusion, disruption of systemic iron homeostasis affects the ultrast ructure of interalveolar septa which is characterized by membrane-bound iron storage in AE1 cells, thickening of the air–blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant pools. The functional relevance of these findings requires further analys is to better understand the impact of iron on intra-alveolar surfactant function. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Wharton ’s jelly-derived mesenchymal cells as a new source for the generation of microtissues for tissue engineering applications
This study demonstrates the possibility of using WJSC to create MT containing viable and functional cells and abundant extracellular matrix. We hypothesize that WJSC-MT could be a promising alternative in TE protocols. However, future cell differentiation and in vivo studies are still needed to demonstrate the potential usefulness of WJSC-MT in regenerati ve medicine. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The role of connexins during early embryonic development: pluripotent stem cells, gene editing, and artificial embryonic tissues as tools to close the knowledge gap
AbstractSince almost 4 decades, connexins have been discussed as important regulators of embryogenesis. Several different members of the gene family can be detected in the preimplantation embryo and during gastrulation. However, genetically engineered mice deficient for every connexin expressed during early development are available and even double-deficient mice were generated. Interestingly, all of these mice complete gastrulation without any abnormalities. This raises the question if the role of connexins has been overrated or if other gene family members compensate and mask their importance. To answer this question, em...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The regulation of junctional actin dynamics by cell adhesion receptors
AbstractThe formation of cell –cell junctions and the development of stable cell–cell adhesion require the association of actin filaments with the sites of cell–cell adhesion. From the initial formation of cell–cell junctions, which appear as punctate, spot-like junctions, to the formation of a stable actin belt that run s adjacent to cell–cell junctions, the actin cytoskeleton is closely associated with the adhesion apparatus. Importantly, the junctional actin is highly dynamic, even after the maturation of intercellular junctions and the development of apico-basal polarity. Regulators of bot...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Functions and dysfunctions of the mammalian centrosome in health, disorders, disease, and aging
AbstractSince its discovery well over 100  years ago (Flemming, in Sitzungsber Akad Wissensch Wien 71:81–147, 1875; Van Beneden, in Bull Acad R Belg 42:35–97, 1876) the centrosome is increasingly being recognized as a most impactful organelle for its role not only as primary microtubule organizing center (MTOC) but also as a major comm unication center for signal transduction pathways and as a center for proteolytic activities. Its significance for cell cycle regulation has been well studied and we now also know that centrosome dysfunctions are implicated in numerous diseases and disorders including cancer...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The role of keratins in the digestive system: lessons from transgenic mouse models
AbstractKeratins are the largest subfamily of intermediate filament proteins. They are either type I acidic or type II basic keratins. Keratins form obligate heteropolymer in epithelial cells and their expression patterns are tissue-specific. Studies have shown that keratin mutations are the cause of many diseases in humans or predispose humans to acquiring them. Using mouse models to study keratin-associated human diseases is critical, because they allow researchers to get a better understanding of these diseases and their progressions, and so many such studies have been conducted. Acknowledging the importance, researches...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Oct-4 and CD44 in epithelial stem cells like of benign odontogenic lesions
AbstractBenign epithelial odontogenic lesions are great clinical importance entities that develop in the jaws from the tissues that form teeth. It has been shown that benign and malignant tumors are present in a large number of tumor stem cells, which has great implications in the development of these lesions. Oct-4 and CD44 have been demonstrated as important markers for tumoral stem cells. The aim of this study was investigate the presence of stem cell markers Oct-4 and CD44 in benign epithelial odontogenic lesions. Twenty odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), 20 ameloblastomas (AMB) of the solid/multicystic type and 20 adenoma...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Human trophoblast invasion: new and unexpected routes and functions
AbstractUntil recently, trophoblast invasion during human placentation was characterized by and restricted to invasion into uterine connective tissues and the uterine spiral arteries. The latter was explained to connect the arteries to the intervillous space of the placenta and to guarantee the blood supply of the mother to the placenta. Today, this picture has dramatically changed. Invasion of endoglandular trophoblast into uterine glands, already starting at the time of implantation, enables histiotrophic nutrition of the embryo prior to perfusion of the placenta with maternal blood. This is followed by invasion of endov...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Valproate inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells
In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of insulin-secreting Min6 cells to a clinical dose of VPA results in inositol depletion and loss of co-localization of subunit C of vH+-ATPase with insulin-secreting granules. Consequently, a reduction of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is observed following VPA exposure. These results merit caution and the reassessment of the clinical use of VPA. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 29, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research