Hemodynamic effects of ivabradine use in combination with intravenous inotropic therapy in advanced heart failure

AbstractIntravenous inotropic therapy can be used in patients with advanced heart failure, as palliative therapy or as a bridge to cardiac transplantation or mechanical circulatory support, as well as in cardiogenic shock. Their use is limited to increasing cardiac output in low cardiac output states and reducing ventricular filling pressures to alleviate patient symptoms and improve functional class. Many advanced heart failure patients have sinus tachycardia as a compensatory mechanism to maintain cardiac output. However, excessive sinus tachycardia caused by intravenous inotropes can increase myocardial oxygen consumption, decrease coronary perfusion, and at extreme heart rates decrease ventricular filling and stroke volume. The limited available hemodynamic studies support the hypothesis that adding ivabradine, a rate control agent without negative inotropic effect, may blunt inotrope-induced tachycardia and its associated deleterious effects, while optimizing cardiac output by increasing stroke volume. This review analyzes the intriguing pathophysiology of combined intravenous inotropes and ivabradine to optimize the hemodynamic profile of patients in advanced heart failure.Graphical abstractIllustration of the beneficial and deleterious hemodynamic effects of intravenous inotropes in advanced heart failure, and the positive effects of adding ivabradine.
Source: Heart Failure Reviews - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

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Source: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation - Category: Transplant Surgery Authors: Tags: (994) Source Type: research
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Source: ESC Heart Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Original Research Article Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Cardiac Failure - Category: Cardiology Authors: Tags: Brief Report Source Type: research
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