Selective autophagy of cytosolic protein aggregates involves ribosome-free rough endoplasmic reticulum
AbstractAutophagy is a degradative cellular process that can be both non-selective and selective and begins with the formation of a unique smooth double-membrane phagophore which wraps around a portion of the cytoplasm. Excess and damaged organelles and cytoplasmic protein aggregates are degraded by selective autophagy. Previously, we reported that in fed HepG2 cells, cytoplasmic aggregates of EDEM1 and surplus fibrinogen A α–γ assembly intermediates are targets of selective autophagy receptors and become degraded by a selective autophagy called aggrephagy. Here, we show by multiple confocal immunofluores...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 12, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Aging results in accumulation of M1 and M2 hepatic macrophages and a differential response to gadolinium chloride
This study evaluated macrophage phenotype in the aged liver and whether the increase in the number of macrophages with aging is associated with enhanced hepatic oxidative stress. Hepatic macrophage phenotype and oxidative stress were evaluated 2  days after a single intraperitoneal injection of saline or gadolinium chloride (GdCl3, 10  mg/kg) in young (6 months) and aged (24 months) Fischer 344 rats. GdCl3 has been shown to decrease the expression of macrophage-specific markers and impair macrophage phagocytosis in the liver. Saline-treated aged rats demonstrated greater numbers of both M1 (HO-1+/iNOS+) and M2 (H...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 6, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - November 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

GASMoC method: a phenol-free technique to detect acid-fast bacilli
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that AFB detection does not require phenol and that the GASMoC method, a phenol-free technique, may substitute the ZNT in pathology laboratories. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Tricellular tight junction protein LSR/angulin-1 contributes to the epithelial barrier and malignancy in human pancreatic cancer cell line
AbstractLipolysis-stimulated lipoprotein receptor (LSR)/angulin-1 is a crucial molecule of tricellular contacts in the epithelial barrier of normal cells and the malignancy of cancer cells. To investigate whether LSR/angulin-1 affects the epithelial barrier and malignancy in human pancreatic cancer, human pancreatic cancer cell line HPAC was used. Treatment with EGF or TGF- β increased the expression of LSR, but not tricellulin (TRIC), and induced the localization of LSR and TRIC to bicellular tight junctions from tricellular tight junctions. TGF-β receptor type-1 inhibitor EW-7197 prevented changes of the distri...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Molecular and ultrastructure study of endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatic steatosis: role of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 α and inflammatory mediators
In conclusion, endoplasmic reticulum stress, confirmed at ultrastructure level, plays an important role in pathogenesis of HFD-induc ed hepatic steatosis. HNF4α downregulation as well as increased expression of hs-CRP and TNF-α enforce the concept of interplay between ER stress, hepatic subclinical inflammation, and disturbed gene expression regulation in the pathogenesis of HFD-induced hepatic steatosis. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The effect of GnRH antagonist cetrorelix on Wnt signaling members in pubertal and adult mouse ovaries
AbstractWide application of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists for clinical purposes determines their effects on ovarian signaling pathways. Our study aimed to determine the localization, expression levels of Wnt signaling members in the pubertal and adult mouse ovary and the impact of GnRH antagonist cetrorelix on these signaling members. 0.5  mg/kg of cetrorelix was injected to 3-and 6-week-old mice for 2 weeks. At the end of injection, ovaries from 5 (5Ce)- to 8-week (8Ce)-old mice were embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemistry and homogenized for western blot to compare with control...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Age-related glomerular lesions with albuminuria in male cotton rats
AbstractThe increased prevalence of aging-related chronic kidney disease (CKD) among humans is a problem worldwide. Aged cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) are considered novel model animals for studying CKD, especially as the females develop severe tubulointerstitial lesions with anemia. To investigate the renal pathologic features in aged male cotton rats and their characteristic glomerular injuries, the animals were divided into young, adult, old-aged, and advanced-aged groups (1 –4, 5–8, 9–12, and 13–17 months, respectively) and pathologically analyzed. Anemia and renal dysfunction, as indicated by...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 18, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

LacdiNAcylation of N -glycans in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells results in changes in morphological appearance and adhesive properties of the cells
