Log in to search using one of your social media accounts:

 

Nestin expression is differently regulated between odontoblasts and the subodontoblastic layer in mice
AbstractTheNestin gene encodes type VI intermediate filament and is known to be expressed in undifferentiated cells during neurogenesis and myogenesis. To regulateNestin expression, the first or second intron enhancer is activated in a tissue-dependent manner, for example, the former in mesodermal cells and the latter in neural stem cells. AlthoughNestin has also been used as a differentiation marker for odontoblasts during tooth development, howNestin expression is regulated in odontoblasts remains unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the expression patterns ofNestin-GFP (green fluorescent protein) with that of...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 14, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histochemical examination on the peri-implant bone with early occlusal loading after the immediate placement into extraction sockets
AbstractEarly and immediate loading of dental implants has become a routine procedure in dental practices throughout the world, but the histological feature of peri-implant bone has not been fully understood. Therefore, we aimed to elucidate the histological response of peri-implant bone bearing the early occlusal loading using rat models. Four-week-old male Wistar rats were subjected to extraction of their maxillary left first molars and had titanium implants inserted immediately into the post-extraction sockets. In experimental groups at 1  week after placement, implants were loaded for 1 or 2 weeks by adding a...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Fibroblasts potentiate melanoma cells in vitro invasiveness induced by UV-irradiated keratinocytes
In this study, we tested the effect of UV irradiation of normal keratinocytes and their consequent interaction with normal and cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from melanoma, respectively. Using this model of UV influenced microenvironment, we measured melanoma cell migration in 3-D collagen gels. These interactions were studied using DNA microarray technology, immunofluorescence staining, single cell electrophoresis assay, viability (dead/life) cell detection methods, and migration analysis. We observed that three 10  mJ/cm2 fractions at equal intervals over 72  h applied on keratinocytes lead to a 50% increase (p 
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Inflammation, mesenchymal stem cells and bone regeneration
AbstractAchieving satisfactory reconstruction of bone remains an important goal in orthopedic and dental conditions such as bone trauma, osteoporosis, arthritis, osteonecrosis, and periodontitis. Appropriate temporal and spatial differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is essential for postnatal bone regeneration. Additionally, an acute inflammatory response is crucial at the onset of bone repair, while an adaptive immune response has important implications during late bone remodeling. Various reports have indicated bidirectional interactions between MSCs and inflammatory cells or molecules. For example, inflammato...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Establishment of a myelinating co-culture system with a motor neuron-like cell line NSC-34 and an adult rat Schwann cell line IFRS1
AbstractCo-culture models of neurons and Schwann cells have been utilized for the study of myelination and demyelination in the peripheral nervous system; in most of the previous studies, however, these cells were obtained by primary culture with embryonic or neonatal animals. A spontaneously immortalized Schwann cell line IFRS1 from long-term cultures of adult Fischer rat peripheral nerves has been shown to retain fundamental ability to myelinate neurites in co-cultures with adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons and nerve growth factor-primed PC12 cells. Our current investigation focuses on the establishment of stable co...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Functions of vitamin D in bone
AbstractVitamin D, synthesized in the skin or absorbed from the diet, undergoes multi-step enzymatic conversion to its active form, 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D], followed by interaction with the vitamin D receptor (VDR), to modulate target gene expression. Loss-of function mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes regulating these processes, or in the VDR, result in human diseases, which have demonstrated the paramount role of 1,25(OH)2D in mineral and skeletal homeostasis. Mouse genetics has been used to create disease phenocopies which have produced considerable insight into the mechanisms of 1,25(OH)2D regula...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 12, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Three-dimensional ultrastructure of osteocytes assessed by focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM)
AbstractThe aim of this study is to demonstrate the application of focused ion beam-scanning electron microscopy, FIB-SEM for revealing the three-dimensional features of osteocytic cytoplasmic processes in metaphyseal (immature) and diaphyseal (mature) trabeculae. Tibiae of eight-week-old male mice were fixed with aldehyde solution, and treated with block staining prior to FIB-SEM observation. While two-dimensional backscattered SEM images showed osteocytes ’ cytoplasmic processes in a fragmented fashion, three-dimensional reconstructions of FIB-SEM images demonstrated that osteocytes in primary metaphyseal trabecula...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 9, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Ultrastructure and biological function of matrix vesicles in bone mineralization
