Versican silencing in BeWo cells and its implication in gestational trophoblastic diseases
AbstractVersican is a proteoglycan known to interact with cells to influence their ability to proliferate, differentiate, migrate, invade and assemble extracellular matrix, with all of these cell functions present during placentation. In the placenta, cytotrophoblast cells have the ability to differentiate into the syncytiotrophoblast, a mechanism that is greatly increased in gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD). Nevertheless, the molecular signaling underlying the increased syncytiotrophoblast differentiation are still being unveiled and may result in novel therapeutic targets for GTD. Versican expression was investig...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 8, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anisomycin, a JNK and p38 activator, suppresses cell –cell junction formation in 2D cultures of K38 mouse keratinocyte cells and reduces claudin-7 expression, with an increase of paracellular permeability in 3D cultures
AbstractKeratinocytes in the oral mucosal epithelium, which is a non-keratinized stratified epithelium, are exposed to various stimuli from the oral cavity. JNK and p38 are stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are phosphorylated by various stimuli and are involved in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJs) in keratinocytes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of stress-activated MAPKs on TJs in a mouse keratinocyte cell line during cell –cell junction formation in two-dimensional (2D) cultures or stratification to form non-keratinized epithelium in 3D cultures. In 2D cultur...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dynamics of WNT signaling components in the human ovary from development to adulthood
AbstractWNT signaling has been shown to play a pivotal role in mammalian gonad development and sex differentiation; however, its role in the developing human ovary has not been investigated. We analyzed a quantitative mass spectrometry dataset to determine the expression of WNT signaling components between 47 and 137 days of development and in adult ovarian cortex tissue. WNT signaling was identified within the top ten canonical pathways of proteins detected at every developmental stage examined. We further examined the specific localization of WNT signaling components glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3B), frizzled 2 (FZD2),...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Anisomycin, a JNK and p38 activator, suppresses cell –cell junction formation in 2D cultures of K38 mouse keratinocyte cells and reduces claudin-7 expression, with an increase of paracellular permeability in 3D cultures
AbstractKeratinocytes in the oral mucosal epithelium, which is a non-keratinized stratified epithelium, are exposed to various stimuli from the oral cavity. JNK and p38 are stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) that are phosphorylated by various stimuli and are involved in the assembly and disassembly of tight junctions (TJs) in keratinocytes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of stress-activated MAPKs on TJs in a mouse keratinocyte cell line during cell –cell junction formation in two-dimensional (2D) cultures or stratification to form non-keratinized epithelium in 3D cultures. In 2D cultur...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dynamics of WNT signaling components in the human ovary from development to adulthood
AbstractWNT signaling has been shown to play a pivotal role in mammalian gonad development and sex differentiation; however, its role in the developing human ovary has not been investigated. We analyzed a quantitative mass spectrometry dataset to determine the expression of WNT signaling components between 47 and 137 days of development and in adult ovarian cortex tissue. WNT signaling was identified within the top ten canonical pathways of proteins detected at every developmental stage examined. We further examined the specific localization of WNT signaling components glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3B), frizzled 2 (FZD2),...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 4, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

How cancer cells attach to urinary bladder epithelium in vivo: study of the early stages of tumorigenesis in an orthotopic mouse bladder tumor model
AbstractThe majority of bladder cancers in humans are non-muscle-invasive cancers that recur frequently after standard treatment procedures. Mouse models are widely used to develop anti-tumor treatments. The purpose of our work was to establish an orthotopic mouse bladder tumor model and to explore early stages of implantation of cancerous MB49 cells in vivo using various labeling and microscopic techniques. To distinguish cancer cells from normal urothelial cells in mouse urinary bladders, we performed molecular characterization of MB49 cells before intravesical injection experiments. In this new approach we applied inter...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Air –blood barrier thickening and alterations of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in mouse lungs with disrupted hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system
In conclusion, disruption of systemic iron homeostasis affects the ultrast ructure of interalveolar septa which is characterized by membrane-bound iron storage in AE1 cells, thickening of the air–blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant pools. The functional relevance of these findings requires further analys is to better understand the impact of iron on intra-alveolar surfactant function. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

