Clinical Application of Image Analysis in Pathology

Quantitative biomarkers are key prognostic and predictive factors in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer. In the clinical laboratory, the majority of biomarker quantitation is still performed manually, but digital image analysis (DIA) methods have been steadily growing and account for around 25% of all quantitative immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing performed today. Quantitative DIA is primarily employed in the analysis of breast cancer IHC biomarkers, including estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu; more recently clinical applications have expanded to include human epidermal growth factor receptor 2/neu in gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas and Ki-67 in both breast cancer and gastrointestinal and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Evidence in the literature suggests that DIA has significant benefits over manual quantitation of IHC biomarkers, such as increased objectivity, accuracy, and reproducibility. Despite this fact, a number of barriers to the adoption of DIA in the clinical laboratory persist. These include difficulties in integrating DIA into clinical workflows, lack of standards for integrating DIA software with laboratory information systems and digital pathology systems, costs of implementing DIA, inadequate reimbursement relative to those costs, and other factors. These barriers to adoption may be overcome with international standards such as Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), increased adop...
Source: Advances in Anatomic Pathology - Category: Pathology Tags: Review Articles Source Type: research

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Pathogenic genetic variants (formerly called mutations) present in the germline of some individuals are associated with a clinically relevant increased risk of developing lung cancer. These germline pathogenic variants are hereditary and are transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. There are two major lung cancer susceptibility syndromes, and both seem to be specifically associated with the adenocarcinoma subtype. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is caused by variants in the TP53 tumour-suppressor gene. Carriers are mainly at risk of early-onset breast cancer, sarcoma, glioma, leukaemia, adrenal cortical carcinoma and lung cancer...
Source: European Respiratory Review - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Lung cancer Thoracic oncology Source Type: research
Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most lethal diseases with a 5-year survival rate of about 8%. ASXL2 is an epigenetic regulator associated with various tumors including colorectal cancer, breast cancer, and myeloid leukemia. However, the role of ASXL2 in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. This is the first research focusing on the prognostic value of ASXL2 in pancreatic cancer. In this research, we aimed to explore the correlation between ASXL2 and the prognosis, as well as other features in PAAD. We obtained gene expression profiles of PAAD and normal tissues from TCGA, GEO, and Xena databases. TIMER and CIBERSORT ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: The highly standardized analysis of a broad range of cancers identified a ranking order of tumors according to their relative prevalence of MUC5AC expression.PMID:34547930 | DOI:10.1177/15330338211043328
Source: Technology in Cancer Research and Treatment - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
Approximately 10% of all colorectal cancer is estimated to be due to an inherited predisposition. Identification of a germline pathogenic variant can aid in treatment, screening, and surveillance and help stratify familial cancer risks based on gene-specific cancer associations. TheAPC gene contributes to a small percentage of hereditary colon cancer, with most pathogenicAPC variants causing familial adenomatous polyposis syndrome. However, one specific variant inAPC called p.I1307K, found in approximately 10% of Ashkenazi Jewish individuals, is associated with a moderate risk for colon cancer, but not polyposis. Heterozyg...
Source: Case Reports in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths in the U.S. The overall 5-year survival rate is 8.5%. Glypican-1 (GPC1) is a cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan protein overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. Due to preferential expression, GPC1 represents a potential candidate for targeted therapy for pancreatic cancer and other GPC1-expressing cancers, such as prostate.Researchers at National Cancer Institute (NCI) developed novel Chimeric Antigen Receptors (CARs) specific for GPC1 that include short Immunoglobulin subclass 4 (IgG4) hinge sequences between the extracellular antigen recognition domain...
Source: NIH OTT Licensing Opportunities - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Therapeutics Collaboration Sought NCI Source Type: research
In conclusion, this study confirmed the functional significance of KIF15 in the growth and development of prostate cancer and could be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of PCa.PMID:34474246 | DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.08.072
Source: Biochemical and Biophysical Research communications - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Source Type: research
We report a case of a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) presenting synchronously with a paraganglioma (PGL) in a Whipple reaction specimen. The patient was a 72-year-old female with a history of breast and vulvar cancer. The simultaneous occurrence of two synchronous tumours in the pancreas was striking. Due to the presence of PGL and multiple meta- and synchronous tumours, the patient was referred to genetic counselling. Tumour tissue from the vulvar carcinoma, the PDAC and the PGL was analysed by targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 161 cancer-related genes and by whole exome sequencing (WES). Peripheral bl...
Source: Pathology, Research and Practice - Category: Pathology Authors: Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The observation of longer survival associated with PDA in our subgroup of patients with better-differentiated pancreatic carcinomas is in line with previous reports on various other less aggressive tumor entities. Our results indicate that PDA might improve the oncological outcome of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma.PMID:34449573 | PMC:PMC8395495 | DOI:10.3390/clinpract11030070
Source: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
In this study, we assessed whether nuclear BCL10 translocation is ...
Source: Cancer Cell International - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Primary research Source Type: research
Oncologist. 2021 Jul 26. doi: 10.1002/onco.13912. Online ahead of print.ABSTRACTFamilial pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is most commonly related to inheritance of a pathogenic BRCA variant (1). The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) recommends germline testing for patients diagnosed with PDAC and recommends platinum-based chemotherapy as the preferred initial systemic therapy for patients harboring a pathogenic BRCA germline variant with PDAC. (2) PDACs related to pathogenic BRCA germline variants typically demonstrate BRCA loss of heterozygosity (LOH) which results in ineffective DNA damage repair due to a lac...
Source: The Oncologist - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Source Type: research
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