Protective efficacy of a bivalent inactivated reassortant H1N1 influenza virus vaccine against European avian-like and classical swine influenza H1N1 viruses in mice

Publication date: Available online 19 May 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Bao-Yang Ruan, Yun Yao, Shuai-Yong Wang, Xiao-Qian Gong, Xiao-Min Liu, Qi Wang, Ling-Xue Yu, Shi-Qiang Zhu, Juan Wang, Tong-Ling Shan, Yan-Jun Zhou, Wu Tong, Hao Zheng, Guo-Xin Li, Fei Gao, Ning Kong, Hai Yu, Guang-Zhi Tong
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

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Why are some people better able to fight off the flu than others? Part of the answer, according to a new study, is related to the first flu strain we encounter in childhood.Scientists from UCLA and the University of Arizona have found that people ’s ability to fight off the flu virus is determined not only by the subtypes of flu they have had throughout their lives, but also by the sequence in which they are been infected by the viruses. Their study is published in the open-access journal PLoS Pathogens.The research offers an explanation for why some people fare much worse than others when infected with the...
Source: UCLA Newsroom: Health Sciences - Category: Universities & Medical Training Source Type: news
This study reports virological and epidemiological data accumulated through passive surveillance conducted during 1,825 herd visits from 2011 to 2018. Among them, 887 (48.6%) tested swIAV-positive. The proportion of positive cases remained stable year-on-year and year-round. The European avian-like swine H1N1 (H1avN1) virus was the most frequently identified (69.6%), and was widespread across the country. The European human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (H1huN2) virus accounted for 22.1% and was only identified in the north-western quarter and recently in the far north. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 (H1N1pdm) virus (3.6%) was detec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
In conclusion, the reported results highlight the importance of AIV attachment to trachea in many avian species. Finally, the importance of chickens and mallards in AIVs dynamics was illustrated by the abundant AIV attachment observed. Introduction Influenza A viruses (IAVs) are pathogens of global concern in both human and veterinary medicine (Webster et al., 1992; Stöhr, 2002; Olsen et al., 2006; Wiethoelter et al., 2015). Wild birds are well-described hosts of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) and longitudinal surveillance studies have demonstrated a plethora of low pathogenic AIVs (LPAIVs) circulating in wild...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
In this study, we used a swine pH1N1 challenge virus to investigate the efficacy of whole inactivated virus vaccines homologous or heterologous to the challenge virus as well as a commercial vaccine. We found that vaccine-mediated protection was most effective when vaccine antigen and challenge virus were homologous and correlated with the specific production of neutralising antibodies and a cellular response to the challenge virus. We conclude that a conventional whole inactivated SwIV vaccine must be antigenically matched to the challenge strain to be an effective control measure. PMID: 30914224 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
In conclusion, the inactivated high-growth reassortant vaccine SH1/PR8 could induce high antibody levels and complete protection is expected against SH1 wild type SIV, and protection against heterologous EA H1N1 SIV needs further evaluation.
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
This study investigated the prevalence of IAV in commercial swine herds. A total of 1,878 oral fluid samples were collected from pigs of all ages from 201 commercial farms located in North Carolina and South Carolina. Sixty-eight oral fluid samples from 35 farms were positive by MP gene PCR with an overall IAV-positivity of 3.6%. On the herd level, the percentage of IAV positivity was 17.4%. Fifty-six viruses were subtyped, while 12 were partly subtyped or not subtyped at all. Using de novo assembly, complete sequences were obtained for 59 HA genes. The majority of IAVs subtyped had an H1 HA demonstrating a considerable pr...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 September 2016 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Maria Serena Beato, Luca Tassoni, Adelaide Milani, Annalisa Salviato, Guido Di Martino, Monica Mion, Lebana Bonfanti, Isabella Monne, Simon James Watson, Alice Fusaro In August 2012 repeated respiratory outbreaks caused by swine influenza A virus (swIAV) were registered for a whole year in a breeding farm in northeast Italy that supplied piglets for fattening. The virus, initially characterized in the farm, was a reassortant Eurasian avian-like H1N1 (H1avN1) genotype, containing a haemagglutinin segment derived from the pandemic ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 25 September 2015 Source:Veterinary Microbiology Author(s): Jidang Chen, Jun Ma, Sarah K. White, Zhenpeng Cao, Yun Zhen, Shuyi He, Wanjun Zhu, Changwen Ke, Yongbiao Zhang, Shuo Su, Guihong Zhang Guangdong Province is recognized for dense populations of humans, pigs, poultry and pets. In order to evaluate the threat of viral infection faced by those working with animals, a cross-sectional, sero-epidemiological study was conducted in Guangdong between December 2013 and January 2014. Individuals working with swine, at poultry farms, or live poultry markets (LPM), and veterinaria...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research
Conclusion These studies have developed two different flu vaccines that could potentially offer broader protection against a variety of flu strains than current vaccines. As yet, this research has only been conducted in animals, with one study showing an effect against different flu strains in mice and monkeys, and the other showing an effect in mice and ferrets. As monkeys are more similar to humans than mice or ferrets, the results from these experiments are likely to be the most representative of what would happen in humans. While the results are encouraging, it is likely that additional lab and animal research on bo...
Source: NHS News Feed - Category: Consumer Health News Tags: Medical practice Medication Heart/lungs Swine flu Source Type: news
Discussion Through new surveillance efforts and phylogenetic analysis of IAV-S in Mexico and Chile, we have expanded our understanding of the extensive IAV-S diversity that circulates in swine in Latin America. Most notably, we have identified multiple novel clades of H3N2 and H1N1 viruses of human origin in Mexico and Chile that have not been identified in swine previously, highlighting the importance of the human-swine interface in the evolution of IAV-S diversity in Latin America. The presence of two different IAV-S lineages in Mexico that are related to North American IAV-S (classical H1N1 and H3-cluster IV) also demon...
Source: PLOS Currents Outbreaks - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Source Type: research
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