How cancer cells attach to urinary bladder epithelium in vivo: study of the early stages of tumorigenesis in an orthotopic mouse bladder tumor model
AbstractThe majority of bladder cancers in humans are non-muscle-invasive cancers that recur frequently after standard treatment procedures. Mouse models are widely used to develop anti-tumor treatments. The purpose of our work was to establish an orthotopic mouse bladder tumor model and to explore early stages of implantation of cancerous MB49 cells in vivo using various labeling and microscopic techniques. To distinguish cancer cells from normal urothelial cells in mouse urinary bladders, we performed molecular characterization of MB49 cells before intravesical injection experiments. In this new approach we applied inter...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Air –blood barrier thickening and alterations of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells in mouse lungs with disrupted hepcidin/ferroportin regulatory system
In conclusion, disruption of systemic iron homeostasis affects the ultrast ructure of interalveolar septa which is characterized by membrane-bound iron storage in AE1 cells, thickening of the air–blood barrier and hyperplasia and hypotrophy of AE2 cells despite normal total intracellular surfactant pools. The functional relevance of these findings requires further analys is to better understand the impact of iron on intra-alveolar surfactant function. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 3, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Wharton ’s jelly-derived mesenchymal cells as a new source for the generation of microtissues for tissue engineering applications
This study demonstrates the possibility of using WJSC to create MT containing viable and functional cells and abundant extracellular matrix. We hypothesize that WJSC-MT could be a promising alternative in TE protocols. However, future cell differentiation and in vivo studies are still needed to demonstrate the potential usefulness of WJSC-MT in regenerati ve medicine. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The role of connexins during early embryonic development: pluripotent stem cells, gene editing, and artificial embryonic tissues as tools to close the knowledge gap
AbstractSince almost 4 decades, connexins have been discussed as important regulators of embryogenesis. Several different members of the gene family can be detected in the preimplantation embryo and during gastrulation. However, genetically engineered mice deficient for every connexin expressed during early development are available and even double-deficient mice were generated. Interestingly, all of these mice complete gastrulation without any abnormalities. This raises the question if the role of connexins has been overrated or if other gene family members compensate and mask their importance. To answer this question, em...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The regulation of junctional actin dynamics by cell adhesion receptors
AbstractThe formation of cell –cell junctions and the development of stable cell–cell adhesion require the association of actin filaments with the sites of cell–cell adhesion. From the initial formation of cell–cell junctions, which appear as punctate, spot-like junctions, to the formation of a stable actin belt that run s adjacent to cell–cell junctions, the actin cytoskeleton is closely associated with the adhesion apparatus. Importantly, the junctional actin is highly dynamic, even after the maturation of intercellular junctions and the development of apico-basal polarity. Regulators of bot...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Functions and dysfunctions of the mammalian centrosome in health, disorders, disease, and aging
AbstractSince its discovery well over 100  years ago (Flemming, in Sitzungsber Akad Wissensch Wien 71:81–147, 1875; Van Beneden, in Bull Acad R Belg 42:35–97, 1876) the centrosome is increasingly being recognized as a most impactful organelle for its role not only as primary microtubule organizing center (MTOC) but also as a major comm unication center for signal transduction pathways and as a center for proteolytic activities. Its significance for cell cycle regulation has been well studied and we now also know that centrosome dysfunctions are implicated in numerous diseases and disorders including cancer...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The role of keratins in the digestive system: lessons from transgenic mouse models
AbstractKeratins are the largest subfamily of intermediate filament proteins. They are either type I acidic or type II basic keratins. Keratins form obligate heteropolymer in epithelial cells and their expression patterns are tissue-specific. Studies have shown that keratin mutations are the cause of many diseases in humans or predispose humans to acquiring them. Using mouse models to study keratin-associated human diseases is critical, because they allow researchers to get a better understanding of these diseases and their progressions, and so many such studies have been conducted. Acknowledging the importance, researches...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Oct-4 and CD44 in epithelial stem cells like of benign odontogenic lesions
AbstractBenign epithelial odontogenic lesions are great clinical importance entities that develop in the jaws from the tissues that form teeth. It has been shown that benign and malignant tumors are present in a large number of tumor stem cells, which has great implications in the development of these lesions. Oct-4 and CD44 have been demonstrated as important markers for tumoral stem cells. The aim of this study was investigate the presence of stem cell markers Oct-4 and CD44 in benign epithelial odontogenic lesions. Twenty odontogenic keratocysts (OKC), 20 ameloblastomas (AMB) of the solid/multicystic type and 20 adenoma...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Human trophoblast invasion: new and unexpected routes and functions