AbstractWe demonstrated previously that the expression of the disaccharide, GalNAc β1 → 4GlcNAc (LacdiNAc), onN-glycans of cell surface glycoproteins in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells suppresses their malignant properties such as tumor formation in nude mice. Here, we report changes in the morphological appearance and adhesive properties of two kinds of clonal cells of MDA-MB-231 cells overexpressing β4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase 4. The clonal cells exhibited a cobble stone-like shape as compared to a spindle-like shape of the mock-transfected cells and the original MDA-MB-231 cel...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 12, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Potential role of IL-37 signaling pathway in feedback regulation of autoimmune Hashimoto thyroiditis
AbstractIL-37, the anti-inflammatory cytokine of the IL-1 family, plays several key roles in the regulation of autoimmune diseases. Yet, its role in Hashimoto ’s thyroiditis (HT) is not clear. In the present study, we found that, in tissues from HT patients, most of the follicular epithelial cells were positive for both IL-37 and single Ig IL-1-related receptor (SIGIRR) by immunohistochemical staining, while the infiltrating lymphocytes and other inflam matory cells hardly expressed any. Meanwhile, mRNA expression levels of IL-37 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of HT patients were significantly higher th...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 4, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nitric oxide synthase and VEGF expression in full-term placentas of obese women
AbstractAn adequate placental vascularization allows the proper development of the fetus and it is crucial for the gestational success. A number of factors regulate angiogenesis, including vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which induces the synthesis of nitric oxide (NO), a potent vasodilator produced by three different nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms. NO is essential to maintain a low vascular resistance in the fetoplacental circulation, although at high concentrations, it may combine with excess superoxide to produce peroxynitrite, which reacts with proteins giving rise to nitrotyrosine. Since obesity, whos...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

FoxN1 mediates thymic cortex –medulla differentiation through modifying a developmental pattern based on epithelial tubulogenesis
AbstractThe mechanisms that determine the commitment of thymic epithelial precursors to the two major thymic epithelial cell lineages, cTECs and mTECs, remain unknown. Here we show that FoxN1 nu mutation, which abolishes thymic epithelium differentiation, results in the formation of a tubular branched structure according to a typical branching morphogenesis and tubulogenesis developmental pattern. In the presence of FoxN1, in alymphoid NSG and fetal Ikaros −/− thymi, there is no lumen formation and only partial apical differentiation. This initiates cortex–medulla differentiation inducing expressio...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Spatial distribution and correlation of adipocytes and mast cells in superficial fascia in rats
This study aimed to quantitatively evaluate the spatial distribution and correlation of adipocytes and mast cells in rat superficial fascia. Panoramic images were obtained from whole-mounted fascia stained by toluidine blue. Adipocytes increased gradually in superficial fascia of growing rats. Abundant mast cells, with the degranulation and exocytosis of abundant secretory granules, appeared in fascia where partially differentiating adipocytes and mature adipocytes occurred. Quantitative histological analysis by variance –mean ratio and Morisita index of dispersion indicated that both mast cells and adipocytes in fas...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Nanoscale analysis reveals no domain formation of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein SAG1 in the plasma membrane of living Toxoplasma gondii
AbstractGlycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins typically localise to lipid rafts. GPI-anchored protein microdomains may be present in the plasma membrane; however, they have been studied using heterogeneously expressed GPI-anchored proteins, and the two-dimensional distributions of endogenous molecules in the plasma membrane are difficult to determine at the nanometre scale. Here, we used immunoelectron microscopy using a quick-freezing and freeze-fracture labelling (QF-FRL) method to examine the distribution of the endogenous GPI-anchored protein SAG1 inToxoplasma gondii at the nanoscale. QF-FRL physically i...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Outgrowth, proliferation, viability, angiogenesis and phenotype of primary human endothelial cells in different purchasable endothelial culture media: feed wisely
AbstractFunction and dysfunction of endothelial cells are regulated by a multitude of factors. Endothelial cell research often requires in vitro cell culture experiments. Hence, various culture media specifically designed to promote endothelial cell growth are available. These strikingly differ in their composition: complex media contain endothelial cell growth supplement (ECGS), an extract produced of bovine brain with undefined amounts of biologically active compounds, whilst defined media contain selected growth factors in defined concentrations. We here compared the effect of seven purchasable endothelial cell culture ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Tuftelin and HIFs expression in osteogenesis
