Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2889: Aptamers: Novel Therapeutics and Potential Role in Neuro-Oncology

Cancers, Vol. 12, Pages 2889: Aptamers: Novel Therapeutics and Potential Role in Neuro-Oncology Cancers doi: 10.3390/cancers12102889 Authors: Paola Amero Soumen Khatua Cristian Rodriguez-Aguayo Gabriel Lopez-Berestein A relatively new paradigm in cancer therapeutics is the use of cancer cell–specific aptamers, both as therapeutic agents and for targeted delivery of anticancer drugs. After the first therapeutic aptamer was described nearly 25 years ago, and the subsequent first aptamer drug approved, many efforts have been made to translate preclinical research into clinical oncology settings. Studies of aptamer-based technology have unveiled the vast potential of aptamers in therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Among pediatric solid cancers, brain tumors are the leading cause of death. Although a few aptamer-related translational studies have been performed in adult glioblastoma, the use of aptamers in pediatric neuro-oncology remains unexplored. This review will discuss the biology of aptamers, including mechanisms of targeting cell surface proteins, various modifications of aptamer structure to enhance therapeutic efficacy, the current state and challenges of aptamer use in neuro-oncology, and the potential therapeutic role of aptamers in pediatric brain tumors.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research

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Prog Brain Res. 2021;265:99-118. doi: 10.1016/bs.pbr.2021.04.012. Epub 2021 Aug 12.ABSTRACTGlioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an extremely aggressive primary human brain tumor. The median survival of GBM patients is 15 months in case of completing the modern complex treatment protocol. Chemotherapy can help to extend the life expectancy of patients. GBM treatment resistance is associated with cancer stem cells (CSCs). The present paper analyses the main reasons for ineffectiveness of the existing GBM treatment methods and suggests treating CSCs as a complex phenomenon, resulting from the coordinated interaction of normal ste...
Source: Brain Research - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
Int J Mol Med. 2021 Nov;48(5):205. doi: 10.3892/ijmm.2021.5038. Epub 2021 Sep 24.ABSTRACTGliomas are the most malignant and common tumors of the human brain, and the prognosis of glioma patients is extremely poor. MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play critical roles in different types of cancer by performing post‑transcriptional regulation of gene expression. Although miR‑218 has been demonstrated to be decreased in gliomas, its role in gliomas remains largely unknown. miR‑218 expression was analyzed in gliomas and normal brain tissues (control subjects) using a dataset from The Cancer Genome Atlas. A series of in vitro an...
Source: Molecular Medicine - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusions: The main explanatory variables of AF that emerged in our models point to a potential target of improving AF management in pediatric BT survivors.
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
In conclusion, the CNA of the IFN gene cluster is associated with increased mortality and decreased overall survival in cancer. Thus, in the prospect of immunotherapy, CNA of IFN gene may be a useful biomarker to predict the prognosis of patients and also as a potential companion diagnostic test to prescribe IFN α/β therapy.PMID:34555656 | DOI:10.1016/j.neo.2021.08.004
Source: Neoplasia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
u The behavior of lower-grade glioma (LGG) is changing over time, spontaneously, and in reaction to treatments. First, due to genomic instability and clonal expansion, although LGG progresses slowly during the early period of the disease, its growth velocity will accelerate when this tumor will transform to a higher grade of malignancy. Furthermore, its pattern of progression may change following therapy, e.g., by switching from a proliferative towards a more diffuse profile, in particular after surgical resection. In parallel to this plasticity of the neoplasm, the brain itself is constantly adapting to the tumor and ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
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Source: Cellular Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
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Source: Indian Journal of Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Environ Int. 2021 Sep 18;158:106877. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106877. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a global environmental pollutant that increases risk for several types of cancers and is increasingly being recognized as a neurotoxicant. Traditionally, the brain has been viewed as a largely post-mitotic organ due to its specialized composition of neurons, and consequently, clastogenic effects were not considered in neurotoxicology. Today, we understand the brain is composed of at least eight distinct cell types - most of which continue mitotic activity throughout lifespan. We have learned...
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: research
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Source: The British Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: research
Environ Int. 2021 Sep 18;158:106877. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2021.106877. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTHexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is a global environmental pollutant that increases risk for several types of cancers and is increasingly being recognized as a neurotoxicant. Traditionally, the brain has been viewed as a largely post-mitotic organ due to its specialized composition of neurons, and consequently, clastogenic effects were not considered in neurotoxicology. Today, we understand the brain is composed of at least eight distinct cell types - most of which continue mitotic activity throughout lifespan. We have learned...
Source: Environment International - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Source Type: research
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