AbstractUntil recently, trophoblast invasion during human placentation was characterized by and restricted to invasion into uterine connective tissues and the uterine spiral arteries. The latter was explained to connect the arteries to the intervillous space of the placenta and to guarantee the blood supply of the mother to the placenta. Today, this picture has dramatically changed. Invasion of endoglandular trophoblast into uterine glands, already starting at the time of implantation, enables histiotrophic nutrition of the embryo prior to perfusion of the placenta with maternal blood. This is followed by invasion of endov...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Valproate inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells
In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of insulin-secreting Min6 cells to a clinical dose of VPA results in inositol depletion and loss of co-localization of subunit C of vH+-ATPase with insulin-secreting granules. Consequently, a reduction of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is observed following VPA exposure. These results merit caution and the reassessment of the clinical use of VPA. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - October 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 29, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Gephyrin: a key regulatory protein of inhibitory synapses and beyond
AbstractScaffolding proteins underlying postsynaptic membrane specializations are important structural and functional components of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. At inhibitory synapses, gephyrin was identified as anchoring protein. Gephyrin self-assembles into a complex flat submembranous lattice that slows the lateral mobility of glycine and GABAA receptors, thus allowing for their clustering at postsynaptic sites. The structure and stability of the gephyrin lattice is dynamically regulated by posttranslational modifications and interactions with binding partners. As gephyrin is the core scaffolding protein for...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 27, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Emerging role of contact-mediated cell communication in tissue development and diseases
AbstractCells of multicellular organisms are in continuous conversation with the neighbouring cells. The sender cells signal the receiver cells to influence their behaviour in transport, metabolism, motility, division, and growth. How cells communicate with each other can be categorized by biochemical signalling processes, which can be characterised by the distance between the sender cell and the receiver cell. Existing classifications describe autocrine signals as those where the sender cell is identical to the receiver cell. Complementary to this scenario, paracrine signalling describes signalling between a sender cell a...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate liver injury in a rat model of sepsis by activating Nrf2 signaling
This study was designed to investigate the possible therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on sepsis-induced liver injury. We also aimed to examine the role of Nrf2 activation in modulating the response to sepsis following BMSCs treatment. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were assigned to: control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-stem cell groups. Liver samples were processed for light and electron microscope examinations. Immunohistochemical localization of BAX, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was carried out. Liver homogenates ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Changes in ephrin gene expression during bone healing identify a restricted repertoire of ephrins  mediating fracture repair
AbstractTo identify the repertoire of ephrin genes that might regulate endochondral bone fracture repair, we examined changes in ephrin ligand and receptor (Eph) gene expression in fracture callus tissues during bone fracture healing. Ephrin and Eph proteins were then localized in the fracture callus tissues present when changes in gene expression were observed. Ephrin gene expression was widespread in fracture tissues, but the repertoire of ephrin genes with significant changes in expression that might suggest a regulatory role in fracture callus development was restricted to the ephrin A family membersEpha4, Epha5 and th...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effects of N-cadherin on neuronal migration during chicken optic tectum development
In this study, we investigated the overexpression or knockdown of N-cadherin in the optic tectum during chicken embryo development, and then analyzed the effect of N-cadherin on neuronal migration. The results showed that compared with the control group, in the N-cadherin knockdown group, the neuronal migration of the optic tectum was significantly affected and could not arrive at destination. The stratum griseum central layer of the optic tectum mainly includes multipolar neurons, which could not be formed after the knockdown of N-cadherin, and more neurons form the bipolar or monopolar neurons compared with the control g...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Monoamines in the enteric nervous system
AbstractRecent advances in neurogastroenterology have extended and refined our knowledge on the roles monoamines play in physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholamine noradrenaline, as the primary transmitter of postganglionic sympathetic neurons, orchestrates motility and secretory reflexes and controls arterial perfusion as well as immune functions. The catecholamine dopamine is produced by a subpopulation of enteric neurons which possibly use it as transmitter. Serotonin, largely produced by enterochromaffin cells and to a small extent by enteric neurons profoundly affects gut motility,...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate liver injury in a rat model of sepsis by activating Nrf2 signaling
