< em > Salvia divinorum < /em > increases alcohol intake and tonic immobility whilst decreasing food intake in Wistar rats
In conclusion, S. divinorum or Sal-A stimulated alcohol consumption in rats with a history of alcohol intake and independent of previous exposure respectively, also SDE or Sal-A elicited an anorexigenic effect, and increased tonic immobility as indicative of anxious-like behavior.The kappa-opioid system (KOP) is the key in drug abuse. Of all the compounds isolated from Salvia divinorum (S. divinorum), salvinorin-A (Sal-A) is predominant. Further, Sal-A is the only compound within S. divinorum which is reported to have psychoactive properties as a powerful kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist. Based on the key role of the K...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Priscila V ázquez-León Ulises Arenas-Mart ínez Dafne C órdova-Maqueda Tom ás Fregoso-Aguilar Eduardo Ram írez-San Juan Abraham Miranda-P áez Source Type: research

Neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus: a systematic review
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):58-68. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-007.ABSTRACTForced swimming is a common exercise method used for its low cost and easy management, as seen in studies with the hippocampus. Since it is applied for varied research purposes many protocols are available with diverse aspects of physical intensity, time and periodicity, which produces variable outcomes. In the present study, we performed a systematic review to stress the neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus. Behavior, antioxidant levels, neurotrophins and inflammatory markers were the main topics examined u...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodrigo Freire Oliveira Karina Maia Paiva Gabriel Sousa da Rocha Marco Aur élio de Moura Freire Dayane Pessoa de Ara újo Luc ídio Cleberson de Oliveira Fausto Pierdon á Guzen Paulo Leonardo Ara újo de Gois Morais Jos é Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalca Source Type: research

Putative mechanism of neurological damage in COVID-19 infection
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):69-79. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-008.ABSTRACTThe recent pandemic of the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected around 192 countries, and projections have shown that around 40% to 70% of world population could be infected in the next months. COVID-19 is caused by the virus SARS- CoV-2, it enters the cells through the ACE2 receptor (angiotensin converting enzyme 2). It is well known that SARS-CoV-2 could develop mild, moderate, and severe respiratory symptoms that could lead to death. The virus receptor is expressed in different organs such as the lungs, kidney, intesti...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cindy Bandala Jos é Luis Cortes-Altamirano Samuel Reyes-Long Eleazar Lara-Padilla Ian Ilizaliturri-Flores Alfonso Alfaro-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Regular aerobic exercise increased VEGF levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles correlated with hippocampal learning and VEGF levels
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):1-9. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-001.ABSTRACTPhysical exercise improves learning and memory abilities by increasing the levels of several growth factors in the hippocampus. One growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is primarily produced in the muscles and not only increases in the periphery during exercise but can also cross the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of regular aerobic chronic exercise on different types of muscle fibers and the relationships between learning/memory and muscle induced-VEGF. Following a one-week adaptatio...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Asli Karakilic Oguz Yuksel Servet Kizildag Ferda Hosgorler Birsu Topcugil Rabia Ilgin Hikmet Gumus Guven Guvendi Basar Koc Sevim Kandis Mehmet Ates Nazan Uysal Source Type: research

Aminoguanidine ameliorates ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits in rats by inhibiting AGE-mediated A β production
In this study, we investigated whether AG protects against ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits and Aβ deposition in rats. Animals in the ovariectomy group (OVX) group, and those in the OVX+AG group were treated with AG (100 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Learning and memory were evaluated using the electric Y maze. AGE and Aβ1-40 biochemical assessments were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Furthermore, evaluations of brain amyloid precursor protein 695 (APP695) mRNA expression by RT-PCR and AGE expression by immunohistochemistry were carried out. Ovariectomized rats exhibited memory imp...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dan Di Zhang Yan Gang Wang Chun Yan Liu Ze Hou Wang Yue Fen Wang Source Type: research

Experimental chronic sleep fragmentation alters seizure susceptibility and brain levels of interleukins 1 β and 6
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):96-109. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-010.ABSTRACTBrain hyperexcitability in sleep apnea is believed to be provoked by hypoxemia, but sleep fragmentation can also play a significant role. Sleep fragmentation can trigger inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep fragmentation on seizure susceptibility and brain cytokine profile. Chronic sleep fragmentation in male rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by the treadmill method. Rats were randomized to: treadmill control (TC); activity control (AC) and sleep fragmentation (SF) grou...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Željko Grubač Nikola Šutulović Djudja Jeroti ć Sonja Šuvakov Aleksandra Ra šić-Marković Djuro Macut Tatjana Simi ć Olivera Stanojlovi ć Dragan Hrn čić Source Type: research