AbstractBone mineralization is initiated by matrix vesicles, small extracellular vesicles secreted by osteoblasts, inducing the nucleation and subsequent growth of calcium phosphate crystals inside. Although calcium ions (Ca2+) are abundant throughout the tissue fluid close to the matrix vesicles, the influx of phosphate ions (PO43 −) into matrix vesicles is a critical process mediated by several enzymes and transporters such as ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1), ankylosis (ANK), and tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). The catalytic activity of ENPP1 in osteoblasts generates in...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

1700108J01Rik and 1700101O22Rik are mouse testis-specific long non-coding RNAs
AbstractLong non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs;>  200 nucleotides in length) have attracted attention as fine-tuners of gene expression. However, little is known about the cell- and stage-specific expression pattern and function of lncRNAs in spermatogenesis. The purpose of this study was to identify mouse testis-associated lncRNAs using a combi nation of computational and experimental approaches. We first used the FANTOM5 database to survey lncRNA expression in the mouse testis and performed reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) analyses. In silico an...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 6, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

P2X7R: independent modulation of aquaporin 5 expression in CdCl 2 -injured alveolar epithelial cells
AbstractThe expression of aquaporin 5 in alveolar epithelial type I cells under conditions of cadmium-induced injury has not yet been discovered. We investigated the effect of the P2X7R agonist BzATP under this condition, since P2X7R is involved in altered regulation of aquaporin 5 in pulmonary fibrosis. CdCl2/TGF- β1 treatment of lung epithelial MLE-12 cells was leading to increasing P2X7R, and aquaporin 5 protein levels. The aquaporin 5 expression was P2X7R-independent in MLE-12 cells under cadmium, as was shown in blocking experiments with oxATP. Further, the expression of both proteins increased after 24  h C...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Recent advances in osteoclast biology
AbstractThe bone is an essential organ for locomotion and protection of the body, as well as hematopoiesis and mineral homeostasis. In order to exert these functions throughout life, bone tissue undergoes a repeating cycle of osteoclastic bone resorption and osteoblastic bone formation. The osteoclast is a large, multinucleated cell that is differentiated from monocyte/macrophage lineage cells by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor- κB ligand (RANKL). RANKL transduces its signal through the signaling receptor, RANK. RANKL/RANK signaling activates NFATc1, the master re...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - February 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In vivo live imaging of bone cells
AbstractThere are as many as 200 cell types in the body, and highly sophisticated and varied life phenomena are carried out by cell migration to appropriate places at appropriate times following the appropriate interactions. Recent advances in optical imaging technology using multi-photon excitation microscopy have enabled visualization inside intact bone tissues in living animals without thin sectioning. Using such advanced techniques, the dynamic behaviors of living bone cells on intact bone tissue structures can be elucidated. Here, we focus on recent findings using intravital multi-photon imaging of dynamic biological ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 23, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Pathologic conditions of hard tissue: role of osteoclasts in osteolytic lesion
AbstractHard tissue homeostasis is regulated by the balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts. This physiologic process allows adaptation to mechanical loading and calcium homeostasis. Under pathologic conditions, however, this process is ill-balanced resulting in either over-resorption or over-formation of hard tissue. Local over-resorption by osteoclasts is typically observed in osteolytic metastases of malignancies, autoimmune arthritis, and giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB). In tumor-related local osteolysis, tumor-derived osteoclast-activating factors induce bone resorption not by ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Runx2, an inducer of osteoblast and chondrocyte differentiation
AbstractRunx2 is a transcription factor that is essential for osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte maturation. Ihh, expressed in prehypertrophic and hypertrophic chondrocytes, is required for the specification of Runx2+ osteoprogenitors in endochondral bone development. Runx2 induces Sp7, an essential transcription factor for osteoblast differentiation. Canonical Wnt signaling is also required for osteoblast differentiation. Runx2+ osteoprogenitors retain the capacity to differentiate into chondrocytes, and Sp7 and canonical Wnt signaling direct cells to osteoblasts, thereby inhibiting chondrocyte differentiation. Th...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

NKG2D ligands in glioma stem-like cells: expression in situ and in vitro
AbstractGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant brain tumor. Tumor stem cells have a major influence on tumor malignancy, and immunological escape mechanisms, involving the Natural Killer Group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor-ligand-system, are key elements in tumor immuno-surveillance. We analyzed the expression profile and localization of NKG2D ligands (NKG2DL) and embryonic and neural stem cell markers in solid human GBM and stem-like cells isolated from glioma cell lines by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, including quantitative analysis. We also evaluated the effect of Temozolomide (TMZ), the standard chemot...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histomorphometric analyses of human adipose tissues using intact, flash-frozen samples