This study was designed to investigate the possible therapeutic effect of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) on sepsis-induced liver injury. We also aimed to examine the role of Nrf2 activation in modulating the response to sepsis following BMSCs treatment. Twenty-four adult male albino rats were assigned to: control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS-stem cell groups. Liver samples were processed for light and electron microscope examinations. Immunohistochemical localization of BAX, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) was carried out. Liver homogenates ...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Changes in ephrin gene expression during bone healing identify a restricted repertoire of ephrins  mediating fracture repair
AbstractTo identify the repertoire of ephrin genes that might regulate endochondral bone fracture repair, we examined changes in ephrin ligand and receptor (Eph) gene expression in fracture callus tissues during bone fracture healing. Ephrin and Eph proteins were then localized in the fracture callus tissues present when changes in gene expression were observed. Ephrin gene expression was widespread in fracture tissues, but the repertoire of ephrin genes with significant changes in expression that might suggest a regulatory role in fracture callus development was restricted to the ephrin A family membersEpha4, Epha5 and th...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Effects of N-cadherin on neuronal migration during chicken optic tectum development
In this study, we investigated the overexpression or knockdown of N-cadherin in the optic tectum during chicken embryo development, and then analyzed the effect of N-cadherin on neuronal migration. The results showed that compared with the control group, in the N-cadherin knockdown group, the neuronal migration of the optic tectum was significantly affected and could not arrive at destination. The stratum griseum central layer of the optic tectum mainly includes multipolar neurons, which could not be formed after the knockdown of N-cadherin, and more neurons form the bipolar or monopolar neurons compared with the control g...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Monoamines in the enteric nervous system
AbstractRecent advances in neurogastroenterology have extended and refined our knowledge on the roles monoamines play in physiology and pathophysiology of the gastrointestinal tract. The catecholamine noradrenaline, as the primary transmitter of postganglionic sympathetic neurons, orchestrates motility and secretory reflexes and controls arterial perfusion as well as immune functions. The catecholamine dopamine is produced by a subpopulation of enteric neurons which possibly use it as transmitter. Serotonin, largely produced by enterochromaffin cells and to a small extent by enteric neurons profoundly affects gut motility,...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Distribution and morphology of baroreceptors in the rat carotid sinus as revealed by immunohistochemistry for P2X3 purinoceptors
AbstractThe morphological characteristics of baroreceptors in the rat carotid sinus were reevaluated by whole-mount preparations with immunohistochemistry for P2X3 purinoceptors using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Immunoreactive nerve endings for P2X3 were distributed in the internal carotid artery proximal to the carotid bifurcation, particularly in the region opposite the carotid body. Some pre-terminal axons in nerve endings were ensheathed by myelin sheaths immunoreactive for myelin basic protein. Pre-terminal axons ramified into several branches that extended two-dimensionally in every direction. The axon termin...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 22, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Pexophagy in yeast and mammals: an update on mysteries
AbstractPeroxisomes are ubiquitous and highly dynamic organelles that play a central role in the metabolism of lipids and reactive oxygen species. The importance of peroxisomal metabolism is illustrated by severe peroxisome biogenesis disorders in which functional peroxisomes are absent or disorders caused by single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. These multisystemic diseases manifest specific clinical and biochemical disturbances that originate from the affected peroxisomal pathways. An emerging role of the peroxisome has been identified in many types of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, aging, obe...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 21, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Blank spots on the map: some current questions on nuclear organization and genome architecture
AbstractThe past decades have provided remarkable insights into how the eukaryotic cell nucleus and the genome within it are organized. The combined use of imaging, biochemistry and molecular biology approaches has revealed several basic principles of nuclear architecture and function, including the existence of chromatin domains of various sizes, the presence of a large number of non-membranous intranuclear bodies, non-random positioning of genes and chromosomes in 3D space, and a prominent role of the nuclear lamina in organizing genomes. Despite this tremendous progress in elucidating the biological properties of the ce...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 20, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Association between radiation-induced cell death and clinically relevant radioresistance