On the relation of white matter brain abnormalities and the asociality symptoms in schizophrenia outpatients - a DTI study
In conclusion, the presented study confirms the previous evidence on the widespread white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia outpatients and indicates the existence of the subtle but specific association between fractional anisotropy in the fronto-temporo-parietal regions with the asociality.Recent MRI studies have shown that abnormal functional connections in schizophrenia coexist with subtle changes in the structure of axons in the brain. However, there is a discrepancy in the literature concerning the relationship between white matter abnormalities and the occurrence of negative psychopathological symptoms. In the pr...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Przemys ław Adamczyk Olga P łonka Dawid Kruk Martin J áni Piotr B łądziński Aneta Kalisz Stynke Castelein Andrzej Cechnicki Miroslaw Wyczesany Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation effects on learning, memory and glutamate and GABA < sub > A < /sub > receptor subunit gene expression in kindled rats
In this study, the effect of low frequency stimulation (LFS) on spatial learning and memory was assessed in kindled animals and followed for one month. Fully kindled rats received LFS at 4 times (immediately, 6 h, 24 h and 30 h following the final kindling stimulation). Applying LFS improved kindled animals' performance in the Barnes maze test. This LFS action was accompanied by a decrease in NR2B gene expression, an increase in the gene expression of the α subunit of calcineurin A and an increased NR2A/NR2B ratio in kindled animals. In addition, the gene expression of the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit increased at...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mona Faraz Nastaran Kosarmadar Mahmoud Rezaei Meysam Zare Mohammad Javan Victoria Barkley Amir Shojaei Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh Source Type: research

Effects of vitamin E on neurodegenerative diseases: an update
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):21-33. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-003.ABSTRACTVitamin E deficiency is associated with many neurological problems. Although the mechanisms of vitamin E action in neurodegenerative diseases are not clear, there are many possible mechanisms. Examples of such mechanisms are the protective effects of vitamin E against oxidative stress damage and its suppressive role in the expression of many genes involved in the development of neurodegeneration. Many studies have evaluated the relationship between vitamin E intake or vitamin E levels in body fluids and neurodegenerative diseases. Some studies ...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehmet Arif Icer Neslihan Arslan Makbule Gezmen-Karadag Source Type: research

< em > Salvia divinorum < /em > increases alcohol intake and tonic immobility whilst decreasing food intake in Wistar rats
In conclusion, S. divinorum or Sal-A stimulated alcohol consumption in rats with a history of alcohol intake and independent of previous exposure respectively, also SDE or Sal-A elicited an anorexigenic effect, and increased tonic immobility as indicative of anxious-like behavior.The kappa-opioid system (KOP) is the key in drug abuse. Of all the compounds isolated from Salvia divinorum (S. divinorum), salvinorin-A (Sal-A) is predominant. Further, Sal-A is the only compound within S. divinorum which is reported to have psychoactive properties as a powerful kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist. Based on the key role of the K...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Priscila V ázquez-León Ulises Arenas-Mart ínez Dafne C órdova-Maqueda Tom ás Fregoso-Aguilar Eduardo Ram írez-San Juan Abraham Miranda-P áez Source Type: research

Neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus: a systematic review
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):58-68. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-007.ABSTRACTForced swimming is a common exercise method used for its low cost and easy management, as seen in studies with the hippocampus. Since it is applied for varied research purposes many protocols are available with diverse aspects of physical intensity, time and periodicity, which produces variable outcomes. In the present study, we performed a systematic review to stress the neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus. Behavior, antioxidant levels, neurotrophins and inflammatory markers were the main topics examined u...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodrigo Freire Oliveira Karina Maia Paiva Gabriel Sousa da Rocha Marco Aur élio de Moura Freire Dayane Pessoa de Ara újo Luc ídio Cleberson de Oliveira Fausto Pierdon á Guzen Paulo Leonardo Ara újo de Gois Morais Jos é Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalca Source Type: research

Putative mechanism of neurological damage in COVID-19 infection
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):69-79. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-008.ABSTRACTThe recent pandemic of the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected around 192 countries, and projections have shown that around 40% to 70% of world population could be infected in the next months. COVID-19 is caused by the virus SARS- CoV-2, it enters the cells through the ACE2 receptor (angiotensin converting enzyme 2). It is well known that SARS-CoV-2 could develop mild, moderate, and severe respiratory symptoms that could lead to death. The virus receptor is expressed in different organs such as the lungs, kidney, intesti...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cindy Bandala Jos é Luis Cortes-Altamirano Samuel Reyes-Long Eleazar Lara-Padilla Ian Ilizaliturri-Flores Alfonso Alfaro-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Regular aerobic exercise increased VEGF levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles correlated with hippocampal learning and VEGF levels
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):1-9. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-001.ABSTRACTPhysical exercise improves learning and memory abilities by increasing the levels of several growth factors in the hippocampus. One growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is primarily produced in the muscles and not only increases in the periphery during exercise but can also cross the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of regular aerobic chronic exercise on different types of muscle fibers and the relationships between learning/memory and muscle induced-VEGF. Following a one-week adaptatio...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Asli Karakilic Oguz Yuksel Servet Kizildag Ferda Hosgorler Birsu Topcugil Rabia Ilgin Hikmet Gumus Guven Guvendi Basar Koc Sevim Kandis Mehmet Ates Nazan Uysal Source Type: research

