Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: an overview.

Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder: an overview. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2020;80(3):256-272 Authors: Ramakrishnan P, Nagarajan D Abstract Neuromyelitis optica also known as Devic's syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder that predominantly targets the optic nerves and the spinal cord. It is a debilitating disorder that damages a person's health. Initially it was considered as a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS). But, in 2004, a water channel protein associated antibody was found to be responsible for the disease. This helped in distinguishing the disease from multiple sclerosis. Multiple molecular mechanisms like complement dependent cytotoxicity, antibody‑dependent cellular cytotoxicity etc. contribute to the disease. Certain environmental and genetic factors have been identified as risk factors of the disease. Initially, the disease was thought to affect only the optic nerves and the spinal cord. But certain regions of the brain have also been found to be attacked during the course of the disease. A small proportion of the patients have been found to be seronegative for the AQP4‑IgG. Recently, the term neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder has been framed to include all the features of the disease. The disease remains incurable despite the availability of various treatment modalities. This review presents critical information obtained from prior studies regarding the disease and also raise several questions to understand the research gaps i...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars) Source Type: research

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AbstractMultiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disorder induced by the infiltration of autoreactive immune cells into the central nervous system. Akt/PKB signaling pathway is crucially involved in T cell development and survival. We aimed to determine whether Akt1 expression levels of regulatory T (Treg) cells are altered in MS and are associated with disease activity. Relapsing –remitting multiple sclerosis (RR-MS,n = 17) patients and healthy individuals (n = 20) were enrolled. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated and anti-CD3, -CD4, -CD8, -CD25, -CD127 monoclonal antibodies were...
Source: Acta Neurologica Belgica - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is characterized by immune cell infiltration to the central nervous system (CNS) as well as loss of myelin. Characterization of the cells in lesions of MS patients revealed an important accumulation of myeloid cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). Data from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS supports the importance of peripheral myeloid cells in the disease pathology. However, the majority of MS therapies focus on lymphocytes. As we will discuss in this review, multiple strategies are now in place to target myeloid cells in clinical trials. These strategie...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
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Source: Autoimmunity Highlights - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Authors: Kamal A, Hosny M, Abd Elwahab A, Shawki Kamal Y, Shehata HS, Hassan A Abstract BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Aberrant expression of transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) has been suggested to underlie different immunological disorders as FOXP3 expression is essential for T regulatory cells (Tregs) to maintain their suppressive and anti-inflammatory functions and exert immunologic self-tolerance. Interleukin-35 (IL-35) is an important immunosuppressive cytokine that is produced mainly by CD4+ FOXP3+ Tregs. OBJECTIVES: To a...
Source: Revue Neurologique - Category: Neurology Tags: Rev Neurol (Paris) Source Type: research
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Source: Advances in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Adv Immunol Source Type: research
Helminth parasites are effective in biasing Th2 immunity and inducing regulatory pathways that minimize excessive inflammation within their hosts, thus allowing chronic infection to occur whilst also suppressing bystander atopic or autoimmune diseases. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory lesions within the central nervous system; there are very limited therapeutic options for the progressive forms of the disease and none are curative. Here, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model to examine if the intestinal helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus and it...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
The advances of immunology in the last decades have been spectacular, both at the basic and the translational level. This progress has led to the discovery of many immunotherapies for autoimmune diseases and cancer. Besides, whole-genome sequencing studies have confirmed that the genetic susceptibility for autoimmune diseases such as multiple...
Source: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences - Category: Science Authors: Tags: Commentaries Source Type: research
Abstract Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system that eventually leads to progressive neurodegeneration and disability. Recent findings highlighted the emerging role of each target of the endocannabinoid system in controlling the symptoms and disease progression of multiple sclerosis. Therefore, multi-target modulators of the endocannabinoid system could provide a more effective pharmacological strategy as compared to the single target modulation. In this work, N-cycloheptyl-1,2-dihydro-5-bromo-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-6-methyl-2-oxo-pyridine-3-carboxamide (B2) w...
Source: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Eur J Med Chem Source Type: research
AbstractMultiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease, characterized by multiple demyelination of axons in both white and gray matter in the Central Nervous System (CNS). There is increasing evidence to support the notion that angiogenesis and chronic inflammation are mutually related. Different immune cells, including monocytes –macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, mast cells (MCs) and dendritic cells are able to secrete an array of angiogenic cytokines, which promote growth, migration, and activation of endothelial cells. MCs play various roles in MS pathogenesis, influencing the innate immune response in peri...
Source: Inflammation Research - Category: Research Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: The human myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (huMOG-EAE) model, generates B-cell driven demyelination in mice, making it a suitable multiple sclerosis model to study B cell depletion. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effect of subcutaneous anti-CD20 antibody treatment on huMOG-EAE gray matter (GM) pathology. METHODS: C57Bl/6, 8-week old mice were immunized with 200 huMOG1-125 and treated with 50 μg/mouse of anti-CD20 antibody (n = 16) or isotype control (n = 16). Serial brain volumetric 9.4 T MRI scans was performed at ...
Source: Experimental Neurology - Category: Neurology Authors: Tags: Exp Neurol Source Type: research
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