AbstractRadiotherapy (RT) is one of the major modalities for the treatment of human cancer and has been established as an excellent local treatment for malignant tumors. However, the existence of radioresistant cells remains one of the most critical obstacles in RT. To know the characteristics of radioresistant cells, clinically relevant radioresistant (CRR) cell lines were established. CRR cells can continue to proliferate in vitro and in vivo after exposure to 2  Gy/day of X-rays for more than 30 days. Daily microscopic observation of the irradiated CRR cells has indicated that the increase in cell death is not obse...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 20, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Tyrosinase and nestin immunohistochemical expression in melanocytic nevi as a histopathologic pattern to trace melanocyte differentiation and nevogenesis
AbstractWhile histological analysis represents a powerful tool for the classification of melanocytic lesions as benign or malignant, a clear-cut distinction between a nevus and a melanoma is sometimes a challenging step of the diagnostic process. The immunohistochemical detection of tyrosinase, cardinal melanogenic enzyme during melanocytic maturation, has often been helpful in formulating a differential diagnosis due to the peculiar staining pattern in nevocytes compared with melanoma cells. Tyrosinase distribution in nevi appears to overlap with the cytoarchitectural changes observable within these lesions, that result i...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 19, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

STEM tomography of high-pressure frozen and freeze-substituted cells: a comparison of image stacks obtained at 200  kV or 300 kV
AbstractScanning transmission electron microscopic (STEM) tomography of high-pressure frozen, freeze-substituted semi-thin sections is one of multiple approaches for three-dimensional recording and visualization of electron microscopic samples. Compared to regular TEM tomography thicker sample sections can be investigated since chromatic aberration due to inelastic scattering is not a limit. The method is ideal to investigate subcellular compartments or organelles such as synapses, mitochondria, or microtubule arrangements. STEM tomography fills the gap between single-particle electron cryo-tomography, and methods that all...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 18, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

The peroxisome: an update on mysteries 2.0
AbstractPeroxisomes are key metabolic organelles, which contribute to cellular lipid metabolism, e.g. the β-oxidation of fatty acids and the synthesis of myelin sheath lipids, as well as cellular redox balance. Peroxisomal dysfunction has been linked to severe metabolic disorders in man, but peroxisomes are now also recognized as protective organelles with a wider significance in human health and poten tial impact on a large number of globally important human diseases such as neurodegeneration, obesity, cancer, and age-related disorders. Therefore, the interest in peroxisomes and their physiological functions has sign...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 15, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Visualization of internal in situ cell structure by atomic force microscopy
AbstractLight and electron microscopy have been used to study cell structure for many years, but atomic force microscopy is a more recent technique used to analyze cells, mainly due to the absence of techniques to prepare the samples. Isolated molecules or organelles, whole cells, and to a lesser extent in situ cell structure have been observed by different atomic force microscopy imaging modes. Here, we review efforts intended to analyze in situ the cell structures using approaches involving imaging of the surface of semithin sections of samples embedded in resin and sections prepared with an ultramicrotome. The results o...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 11, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Cellular localization and regulation of receptors and enzymes of the endocannabinoid system in intestinal and systemic inflammation
AbstractSurveys suggest thatCannabis provides benefit for people with inflammatory bowel disease. However, mechanisms underlying beneficial effects are not clear. We performed in situ hybridization RNAscope® combined with immunohistochemistry to show cell-specific distribution and regulation ofcannabinoid receptor 1 and2 (CB1,CB2),G protein-coupled receptor 55 (GPR55), andmonoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) mRNA in immune cells using murine models of intestinal and systemic inflammation. In healthy animals, the presence in enteric ganglia is high forCB1 mRNA, but low forCB2 andGPR55 mRNAs.MGL mRNA is predominant throughout t...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 8, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

In focus in HCB
(Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 8, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Intermediate compartment (IC): from pre-Golgi vacuoles to a semi-autonomous membrane system
AbstractDespite its discovery more than three decades ago and well-established role in protein sorting and trafficking in the early secretory pathway, the intermediate compartment (IC) has remained enigmatic. The prevailing view is that the IC evolved as a specialized organelle to mediate long-distance endoplasmic reticulum (ER) –Golgi communication in metazoan cells, but is lacking in other eukaryotes, such as plants and fungi. However, this distinction is difficult to reconcile with the high conservation of the core machineries that regulate early secretory trafficking from yeast to man. Also, it has remained uncle...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Growth rate and myofibroblast differentiation of desmoid fibroblast-like cells are modulated by TGF- β signaling