Aminoguanidine ameliorates ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits in rats by inhibiting AGE-mediated A β production
In this study, we investigated whether AG protects against ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits and Aβ deposition in rats. Animals in the ovariectomy group (OVX) group, and those in the OVX+AG group were treated with AG (100 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Learning and memory were evaluated using the electric Y maze. AGE and Aβ1-40 biochemical assessments were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Furthermore, evaluations of brain amyloid precursor protein 695 (APP695) mRNA expression by RT-PCR and AGE expression by immunohistochemistry were carried out. Ovariectomized rats exhibited memory imp...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dan Di Zhang Yan Gang Wang Chun Yan Liu Ze Hou Wang Yue Fen Wang Source Type: research

Experimental chronic sleep fragmentation alters seizure susceptibility and brain levels of interleukins 1 β and 6
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):96-109. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-010.ABSTRACTBrain hyperexcitability in sleep apnea is believed to be provoked by hypoxemia, but sleep fragmentation can also play a significant role. Sleep fragmentation can trigger inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep fragmentation on seizure susceptibility and brain cytokine profile. Chronic sleep fragmentation in male rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by the treadmill method. Rats were randomized to: treadmill control (TC); activity control (AC) and sleep fragmentation (SF) grou...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Željko Grubač Nikola Šutulović Djudja Jeroti ć Sonja Šuvakov Aleksandra Ra šić-Marković Djuro Macut Tatjana Simi ć Olivera Stanojlovi ć Dragan Hrn čić Source Type: research

On the relation of white matter brain abnormalities and the asociality symptoms in schizophrenia outpatients - a DTI study
In conclusion, the presented study confirms the previous evidence on the widespread white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia outpatients and indicates the existence of the subtle but specific association between fractional anisotropy in the fronto-temporo-parietal regions with the asociality.Recent MRI studies have shown that abnormal functional connections in schizophrenia coexist with subtle changes in the structure of axons in the brain. However, there is a discrepancy in the literature concerning the relationship between white matter abnormalities and the occurrence of negative psychopathological symptoms. In the pr...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Przemys ław Adamczyk Olga P łonka Dawid Kruk Martin J áni Piotr B łądziński Aneta Kalisz Stynke Castelein Andrzej Cechnicki Miroslaw Wyczesany Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation effects on learning, memory and glutamate and GABA < sub > A < /sub > receptor subunit gene expression in kindled rats
In this study, the effect of low frequency stimulation (LFS) on spatial learning and memory was assessed in kindled animals and followed for one month. Fully kindled rats received LFS at 4 times (immediately, 6 h, 24 h and 30 h following the final kindling stimulation). Applying LFS improved kindled animals' performance in the Barnes maze test. This LFS action was accompanied by a decrease in NR2B gene expression, an increase in the gene expression of the α subunit of calcineurin A and an increased NR2A/NR2B ratio in kindled animals. In addition, the gene expression of the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit increased at...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mona Faraz Nastaran Kosarmadar Mahmoud Rezaei Meysam Zare Mohammad Javan Victoria Barkley Amir Shojaei Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh Source Type: research

Effects of vitamin E on neurodegenerative diseases: an update
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):21-33. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-003.ABSTRACTVitamin E deficiency is associated with many neurological problems. Although the mechanisms of vitamin E action in neurodegenerative diseases are not clear, there are many possible mechanisms. Examples of such mechanisms are the protective effects of vitamin E against oxidative stress damage and its suppressive role in the expression of many genes involved in the development of neurodegeneration. Many studies have evaluated the relationship between vitamin E intake or vitamin E levels in body fluids and neurodegenerative diseases. Some studies ...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehmet Arif Icer Neslihan Arslan Makbule Gezmen-Karadag Source Type: research

< em > Salvia divinorum < /em > increases alcohol intake and tonic immobility whilst decreasing food intake in Wistar rats
In conclusion, S. divinorum or Sal-A stimulated alcohol consumption in rats with a history of alcohol intake and independent of previous exposure respectively, also SDE or Sal-A elicited an anorexigenic effect, and increased tonic immobility as indicative of anxious-like behavior.The kappa-opioid system (KOP) is the key in drug abuse. Of all the compounds isolated from Salvia divinorum (S. divinorum), salvinorin-A (Sal-A) is predominant. Further, Sal-A is the only compound within S. divinorum which is reported to have psychoactive properties as a powerful kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist. Based on the key role of the K...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Priscila V ázquez-León Ulises Arenas-Mart ínez Dafne C órdova-Maqueda Tom ás Fregoso-Aguilar Eduardo Ram írez-San Juan Abraham Miranda-P áez Source Type: research

Neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus: a systematic review
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):58-68. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-007.ABSTRACTForced swimming is a common exercise method used for its low cost and easy management, as seen in studies with the hippocampus. Since it is applied for varied research purposes many protocols are available with diverse aspects of physical intensity, time and periodicity, which produces variable outcomes. In the present study, we performed a systematic review to stress the neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus. Behavior, antioxidant levels, neurotrophins and inflammatory markers were the main topics examined u...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodrigo Freire Oliveira Karina Maia Paiva Gabriel Sousa da Rocha Marco Aur élio de Moura Freire Dayane Pessoa de Ara újo Luc ídio Cleberson de Oliveira Fausto Pierdon á Guzen Paulo Leonardo Ara újo de Gois Morais Jos é Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalca Source Type: research

Putative mechanism of neurological damage in COVID-19 infection
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):69-79. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-008.ABSTRACTThe recent pandemic of the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected around 192 countries, and projections have shown that around 40% to 70% of world population could be infected in the next months. COVID-19 is caused by the virus SARS- CoV-2, it enters the cells through the ACE2 receptor (angiotensin converting enzyme 2). It is well known that SARS-CoV-2 could develop mild, moderate, and severe respiratory symptoms that could lead to death. The virus receptor is expressed in different organs such as the lungs, kidney, intesti...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cindy Bandala Jos é Luis Cortes-Altamirano Samuel Reyes-Long Eleazar Lara-Padilla Ian Ilizaliturri-Flores Alfonso Alfaro-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Regular aerobic exercise increased VEGF levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles correlated with hippocampal learning and VEGF levels
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):1-9. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-001.ABSTRACTPhysical exercise improves learning and memory abilities by increasing the levels of several growth factors in the hippocampus. One growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is primarily produced in the muscles and not only increases in the periphery during exercise but can also cross the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of regular aerobic chronic exercise on different types of muscle fibers and the relationships between learning/memory and muscle induced-VEGF. Following a one-week adaptatio...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Asli Karakilic Oguz Yuksel Servet Kizildag Ferda Hosgorler Birsu Topcugil Rabia Ilgin Hikmet Gumus Guven Guvendi Basar Koc Sevim Kandis Mehmet Ates Nazan Uysal Source Type: research

Aminoguanidine ameliorates ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits in rats by inhibiting AGE-mediated A β production
In this study, we investigated whether AG protects against ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits and Aβ deposition in rats. Animals in the ovariectomy group (OVX) group, and those in the OVX+AG group were treated with AG (100 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Learning and memory were evaluated using the electric Y maze. AGE and Aβ1-40 biochemical assessments were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Furthermore, evaluations of brain amyloid precursor protein 695 (APP695) mRNA expression by RT-PCR and AGE expression by immunohistochemistry were carried out. Ovariectomized rats exhibited memory imp...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dan Di Zhang Yan Gang Wang Chun Yan Liu Ze Hou Wang Yue Fen Wang Source Type: research

Experimental chronic sleep fragmentation alters seizure susceptibility and brain levels of interleukins 1 β and 6
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):96-109. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-010.ABSTRACTBrain hyperexcitability in sleep apnea is believed to be provoked by hypoxemia, but sleep fragmentation can also play a significant role. Sleep fragmentation can trigger inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep fragmentation on seizure susceptibility and brain cytokine profile. Chronic sleep fragmentation in male rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by the treadmill method. Rats were randomized to: treadmill control (TC); activity control (AC) and sleep fragmentation (SF) grou...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Željko Grubač Nikola Šutulović Djudja Jeroti ć Sonja Šuvakov Aleksandra Ra šić-Marković Djuro Macut Tatjana Simi ć Olivera Stanojlovi ć Dragan Hrn čić Source Type: research

On the relation of white matter brain abnormalities and the asociality symptoms in schizophrenia outpatients - a DTI study
In conclusion, the presented study confirms the previous evidence on the widespread white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia outpatients and indicates the existence of the subtle but specific association between fractional anisotropy in the fronto-temporo-parietal regions with the asociality.Recent MRI studies have shown that abnormal functional connections in schizophrenia coexist with subtle changes in the structure of axons in the brain. However, there is a discrepancy in the literature concerning the relationship between white matter abnormalities and the occurrence of negative psychopathological symptoms. In the pr...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Przemys ław Adamczyk Olga P łonka Dawid Kruk Martin J áni Piotr B łądziński Aneta Kalisz Stynke Castelein Andrzej Cechnicki Miroslaw Wyczesany Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation effects on learning, memory and glutamate and GABA < sub > A < /sub > receptor subunit gene expression in kindled rats
In this study, the effect of low frequency stimulation (LFS) on spatial learning and memory was assessed in kindled animals and followed for one month. Fully kindled rats received LFS at 4 times (immediately, 6 h, 24 h and 30 h following the final kindling stimulation). Applying LFS improved kindled animals' performance in the Barnes maze test. This LFS action was accompanied by a decrease in NR2B gene expression, an increase in the gene expression of the α subunit of calcineurin A and an increased NR2A/NR2B ratio in kindled animals. In addition, the gene expression of the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit increased at...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mona Faraz Nastaran Kosarmadar Mahmoud Rezaei Meysam Zare Mohammad Javan Victoria Barkley Amir Shojaei Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh Source Type: research