AbstractTuftelin was originally discovered and mostly studied in the tooth, but later found also in other organs. Despite its wide distribution among tissues, tuftelin ’s function has so far been specified only in the formation of enamel crystals. Nevertheless, in many cases, tuftelin was suggested to be associated with cellular adaptation to hypoxia and recently even with cell differentiation. Therefore, we aimed to investigate tuftelin expression along with hy poxia-inducible factors (HIFs) during the early development of the mandibular/alveolar (m/a) bone, when osteoblasts started to differentiate in vivo and to c...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Metalloproteinase 14 (MMP-14) and hsa-miR-410-3p expression in human inflamed dental pulp and odontoblasts
This study demonstrates for the first time miR-410 expression in human dental pulp and that expression of this microRNA was downregulated in inflamed dental pulp and odontoblasts. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 5, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

3D analysis of capillary network in skeletal muscle of obese insulin-resistant mice
AbstractIn obesity, the skeletal muscle capillary network regresses and the insulin-mediated capillary recruitment is impaired. However, it has been shown that in the early stage of advanced obesity, an increased functional vascular response can partially compensate for other mechanisms of insulin resistance. The present study aimed to investigate the changes in the capillary network around individual muscle fibres during the early stage of obesity and insulin resistance in mice using 3D analysis. Capillaries and muscle fibres of the gluteus maximus muscles of seven high-fat-diet-induced obese and insulin-resistant mice an...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 31, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Unequivocal imaging of aluminium in human cells and tissues by an improved method using morin
AbstractAluminium is biologically reactive and its ability to potentiate the immune response has driven its inclusion in both veterinary and human vaccines. Consequently, the need for unequivocal visualisation of aluminium in vivo has created a focused research effort to establish fluorescent molecular probes for this purpose. The most commonly used direct fluorescent labels for the detection of aluminium are morin (2 ′,3,4′,5,7-pentahydroxyflavone) and lumogallion [4-chloro-3-(2,4-dihydroxyphenylazo)-2-hydroxybenzene-1-sulphonic acid]. While the former has gained popularity in the detection of aluminium in pla...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 28, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Scaffold protein Lin7 family in membrane skeletal protein complex in mouse seminiferous tubules
In this study, we investigated the Lin7 family of scaffolding proteins, which interact with MPP6. By immunohistochemistry, Lin7a and Lin7c were localized in germ cells, an d Lin7c had especially strong staining in spermatogonia and early spermatocytes, characterized by staging of seminiferous tubules. By immunoelectron microscopy, Lin7 localization appeared under cell membranes in germ cells. The Lin7 staining pattern in seminiferous tubules was partially similar to t hat of 4.1G, cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1), and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM). Lin7-positive cells included type A spermatogonia, as revealed by ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Triple labelling of actin filaments, intermediate filaments and microtubules for broad application in cell biology: uncovering the cytoskeletal composition in tunneling nanotubes
We report a protocol for simultaneous triple labelling of intermediate filaments, microtubules and actin filaments. The described procedure offers an optimal preservation of the structure and antigenicity of individual representatives of cytoskeletal elements and is applicable for labelling of tissue samples and cultured cells. Namely, we demonstrate that using this protocol the cytoskeletal elements are well-preserved and detectable in the whole mount urinary bladder tissue pieces, cryosections of the urinary bladder, and in cultured normal and cancer urothelial cells including their delicate intercellular connections suc...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Mast cell chymase: morphofunctional characteristics
AbstractDuring degranulation, mast cells secrete a specific set of mediators defined as “secretome” including the preformed mediators that have already been synthesized by a cell and contained in the cytoplasmic granules. This group includes serine proteases, in particular, chymase and tryptase. Biological significance of chymase depends on the mechanisms of degranulation and is ch aracterized by selective effects on the cellular and non-cellular components of the specific tissue microenvironment. Chymase is known to be closely involved in the mechanisms of inflammation and allergy, angiogenesis, and oncogenesi...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Mapping of the cystine –glutamate exchanger in the mouse eye: a role for xCT in controlling extracellular redox balance
In this study, we mapped the expression of xCT, the light chain subunit of system xc− in the different tissues of 3 –6-week-old mouse (C57BL/6J) eye and have used an xCT knockout mouse to verify labelling specificity. Moreover, using the xCT knockout mouse, we investigated whether xCT was involved in maintaining extracellular redox balance in the eye. xCT transcript and protein were present in the cornea, lens and retina of wild-type mice, but not knockout mice. xCT was localised to the corneal epithelium, and the lens epithelium and cortical fibre cells but was absent in the iris. xCT localisation could not be...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA CASC2 promotes paclitaxel resistance in breast cancer through regulation of miR-18a-5p/CDK19