AbstractHistomorphometric analyses of adipose tissue usually require formalin fixation of fresh samples. Our objective was to determine if intact, flash-frozen whole adipose tissue samples stored at − 80 °C could be used for measurements developed for fresh-fixed adipose tissues. Portions of adipose tissue samples were either formalin-fixed immediately upon sampling or flash-frozen and stored at − 80 °C and then formalin-fixed during the thawing process. Mean adipocyte diameter was measured. Immunohistochemistry was performed on additional samples to identify macrophage subtypes ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Growth plate-derived hedgehog-signal-responsive cells provide skeletal tissue components in growing bone
This study provides a precise outline for assessing the skeletal lineage commitment of osteo-progenitors in response to growth-plate-derived regulatory signals during endochondral bone formation. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The epitope-mediated MMP activation assay: detection and quantification of the activation of Mmp2 in vivo in the zebrafish embryo
AbstractMatrix remodeling is a consequence of tightly regulated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity. MMPs are synthesized as inactive precursors with auto-inhibitory N-terminal propeptides, the proteolytic removal of which exposes the catalytic zinc ion, rendering the protease active. The regulation of MMP activation has been investigated primarily in tissue culture and biochemical assays that lack important biological context. Here we present the epitope-mediated MMP activation (EMMA) assay and use it to observe the activation of Mmp2 (gelatinase A) by endogenous mechanisms in the intact zebrafish embryo. The hemagglu...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 19, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 15, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A small protein probe for correlated microscopy of endogenous proteins
AbstractProbes are essential to visualize proteins in their cellular environment, both using light microscopy as well as electron microscopy (EM). Correlated light microscopy and electron microscopy (CLEM) requires probes that can be imaged simultaneously by both optical and electron-dense signals. Existing combinatorial probes often have impaired efficiency, need ectopic expression as a fusion protein, or do not target endogenous proteins. Here, we present FLIPPER-bodies to label endogenous proteins for CLEM. Fluorescent Indicator and Peroxidase for Precipitation with EM Resolution (FLIPPER), the combination of a fluoresc...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 11, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Heparan sulfate accumulation and perlecan/HSPG2 up-regulation in tumour tissue predict low relapse-free survival for patients with glioblastoma
This study examined HS content and distribution in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tissues in the context of potential molecular mechanisms underlying its deregulation in brain tumours. Totally, 42 tissue samples and paraffin-embedded tissues for 31 patients with different prognosis were investigated. HS expression was demonstrated in 50 –55% of the GBM tumours by immunohistochemistry (IHC), while almost no HS content was detected in the surrounding paratumourous brain tissues. Heterogeneous HS distribution in the HS-positive tumours was more related to the necrosis or glandular-like brain zones rather than glioma cell...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 10, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histochemical evidence of IGF2 mRNA-binding protein 2-mediated regulation of osteoclast function and adhesive ability
AbstractInsulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) messenger RNA-binding proteins (IMPs) are a family of oncofetal RNA-binding proteins that play important roles in cell migration, renewal, and metabolism. IMP2 gene expression may be important in determining IGF2 levels and might, thereby, be central to bone metabolism. In our present study, IMP2-deficient mice exhibited more immature bone structures, characterized by abundant residual cartilage cores; growth plates containing more rich cartilage matrix, which was arranged irregularly; and a significantly thicker hypertrophic chondrocyte layer in the femoral metaphysis, compared ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 10, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Transcriptional network systems in cartilage development and disease
AbstractTranscription factors play important roles in the regulation of cartilage development by controlling the expression of chondrogenic genes. Genetic studies have revealed that Sox9/Sox5/Sox6, Runx2/Runx3 and Osterix in particular are essential for the sequential steps of cartilage development. Importantly, these transcription factors form network systems that are also required for appropriate cartilage development. Molecular cloning approaches have largely contributed to the identification of several transcriptional partners for Sox9 and Runx2 during cartilage development. Although the importance of a negative-feedba...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - January 8, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Characterization of ecto-nucleotidases in human oviducts with an improved approach simultaneously identifying protein expression and in situ enzyme activity