Effects of vitamin E on neurodegenerative diseases: an update
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):21-33. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-003.ABSTRACTVitamin E deficiency is associated with many neurological problems. Although the mechanisms of vitamin E action in neurodegenerative diseases are not clear, there are many possible mechanisms. Examples of such mechanisms are the protective effects of vitamin E against oxidative stress damage and its suppressive role in the expression of many genes involved in the development of neurodegeneration. Many studies have evaluated the relationship between vitamin E intake or vitamin E levels in body fluids and neurodegenerative diseases. Some studies ...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehmet Arif Icer Neslihan Arslan Makbule Gezmen-Karadag Source Type: research

< em > Salvia divinorum < /em > increases alcohol intake and tonic immobility whilst decreasing food intake in Wistar rats
In conclusion, S. divinorum or Sal-A stimulated alcohol consumption in rats with a history of alcohol intake and independent of previous exposure respectively, also SDE or Sal-A elicited an anorexigenic effect, and increased tonic immobility as indicative of anxious-like behavior.The kappa-opioid system (KOP) is the key in drug abuse. Of all the compounds isolated from Salvia divinorum (S. divinorum), salvinorin-A (Sal-A) is predominant. Further, Sal-A is the only compound within S. divinorum which is reported to have psychoactive properties as a powerful kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist. Based on the key role of the K...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Priscila V ázquez-León Ulises Arenas-Mart ínez Dafne C órdova-Maqueda Tom ás Fregoso-Aguilar Eduardo Ram írez-San Juan Abraham Miranda-P áez Source Type: research

Neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus: a systematic review
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):58-68. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-007.ABSTRACTForced swimming is a common exercise method used for its low cost and easy management, as seen in studies with the hippocampus. Since it is applied for varied research purposes many protocols are available with diverse aspects of physical intensity, time and periodicity, which produces variable outcomes. In the present study, we performed a systematic review to stress the neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus. Behavior, antioxidant levels, neurotrophins and inflammatory markers were the main topics examined u...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodrigo Freire Oliveira Karina Maia Paiva Gabriel Sousa da Rocha Marco Aur élio de Moura Freire Dayane Pessoa de Ara újo Luc ídio Cleberson de Oliveira Fausto Pierdon á Guzen Paulo Leonardo Ara újo de Gois Morais Jos é Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalca Source Type: research

Putative mechanism of neurological damage in COVID-19 infection
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):69-79. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-008.ABSTRACTThe recent pandemic of the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected around 192 countries, and projections have shown that around 40% to 70% of world population could be infected in the next months. COVID-19 is caused by the virus SARS- CoV-2, it enters the cells through the ACE2 receptor (angiotensin converting enzyme 2). It is well known that SARS-CoV-2 could develop mild, moderate, and severe respiratory symptoms that could lead to death. The virus receptor is expressed in different organs such as the lungs, kidney, intesti...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cindy Bandala Jos é Luis Cortes-Altamirano Samuel Reyes-Long Eleazar Lara-Padilla Ian Ilizaliturri-Flores Alfonso Alfaro-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Regular aerobic exercise increased VEGF levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles correlated with hippocampal learning and VEGF levels
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):1-9. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-001.ABSTRACTPhysical exercise improves learning and memory abilities by increasing the levels of several growth factors in the hippocampus. One growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is primarily produced in the muscles and not only increases in the periphery during exercise but can also cross the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of regular aerobic chronic exercise on different types of muscle fibers and the relationships between learning/memory and muscle induced-VEGF. Following a one-week adaptatio...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Asli Karakilic Oguz Yuksel Servet Kizildag Ferda Hosgorler Birsu Topcugil Rabia Ilgin Hikmet Gumus Guven Guvendi Basar Koc Sevim Kandis Mehmet Ates Nazan Uysal Source Type: research

Aminoguanidine ameliorates ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits in rats by inhibiting AGE-mediated A β production
In this study, we investigated whether AG protects against ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits and Aβ deposition in rats. Animals in the ovariectomy group (OVX) group, and those in the OVX+AG group were treated with AG (100 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Learning and memory were evaluated using the electric Y maze. AGE and Aβ1-40 biochemical assessments were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Furthermore, evaluations of brain amyloid precursor protein 695 (APP695) mRNA expression by RT-PCR and AGE expression by immunohistochemistry were carried out. Ovariectomized rats exhibited memory imp...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dan Di Zhang Yan Gang Wang Chun Yan Liu Ze Hou Wang Yue Fen Wang Source Type: research