Abstract Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women. Chemoresistance is a major obstacle for the treatment of breast cancer. We investigated the role of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2) in paclitaxel (PTX) resistance in breast cancer. CASC2 expression was increased in PTX-resistant clinical samples and cell lines. PTX induced CASC2 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Downregulation of CASC2 increased PTX toxicity and decreased IC50 value, while upregulation of CASC2 decreased PTX toxicity and increased IC50 value in MCF-7/PTX and MDA-MB-231/PTX cells. More...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - July 27, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Life time of some RNA products of rDNA intergenic spacer in HeLa cells
AbstractIn human cells, the intergenic spacers (IGS), which separate ribosomal genes, are complex approximately 30  kb-long loci. Recent studies indicate that all, or almost all, parts of IGS may be transcribed, and that at least some of them are involved in the regulation of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) transcription, maintenance of the nucleolar architecture, and response of the cell nucleus to stress. However, s ince each cell contains hundreds not quite identical copies of IGS, the structure and functions of this locus remain poorly understood, and the dynamics of its products has not been specially studied. In this w...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - July 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Immune response profile of primary tumour, sentinel and non-sentinel axillary lymph nodes related to metastasis in breast cancer: an immunohistochemical point of view
AbstractApproximately 1.67 million new cases of breast cancer (BC) are diagnosed annually, and patient survival significantly decreases when the disease metastasizes. The axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) are the main doorway for BC tumoral cell escape, through which cells can disseminate to distant organs. The immune response, which principally develops in the lymph nodes, is linked to cancer progression, and its efficacy at controlling tumoral growth is compromised during the disease. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is one of the most widely used research techniques for studying the immune response. It allows the measurement of the...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - July 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - July 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Zw10 is a spindle assembly checkpoint protein that regulates meiotic maturation in mouse oocytes
AbstractFaithful chromosome segregation during the cell cycle is ensured by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Although SAC activity is highly conserved and most organisms share common SAC components, additional proteins that regulate SAC activity to ensure high fidelity chromosome segregation are present in higher eukaryotes. Zw10 is one of these additional SAC components. Although Zw10 has been demonstrated to be involved in SAC activity during mitosis, little is known about its role during oocyte meiosis. Here, we report that Zw10 is localized at the kinetochore and is required for SAC activation during meiotic matu...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - June 27, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Histochemistry and Cell Biology : 61  years and not tired at all
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - June 24, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

GSK3 β and MCL-1 mediate cardiomyocyte apoptosis in response to high glucose
In this study, we found that a decrease in GSK3 β phosphorylation on Ser9 occurred concomitantly with HG-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and in the heart tissues of the offspring of diabetic rats in vitro and in vivo. Decreases in GSK3β (Ser9) phosphorylation in response to HG were remarkably restored after treatment with SC79, an activator of the Akt signaling pathway. SB216763, an effective inhibitor of the GSK3β signaling pathway, suppressed HG-induced apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. Further studies showed a decrease in the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL-1 was associated with GSK3β-mediate...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - June 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Suitability of RNA Later solution as a tissue-preserving reagent for immunohistochemical analysis
AbstractHistological and immunohistochemical studies require high-quality paraffin blocks, where proper fixation of tissue samples with formalin is a key point. However, in some cases, the possibility to preserve biological samples prior to the formalin fixation or to use deposited tissues from biobanks is important. RNA-stabilizing reagent RNALater represents a potential option, but its suitability for pathological and immunohistochemical studies remains underinvestigated. Here, comparative study of formalin-fixed tissues and those had undergone preservation with RNALater was performed for different SCID mice tissues (bra...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - June 14, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Reorganization of the nuclear compartments involved in transcription and RNA processing in myonuclei of type I spinal muscular atrophy