AbstractExtracellular ATP and its hydrolysis product adenosine modulate various reproductive functions such as those taking place in oviducts, including contraction, beating of cilia, and maintenance of fluid composition that, in turn, influences sperm capacitation and hyperactivation, as well as oocyte and embryo nourishing. Ecto-nucleotidases are the enzymes that regulate extracellular ATP and adenosine levels, thus playing a role in reproduction. We have optimized a convenient method for characterizing ecto-nucleotidases that simultaneously localizes the protein and its associated enzyme activity in the same tissue slic...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Correction to: Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 12 is highly specific for non-proliferating invasive trophoblasts in the first trimester and temporally regulated by oxygen-dependent mechanisms including HIF-1A
AbstractIn the original publication, the contribution of Dr. Christian Eyth as equal first author was not indicated. This has been corrected confirming that U. Hidden and C. Eyth contributed equally to this work. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 13, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 7, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Regulation of mesenchymal signaling in palatal mucosa differentiation
AbstractEpithelial differentiation is thought to be determined by mesenchymal components during embryogenesis. In mice, palatal mucosa showed the region-specific keratinization pattern along antero-posterior axis. However, developmental mechanisms involved in oral mucosa differentiation with fine tuning of keratinization are not elucidated yet. To reveal this developmental mechanism, first, we conducted tissue recombination assay of the palate at E16 for 2  days which revealed that epithelial differentiation with specific localization of CK10 is modulated by mesenchymal components. Based on the results, we propose tha...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 5, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Identification of autofluorescent cells in human angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma
AbstractEndogenous cell autofluorescence is a common nuisance that complicates the use of fluorescence microscopy. When using fluorescence-labeled antibodies for specific cell labeling in tissue sections of human angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), we encountered with a problematic autofluorescence of multiple cells. These cells emitted fluorescence signals in the green, red and deep-red spectral range. Characterization of these autofluorescent cells solely on the basis of their autofluorescence failed. To identify these enigmatic cells residing the lymphoma tissue, we combined two imaging techniques —fluoresc...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - December 2, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Holography microscopy as an artifact-free alternative to phase-contrast
AbstractArtifact-free microscopic images represent a key requirement of multi-parametric image analysis in modern biomedical research. Holography microscopy (HM) is one of the quantitative phase imaging techniques, which has been finding new applications in life science, especially in morphological screening, cell migration, and cancer research. Rather than the classical imaging of absorbing (typically stained) specimens by bright-field microscopy, the information about the light-wave ’s phase shifts induced by the biological sample is employed for final image reconstruction. In this comparative study, we investigate...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 28, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Changes in the midgut cells in the European cave spider, Meta menardi , during starvation in spring and autumn
AbstractDuring the growth period, in surface habitats, spiders catch enough prey to feed normally. In contrast, in the cave entrance zone, prey may be relatively scarce.Meta menardi inhabits this cave section, resulting in temporary starvation. We studied structural changes in the midgut epithelial cells ofM. menardi during a short-term and a medium-term controlled starvation to mimic the occasional starvation in caves, during spring and autumn. Digestive cells, secretory cells and adipocytes were examined before the experimental starvation, in the middle and at the end of starvation. We used light microscopy, transmission...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 22, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expression and distribution patterns of spermine, spermidine, and putrescine in rat hair follicle
AbstractNo expression and distribution patterns of polyamines (PAs), spermine, spermidine, and their precursor putrescine in mammalian hair follicle are available, although polyamines are known to correlate well with hair growth and epidermal tumor genesis. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) using our original two monoclonal antibodies  (mAbs) ASPM-29 specific for spermine or spermidine, and APUT-32 specific for putrescine allowed us to detect immunoreactivity for polyamines in hair follicles from normal adult rats. A wide range of immunoreactivity for the total spermine and spermidine was observed in the compartments of hair...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 21, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Pendimethalin induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial dysfunction to trigger apoptosis in human lymphocytes and rat bone-marrow cells
AbstractPendimethalin (PM) is a dinitroaniline herbicide extensively applied against the annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds. There is no report available on PM-induced low-dose genotoxicity in human primary cells and in vivo test models. Such data gap has prompted us to evaluate the genotoxic potential of PM in human lymphocytes and rats. PM selectively binds in the minor groove of DNA by forming covalent bonds with G and C nitrogenous bases, as well as with the ribose sugar. PM induces micronucleus formation (MN) in human lymphocytes, indicating its clastogenic potential. Comet assay data showed 35.6-fold greater DNA d...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 18, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The expression of VE-cadherin in breast cancer cells modulates cell dynamics as a function of tumor differentiation and promotes tumor –endothelial cell interactions