Experimental chronic sleep fragmentation alters seizure susceptibility and brain levels of interleukins 1 β and 6
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):96-109. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-010.ABSTRACTBrain hyperexcitability in sleep apnea is believed to be provoked by hypoxemia, but sleep fragmentation can also play a significant role. Sleep fragmentation can trigger inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep fragmentation on seizure susceptibility and brain cytokine profile. Chronic sleep fragmentation in male rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by the treadmill method. Rats were randomized to: treadmill control (TC); activity control (AC) and sleep fragmentation (SF) grou...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Željko Grubač Nikola Šutulović Djudja Jeroti ć Sonja Šuvakov Aleksandra Ra šić-Marković Djuro Macut Tatjana Simi ć Olivera Stanojlovi ć Dragan Hrn čić Source Type: research

On the relation of white matter brain abnormalities and the asociality symptoms in schizophrenia outpatients - a DTI study
In conclusion, the presented study confirms the previous evidence on the widespread white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia outpatients and indicates the existence of the subtle but specific association between fractional anisotropy in the fronto-temporo-parietal regions with the asociality.Recent MRI studies have shown that abnormal functional connections in schizophrenia coexist with subtle changes in the structure of axons in the brain. However, there is a discrepancy in the literature concerning the relationship between white matter abnormalities and the occurrence of negative psychopathological symptoms. In the pr...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Przemys ław Adamczyk Olga P łonka Dawid Kruk Martin J áni Piotr B łądziński Aneta Kalisz Stynke Castelein Andrzej Cechnicki Miroslaw Wyczesany Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation effects on learning, memory and glutamate and GABA < sub > A < /sub > receptor subunit gene expression in kindled rats
In this study, the effect of low frequency stimulation (LFS) on spatial learning and memory was assessed in kindled animals and followed for one month. Fully kindled rats received LFS at 4 times (immediately, 6 h, 24 h and 30 h following the final kindling stimulation). Applying LFS improved kindled animals' performance in the Barnes maze test. This LFS action was accompanied by a decrease in NR2B gene expression, an increase in the gene expression of the α subunit of calcineurin A and an increased NR2A/NR2B ratio in kindled animals. In addition, the gene expression of the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit increased at...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mona Faraz Nastaran Kosarmadar Mahmoud Rezaei Meysam Zare Mohammad Javan Victoria Barkley Amir Shojaei Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh Source Type: research

Effects of vitamin E on neurodegenerative diseases: an update
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):21-33. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-003.ABSTRACTVitamin E deficiency is associated with many neurological problems. Although the mechanisms of vitamin E action in neurodegenerative diseases are not clear, there are many possible mechanisms. Examples of such mechanisms are the protective effects of vitamin E against oxidative stress damage and its suppressive role in the expression of many genes involved in the development of neurodegeneration. Many studies have evaluated the relationship between vitamin E intake or vitamin E levels in body fluids and neurodegenerative diseases. Some studies ...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehmet Arif Icer Neslihan Arslan Makbule Gezmen-Karadag Source Type: research

< em > Salvia divinorum < /em > increases alcohol intake and tonic immobility whilst decreasing food intake in Wistar rats
In conclusion, S. divinorum or Sal-A stimulated alcohol consumption in rats with a history of alcohol intake and independent of previous exposure respectively, also SDE or Sal-A elicited an anorexigenic effect, and increased tonic immobility as indicative of anxious-like behavior.The kappa-opioid system (KOP) is the key in drug abuse. Of all the compounds isolated from Salvia divinorum (S. divinorum), salvinorin-A (Sal-A) is predominant. Further, Sal-A is the only compound within S. divinorum which is reported to have psychoactive properties as a powerful kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist. Based on the key role of the K...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Priscila V ázquez-León Ulises Arenas-Mart ínez Dafne C órdova-Maqueda Tom ás Fregoso-Aguilar Eduardo Ram írez-San Juan Abraham Miranda-P áez Source Type: research

Neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus: a systematic review
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):58-68. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-007.ABSTRACTForced swimming is a common exercise method used for its low cost and easy management, as seen in studies with the hippocampus. Since it is applied for varied research purposes many protocols are available with diverse aspects of physical intensity, time and periodicity, which produces variable outcomes. In the present study, we performed a systematic review to stress the neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus. Behavior, antioxidant levels, neurotrophins and inflammatory markers were the main topics examined u...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodrigo Freire Oliveira Karina Maia Paiva Gabriel Sousa da Rocha Marco Aur élio de Moura Freire Dayane Pessoa de Ara újo Luc ídio Cleberson de Oliveira Fausto Pierdon á Guzen Paulo Leonardo Ara újo de Gois Morais Jos é Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalca Source Type: research