In this study, we analyzed the nuclear reorganization in human skeletal myofibers from a type I SMA patient carrying a deletion of exons 7 and 8 in theSMN1 gene and twoSMN2 gene copies and showing reduced SMN protein levels in the muscle compared with those in control samples. The morphometric analysis of myofiber size revealed the coexistence of atrophic and hypertrophic myofibers in SMA samples. Compared with controls, both nuclear size and the nuclear shape factor were significantly reduced in SMA myonuclei. Nuclear reorganization in SMA myonuclei was characterized by extensive heterochromatinization, the aggregation of...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - June 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Depletion of the cellular cholesterol content reduces the dynamics of desmosomal cadherins and interferes with desmosomal strength
AbstractDesmosomal cadherins, desmocollins, and desmogleins are cholesterol-dependent entities responsible for the stable adhesion of desmosomes in epithelial cells. Here, we investigated the influence of cellular cholesterol depletion on the dynamic properties of the desmosomal cadherin desmocollin, particularly the lateral mobility and distribution of desmocollin 2 (Dsc2-YFP) in the plasma membrane, and how these properties influence the adhesion strength of desmosomes. Depletion of cellular cholesterol decreased the lateral mobility of Dsc2-YFP and caused dispersion of Dsc2-YFP in the plasma membrane of epithelial MDCK ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - June 10, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Indirect visualization of endogenous nuclear actin by correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) using an actin-directed chromobody
AbstractActin fulfills important cytoplasmic but also nuclear functions in eukaryotic cells. In the nucleus, actin modulates gene expression and chromatin remodeling. Monomeric (G-actin) and polymerized actin (F-actin) have been analyzed by fluorescence microscopy in the nucleus; however, the resolution at the ultrastructural level has not been investigated in great detail. We provide a first documentation of nuclear actin in mouse fibroblasts by electron microscopy (EM). For this, we employed correlative light and electron microscopy on the same section using actin-directed nanobodies recognizing endogenous monomeric and ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - June 1, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cellular and collagen reference values of gingival and periodontal ligament tissues in rats: a pilot study
The objective of the current study was to propose cellular and collagen reference values of gingival and periodontal ligament tissues in rat, using a simple and reliable quantitative method after decalcification. Mandibular samples of ten adult Sprague –Dawley rats were used. Mild decalcification was carried out using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) to preserve the morphology of tissues. Half of the samples were decalcified and the other half were not. The gingiva and the periodontal ligament were analyzed. Descriptive histology and compu ter-assisted image analysis were performed. The data showed that qualita...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

TAAR1 levels and sub-cellular distribution are cell line but not breast cancer subtype specific
AbstractTrace amine-associated receptors are G protein-coupled receptors of which TAAR1 is the most well-studied. Recently, Vattai et al. (J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 143:1637 –1647https://doi.org/10.1007/s00432-017-2420-8,2017) reported that expression of TAAR1 may be a marker of breast cancer (BC) survival, with a positive correlation also suggested between TAAR1 expression and HER2 positivity. Neither a role for TAAR1 in breast tissue, nor in cancer, had previously been suspected. We, therefore, sought to provide independent validation and to further examine these putative relationships. First, a bioinformatic analysi...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In Focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 21, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Changes in local capillarity of pure and hybrid MyHC muscle fiber types after nerve injury in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL)
AbstractRecently, we evaluated capillary indices without discrimination by fiber type in rat extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) 4  weeks after nerve cut (NC), after double nerve crush (double NCR) and in two controls, from the start (CON-1) and the end (CON-2) of the experiment. In the present study, we determined the capillary indices related to specific myosin heavy chain (MyHC) fiber types. Fiber-type composition and local capillarity were assessed from a single, composite, multicolor image, where different MyHC-fiber types and capillaries were shown simultaneously. Applying local capillary indices [the number ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Correction to: Similarities and differences in tissue distribution of DLK1 and DLK2 during E16.5 mouse embryogenesis
In the original publication of the article, some symbols in Figure  3 were not correctly aligned with the image. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - May 16, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Muc5b is mainly expressed and sialylated in the nasal olfactory epithelium whereas Muc5ac is exclusively expressed and fucosylated in the nasal respiratory epithelium