AbstractThe cadherin switch has profound consequences on cancer invasion and metastasis. The endothelial-specific vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) has been demonstrated in diverse cancer types including breast cancer and is supposed to modulate tumor progression and metastasis, but underlying mechanisms need to be better understood. First, we evaluated VE-cadherin expression by tissue microarray in 392 cases of breast cancer tumors and found a diverse expression and distribution of VE-cadherin. Experimental expression of fluorescence-tagged VE-cadherin (VE-EGFP) in undifferentiated, fibroblastoid and E-cadherin-...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 15, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Freeze fracture: new avenues for the ultrastructural analysis of cells in vitro
AbstractThe ultrastructural analysis of biological membranes by freeze fracture has a 60-year tradition. In this review, we summarize the benefits of the freeze-fracture technique and review special structures analyzed by freeze fracture and by combined freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL) of cell cultures. In principle, every cellular membrane whether of cell suspensions, mono- or bilayers of cell cultures can be analyzed in freeze fracture. The combination of freeze fracture and immunogold labeling of the replica allows the ultrastructural identification of protein assemblies in combination with the molecul...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 13, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nuclear organization during in vitro differentiation of porcine mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes
This study adds new data on nuclear organization during adipogenesis u sing the pig as a model organism. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 13, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP1 in healthy and diseased human endometrium
AbstractProstaglandin E2 (PGE2) is well described to be associated with both endometrial functions and disorders. The primary aim of this study was to explore the underlying mechanisms that affect the growth and function of endometrial epithelium and stroma by assessing the staining intensity of PGE2 receptors (EP) in healthy endometrium across the menstrual cycle and in pathological endometrium, such as ovarian endometriosis and endometrial cancer. We retrospectively analyzed the EPs staining intensity in human nonpregnant endometrium throughout the menstrual cycle by immunohistochemistry and further focused on EP1  ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 13, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 9, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Validation of an easily applicable three-dimensional immunohistochemical imaging method for a mouse brain using conventional confocal microscopy
AbstractHistological analysis has been largely confined to two-dimensional analysis of thin tissue sections, hampering detailed understanding of three-dimensional cellular distribution in biological tissues. Tissue optical clearing methods enable three-dimensional histological analysis by rendering tissues transparent and suitable for microscopic detection of the fluorescent signals inside. Despite their great potential in histological research, the tissue clearing methods are not readily accessible to many researchers because of hazardous chemicals, complicated protocols and advanced microscopy. Furthermore, poor antibody...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 20, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Development of a method for the detection of polystyrene microplastics in paraffin-embedded histological sections
AbstractThe concerns about the presence of microplastics (MPs) in marine ecosystems have widely increased in the past years. This is reflected in a growing number of studies addressing the effects of exposure to these materials in indigenous, farmed and even laboratory marine animals subjected to toxicity-oriented bioassays. There have been, however, many constraints in the detection of MPs in biological tissues, as routine histological techniques tend to degrade these materials, which are especially sensitive to organic solvents. This issue hinders the application of standard histopathological procedures based on convenie...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 20, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expression of matrix metalloproteinase 12 is highly specific for non-proliferating invasive trophoblasts in the first trimester and temporally regulated by oxygen-dependent mechanisms including HIF-1A
AbstractDuring first trimester pregnancy, trophoblast cells invade from the placenta into the maternal decidua where they anchor the placenta and remodel luminal structures like spiral arteries. This process depends on proteases secreted by invading trophoblasts, which degrade extracellular matrix (ECM). We here aimed to identify proteases particularly important for trophoblast invasion. We generated a list of proteases capable of degrading decidual ECM and trophoblast integrins using MEROPS database and compared expression of these proteases between primary trophoblasts isolated from first trimester placenta (FT,n =&...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 9, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Subcellular localization and characterization of estrogenic pathway regulators and mediators in Atlantic salmon spermatozoal cells