Putative mechanism of neurological damage in COVID-19 infection
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):69-79. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-008.ABSTRACTThe recent pandemic of the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected around 192 countries, and projections have shown that around 40% to 70% of world population could be infected in the next months. COVID-19 is caused by the virus SARS- CoV-2, it enters the cells through the ACE2 receptor (angiotensin converting enzyme 2). It is well known that SARS-CoV-2 could develop mild, moderate, and severe respiratory symptoms that could lead to death. The virus receptor is expressed in different organs such as the lungs, kidney, intesti...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cindy Bandala Jos é Luis Cortes-Altamirano Samuel Reyes-Long Eleazar Lara-Padilla Ian Ilizaliturri-Flores Alfonso Alfaro-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Regular aerobic exercise increased VEGF levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles correlated with hippocampal learning and VEGF levels
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):1-9. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-001.ABSTRACTPhysical exercise improves learning and memory abilities by increasing the levels of several growth factors in the hippocampus. One growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is primarily produced in the muscles and not only increases in the periphery during exercise but can also cross the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of regular aerobic chronic exercise on different types of muscle fibers and the relationships between learning/memory and muscle induced-VEGF. Following a one-week adaptatio...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Asli Karakilic Oguz Yuksel Servet Kizildag Ferda Hosgorler Birsu Topcugil Rabia Ilgin Hikmet Gumus Guven Guvendi Basar Koc Sevim Kandis Mehmet Ates Nazan Uysal Source Type: research

Aminoguanidine ameliorates ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits in rats by inhibiting AGE-mediated A β production
In this study, we investigated whether AG protects against ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits and Aβ deposition in rats. Animals in the ovariectomy group (OVX) group, and those in the OVX+AG group were treated with AG (100 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Learning and memory were evaluated using the electric Y maze. AGE and Aβ1-40 biochemical assessments were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Furthermore, evaluations of brain amyloid precursor protein 695 (APP695) mRNA expression by RT-PCR and AGE expression by immunohistochemistry were carried out. Ovariectomized rats exhibited memory imp...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dan Di Zhang Yan Gang Wang Chun Yan Liu Ze Hou Wang Yue Fen Wang Source Type: research

Experimental chronic sleep fragmentation alters seizure susceptibility and brain levels of interleukins 1 β and 6
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):96-109. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-010.ABSTRACTBrain hyperexcitability in sleep apnea is believed to be provoked by hypoxemia, but sleep fragmentation can also play a significant role. Sleep fragmentation can trigger inflammatory mechanisms. The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of chronic sleep fragmentation on seizure susceptibility and brain cytokine profile. Chronic sleep fragmentation in male rats with implanted EEG electrodes was achieved by the treadmill method. Rats were randomized to: treadmill control (TC); activity control (AC) and sleep fragmentation (SF) grou...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Željko Grubač Nikola Šutulović Djudja Jeroti ć Sonja Šuvakov Aleksandra Ra šić-Marković Djuro Macut Tatjana Simi ć Olivera Stanojlovi ć Dragan Hrn čić Source Type: research

On the relation of white matter brain abnormalities and the asociality symptoms in schizophrenia outpatients - a DTI study
In conclusion, the presented study confirms the previous evidence on the widespread white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia outpatients and indicates the existence of the subtle but specific association between fractional anisotropy in the fronto-temporo-parietal regions with the asociality.Recent MRI studies have shown that abnormal functional connections in schizophrenia coexist with subtle changes in the structure of axons in the brain. However, there is a discrepancy in the literature concerning the relationship between white matter abnormalities and the occurrence of negative psychopathological symptoms. In the pr...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Przemys ław Adamczyk Olga P łonka Dawid Kruk Martin J áni Piotr B łądziński Aneta Kalisz Stynke Castelein Andrzej Cechnicki Miroslaw Wyczesany Source Type: research

Deep brain stimulation effects on learning, memory and glutamate and GABA < sub > A < /sub > receptor subunit gene expression in kindled rats
In this study, the effect of low frequency stimulation (LFS) on spatial learning and memory was assessed in kindled animals and followed for one month. Fully kindled rats received LFS at 4 times (immediately, 6 h, 24 h and 30 h following the final kindling stimulation). Applying LFS improved kindled animals' performance in the Barnes maze test. This LFS action was accompanied by a decrease in NR2B gene expression, an increase in the gene expression of the α subunit of calcineurin A and an increased NR2A/NR2B ratio in kindled animals. In addition, the gene expression of the GABAA receptor γ2 subunit increased at...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mona Faraz Nastaran Kosarmadar Mahmoud Rezaei Meysam Zare Mohammad Javan Victoria Barkley Amir Shojaei Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh Source Type: research