We report that Muc5ac is produced by goblet cells at the cell surface in the respiratory epithelium but is not expressed in the olfactory epithelium, whereas Muc5b is secreted by Bowman ’s glands situated in the lamina propria beneath the olfactory epithelium and also by goblet cells in the distal part of the respiratory epithelium. We also observed that Muc5b-deficient mice exhibited depletion of Bowman’s glands. Using lectins, we found that terminally O-glycosylated chains of Muc5b were sialylated but not fucosylated, whereas Muc5ac was fucosylated but not sialylated. Specific localization and specific termin...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 27, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 25, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Continuous cuprizone intoxication allows active experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction in C57BL/6 mice
AbstractOligodendrocyte degeneration is a hallmark of multiple sclerosis pathology, and protecting oligodendrocytes and myelin is likely to be of clinical relevance. Traditionally, oligodendrocyte and myelin degeneration are viewed as a direct consequence of an inflammatory attack, but metabolic defects might be equally important. Appropriate animal models to study the interplay of inflammation and metabolic injury are, therefore, needed. Here, we describe that in spite of its immunosuppressive effects, a continuous intoxication with cuprizone allows the induction of active experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) b...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 23, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Quantitative pixel intensity- and color-based image analysis on minimally compressed files: implications for whole-slide imaging
AbstractCurrent best practice in the quantitative analysis of microscopy images dictates that image files should be saved in a lossless format such as TIFF. Use of lossy files, including those processed with the JPEG algorithm, is highly discouraged due to effects of compression on pixel characteristics. However, with the growing popularity of whole-slide imaging (WSI) and its attendant large file sizes, compressed image files are becoming more prevelent. This prompted us to perform a color-based quantitative pixel analysis of minimally compressed WSI images. Sections from three tissues stained with one of three reagents r...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 13, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

A temporal and spatial map of axons in developing mouse prostate
AbstractProstate autonomic and sensory axons control glandular growth, fluid secretion, and smooth muscle contraction and are remodeled during cancer and inflammation. Morphogenetic signaling pathways reawakened during disease progression may drive this axon remodeling. These pathways are linked to proliferative activities in prostate cancer and benign prostate hyperplasia. However, little is known about which developmental signaling pathways guide axon investment into prostate. The first step in defining these pathways is pinpointing when axon subtypes first appear in prostate. We accomplished this by immunohistochemicall...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 11, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expression and localization of diacylglycerol kinase ζ in guinea pig cochlea and its functional implication under noise-exposure stress conditions
AbstractCochlear hair cells are essential for the mechanotransduction of hearing. Sensorineural hearing loss can be irreversible because hair cells have a minimal ability to repair or regenerate themselves once damaged. In order to develop therapeutic interventions to prevent hair cell loss, it is necessary to understand the signaling pathway operating in cochlear hair cells and its alteration upon damage. Diacylglycerol kinase (DGK) regulates intracellular signal transduction through phosphorylation of lipidic second messenger diacylglycerol. We have previously reported characteristic expression and localization patterns ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - April 8, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Interleukin-6 contributes to initiation of neuronal regeneration program in the remote dorsal root ganglia neurons after sciatic nerve injury
AbstractTo assess the potential role of IL-6 in sciatic nerve injury-induced activation of a pro-regenerative state in remote dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, we compared protein levels of SCG-10 and activated STAT3, as well as axon regeneration in IL-6 knockout (IL-6ko) mice and their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Unilateral sciatic nerve compression and transection upregulated SCG-10 protein levels and activated STAT3 in DRG neurons not only in lumbar but also in cervical segments of WT mice. A pro-regenerative state induced by prior sciatic nerve lesion in cervical DRG neurons of WT mice was also shown by testing for a...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Peroxisomes: new insights into protein sorting, dynamics, quality control, signalling and roles in health and disease
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 29, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Similarities and differences in tissue distribution of DLK1 and DLK2 during E16.5 mouse embryogenesis
This study provides additional information for understanding temporal and site-specific effects of DLK1 and DLK2 during embryo morphogenesis and cell differentiation. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - March 19, 2019 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research