AbstractDesmoid-like fibromatosis (DF) is a rare myofibroblastic benign tumor, often associated with local and repeated injuries, spontaneous regression and stabilization of disease progression suggesting the involvement of altered Wnt/ β-catenin signaling activation and/or aberrant response of the DF cells to external environmental stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the response of DF cells to microenvironmental factors such as inflammatory and growth factors or hormones. We observed that the inflammatory cytokine, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1) stimulated cell growth and myofibroblast...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - September 1, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Meijer and Vloedman ’s histochemical demonstration of mitochondrial coupling obeys Lambert–Beer’s law in the myocardium
AbstractUncoupling of mitochondrial proton pumping and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production lowers mitochondrial efficiency. Current methods to determine mitochondrial efficiency require substantial amounts of tissue and permeabilization or isolation procedures. A simple histochemical method has been described by Meijer and Vloedman (Histochemistry 69:217 –232, 1980,https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00489769), but this was not quantitative. We found linear correlations between (1) absorbance and sections thickness and (2) absorbance and incubation time. Because the method obeys Lambert –Beer’s law, we can esti...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 29, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Expression and localization of aromatase in human gastric mucosa
AbstractParietal cells in the gastric mucosa are known not only as cells playing major roles in food digestion but also as cells bearing endocrine function. In addition to their production of gastrin and ghrelin, it has been recently revealed that these cells are also involved in the synthesis and secretion of estrogens with their expression of aromatase in experimental animals. Although aromatase activity has been detected in human gastric cancer cells and related cell lines, much less study has been done to ascertain the expression of the enzymatic activity in normal gastric mucosa. It has not been established which cell...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 28, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Gastric ulcer induced changes in substance P and Nk1, Nk2, Nk3 receptors expression in different stomach localizations with regard to intrinsic neuronal system
AbstractGastric ulceration, a focal tissue damage accompanied by inflammation, can influence other parts of the stomach. Substance P and its receptors are strongly involved in regulation of gastrointestinal motility, secretion and inflammation. The enteric nervous system is one of the regulators of gastrointestinal functioning and contributes to tissue response to the pathology. The pig, an omnivorous animal, is a valuable species for gastrointestinal experiments. Thus, the objective of the study was to verify whether the antral ulceration induces changes in the expression of substance P and tachykinin receptors in the nei...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 28, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Dietary phosphate toxicity: an emerging global health concern
AbstractPhosphate is a common ingredient in many healthy foods but, it is also present in foods containing additives and preservatives. When found in foods, phosphate is absorbed in the intestines and filtered from the blood by the kidneys. Generally, any excess is excreted in the urine. In renal pathologies, however, such as chronic kidney disease, a reduced renal ability to excrete phosphate can result in excess accumulation in the body. This accumulation can be a catalyst for widespread damage to the cellular components, bones, and cardiovascular structures. This in turn can reduce mortality. Because of an incomplete un...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Valproate inhibits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in beta cells
In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of insulin-secreting Min6 cells to a clinical dose of VPA results in inositol depletion and loss of co-localization of subunit C of vH+-ATPase with insulin-secreting granules. Consequently, a reduction of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is observed following VPA exposure. These results merit caution and the reassessment of the clinical use of VPA. (Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology)
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 25, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research

Gray-level co-occurrence matrix analysis of chromatin architecture in periportal and perivenous hepatocytes
In this study, we present results, indicating that periportal and perivenous hepatocytes, when stained using toluidine blue histological dye, have different chromatin textural patterns quantified with gray-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) method. Hepatic tissue was obtained from ten male, healthy mice. Chromatin structures were analyzed using GLCM. For each structure, we measured the values of angular second moment, inverse difference moment, GLCM Contrast, GLCM Variance, and GLCM Sum Variance. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant difference in all GLCM mathematical parameters except the contrast...
Source: Histochemistry and Cell Biology - August 24, 2018 Category: Biomedical Science Source Type: research