AbstractMuch progress has been made regarding our understanding of aromatase regulation, estrogen synthesis partitioning and communication between the germinal and somatic compartments of the differentiating gonad. We now know that most of the enzymatic and signaling apparatus required for steroidogenesis is endogenously expressed within germ cells. However, less is known about the expression and localization of steroidogenic components within mature spermatozoa. We have assembled a sperm library presenting 197,015 putative transcripts. Co-expression clustering analysis revealed that 6687 genes were present at higher level...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 5, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

High level of CTP synthase induces formation of cytoophidia in cortical neurons and impairs corticogenesis
AbstractDe novo synthesis of the nucleotide CTP is catalyzed by the essential pyrimidine biosynthesis enzyme CTP synthase (CTPs), which forms large-scale filamentous structures consisting of CTPs termed cytoophidia in prokaryotes and in eukaryotes. Recent studies have shown that cytoophidia are abundant in neuroepithelial stem cells inDrosophila optic lobes and that overexpression of CTPs impairs optic lobe development. Whether CTPs and cytoophidia also play a role in the development of the mammalian cortex remains elusive. Here, we show that overexpression of CTPs by in utero electroporation in the embryonic mouse brain i...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 3, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 21, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Germ cell line during the seasonal sexual rest of clams: finding niches of cells for gonad renewal
AbstractReconstitution and renewal of tissues are key topics in developmental biology. In this brief work, we analyzed the wintry spent phase of the reproductive cycle in the Manila clamRuditapes philippinarum (Bivalvia, Veneridae) in order to study the gonad rebuilding that in this species occurs at the beginning of the warmer months. We labeled VASA homolog protein —a germ cell marker—and compared the histological observations of the spent phase with those of the previously analyzed gametogenic phase. InR. philippinarum, during the reproductive season, most of the body mass is represented by sack-like structu...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 5, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Role of epithelial –mesenchymal transition involved molecules in the progression of cutaneous melanoma
AbstractEpithelial –mesenchymal transition (EMT) has been suggested to have a driving role in the acquisition of a metastatic potential by melanoma cells. Important hallmarks of EMT include both E-cadherin downregulation and increased expression of N-cadherin. This switch in distinct classes of adhesion molecules le ads melanoma cells to lose contact with adjacent keratinocytes and interact instead with stromal fibroblasts and endothelial cells, thus promoting dermal and vascular melanoma invasion. Consequently, tumor cells migrate to distant host tissues and establish metastases. A key regulator in the inducti on of...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 21, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Recapitulating in vivo-like plasticity of glioma cell invasion along blood vessels and in astrocyte-rich stroma
AbstractDiffuse invasion of glioma cells into the brain parenchyma leads to nonresectable brain tumors and poor prognosis of glioma disease. In vivo, glioma cells can adopt a range of invasion strategies and routes, by moving as single cells, collective strands and multicellular networks along perivascular, perineuronal and interstitial guidance cues. Current in vitro assays to probe glioma cell invasion, however, are limited in recapitulating the modes and adaptability of glioma invasion observed in brain parenchyma, including collective behaviours. To mimic in vivo-like glioma cell invasion in vitro, we here applied thre...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 19, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Co-culture of chondrons and mesenchymal stromal cells reduces the loss of collagen VI and improves extracellular matrix production
AbstractAdult articular chondrocytes are surrounded by a pericellular matrix (PCM) to form a chondron. The PCM is rich in hyaluronan, proteoglycans, and collagen II, and it is the exclusive location of collagen VI in articular cartilage. Collagen VI anchors the chondrocyte to the PCM. It has been suggested that co-culture of chondrons with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) might enhance extracellular matrix (ECM) production. This co-culture study investigates whether MSCs help to preserve the PCM and increase ECM production. Primary bovine chondrons or chondrocytes or rat MSCs were cultured alone to establish a baseline lev...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 19, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Increased endocytosis of magnetic nanoparticles into cancerous urothelial cells versus normal urothelial cells
AbstractThe blood –urine barrier is the tightest and most impermeable barrier in the body and as such represents a problem for intravesical drug delivery applications. Differentiation-dependent low endocytotic rate of urothelial cells has already been noted; however, the differences in endocytosis of normal and can cer urothelial cells have not been exploited yet. Here we analysed the endocytosis of rhodamine B isothiocyanate-labelled polyacrylic acid-coated cobalt ferrite nanoparticles (NPs) in biomimetic urothelial in vitro models, i.e., in highly and partially differentiated normal urothelial cells, and in cancer ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 18, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 17, 2017 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research