Effects of vitamin E on neurodegenerative diseases: an update
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):21-33. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-003.ABSTRACTVitamin E deficiency is associated with many neurological problems. Although the mechanisms of vitamin E action in neurodegenerative diseases are not clear, there are many possible mechanisms. Examples of such mechanisms are the protective effects of vitamin E against oxidative stress damage and its suppressive role in the expression of many genes involved in the development of neurodegeneration. Many studies have evaluated the relationship between vitamin E intake or vitamin E levels in body fluids and neurodegenerative diseases. Some studies ...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Mehmet Arif Icer Neslihan Arslan Makbule Gezmen-Karadag Source Type: research

< em > Salvia divinorum < /em > increases alcohol intake and tonic immobility whilst decreasing food intake in Wistar rats
In conclusion, S. divinorum or Sal-A stimulated alcohol consumption in rats with a history of alcohol intake and independent of previous exposure respectively, also SDE or Sal-A elicited an anorexigenic effect, and increased tonic immobility as indicative of anxious-like behavior.The kappa-opioid system (KOP) is the key in drug abuse. Of all the compounds isolated from Salvia divinorum (S. divinorum), salvinorin-A (Sal-A) is predominant. Further, Sal-A is the only compound within S. divinorum which is reported to have psychoactive properties as a powerful kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonist. Based on the key role of the K...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Priscila V ázquez-León Ulises Arenas-Mart ínez Dafne C órdova-Maqueda Tom ás Fregoso-Aguilar Eduardo Ram írez-San Juan Abraham Miranda-P áez Source Type: research

Neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus: a systematic review
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):58-68. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-007.ABSTRACTForced swimming is a common exercise method used for its low cost and easy management, as seen in studies with the hippocampus. Since it is applied for varied research purposes many protocols are available with diverse aspects of physical intensity, time and periodicity, which produces variable outcomes. In the present study, we performed a systematic review to stress the neurobiological effects of forced swim exercise on the rodent hippocampus. Behavior, antioxidant levels, neurotrophins and inflammatory markers were the main topics examined u...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Rodrigo Freire Oliveira Karina Maia Paiva Gabriel Sousa da Rocha Marco Aur élio de Moura Freire Dayane Pessoa de Ara újo Luc ídio Cleberson de Oliveira Fausto Pierdon á Guzen Paulo Leonardo Ara újo de Gois Morais Jos é Rodolfo Lopes de Paiva Cavalca Source Type: research

Putative mechanism of neurological damage in COVID-19 infection
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):69-79. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-008.ABSTRACTThe recent pandemic of the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (COVID-19) has affected around 192 countries, and projections have shown that around 40% to 70% of world population could be infected in the next months. COVID-19 is caused by the virus SARS- CoV-2, it enters the cells through the ACE2 receptor (angiotensin converting enzyme 2). It is well known that SARS-CoV-2 could develop mild, moderate, and severe respiratory symptoms that could lead to death. The virus receptor is expressed in different organs such as the lungs, kidney, intesti...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Cindy Bandala Jos é Luis Cortes-Altamirano Samuel Reyes-Long Eleazar Lara-Padilla Ian Ilizaliturri-Flores Alfonso Alfaro-Rodr íguez Source Type: research

Regular aerobic exercise increased VEGF levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscles correlated with hippocampal learning and VEGF levels
Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2021;81(1):1-9. doi: 10.21307/ane-2021-001.ABSTRACTPhysical exercise improves learning and memory abilities by increasing the levels of several growth factors in the hippocampus. One growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is primarily produced in the muscles and not only increases in the periphery during exercise but can also cross the blood-brain barrier. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of regular aerobic chronic exercise on different types of muscle fibers and the relationships between learning/memory and muscle induced-VEGF. Following a one-week adaptatio...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Asli Karakilic Oguz Yuksel Servet Kizildag Ferda Hosgorler Birsu Topcugil Rabia Ilgin Hikmet Gumus Guven Guvendi Basar Koc Sevim Kandis Mehmet Ates Nazan Uysal Source Type: research

Aminoguanidine ameliorates ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits in rats by inhibiting AGE-mediated A β production
In this study, we investigated whether AG protects against ovariectomy-induced neuronal deficits and Aβ deposition in rats. Animals in the ovariectomy group (OVX) group, and those in the OVX+AG group were treated with AG (100 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Learning and memory were evaluated using the electric Y maze. AGE and Aβ1-40 biochemical assessments were performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits. Furthermore, evaluations of brain amyloid precursor protein 695 (APP695) mRNA expression by RT-PCR and AGE expression by immunohistochemistry were carried out. Ovariectomized rats exhibited memory imp...
Source: Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis - May 5, 2021 Category: Neurology Authors: Dan Di Zhang Yan Gang Wang Chun Yan Liu Ze Hou Wang Yue Fen Wang Source Type: research