Phylogeography and Epidemiology of Brucella suis biovar 2 in Wildlife and Domestic Swine
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Pilar María Muñoz, Virginie Mick, Lorena Sacchini, Anna Janowicz, María Jesús de Miguel, Moulay-Ali Cherfa, Celia Rodriguez Nevado, Guillaume Girault, Sara Andrés-Barranco, Maryne Jay, Elisabetta Di Giannatale, Katiuscia Zilli, Massimo Ancora, Alessandro Dondo, Simona Zoppi, María Cruz Arnal, Manuela Tittarelli, Fabrizio De Massis, Bruno Garin-Bastuji, José María BlascoAbstractSwine brucellosis due to Brucella suis biovar 2 (bv2) is enzootic in wild boar and hare in continental E...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 24, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Anaplasma bovis infection in a horse: first clinical report and molecular analysis
Publication date: Available online 18 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Min-Goo Seo, Oh-Deog Kwon, Dongmi KwakAbstractA 23-year-old male Thoroughbred horse at the Korean Military Academy appeared thin with visible rib bones and presented clinical signs of fever, anorexia, lethargy, and severe dehydration. To determine the presence of various febrile disease-causing agents, the 23 cohabiting horses at the academy, including this horse, were subjected to hematology, blood chemistry, and molecular analysis using whole blood samples collected during regular medical check-ups. On the basis of clinical history,...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 19, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bovine Papillomavirus E5 Oncoprotein Expression and its Association with an Interactor Network in Aggresome-Autophagy Pathway
This study provides mechanistic insights into the potential role(s) of autophagy in BPV disease, which can help to develop future treatment and control measures for BPV infection. Activation of autophagy correlates positively with BPV infection and may play a role in biological behavior of bladder cancer as urothelial carcinomas of cattle are known to be characterized by a relatively low rate of metastasis. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 19, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of novel genes associated with anti-phagocytic functions in Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Bin Xu, Ping Zhang, Hong Zhou, Yu Sun, Jinsheng Tang, Hongjie FanAbstractThe anti-phagocytic abilities of bacteria often affect bacterial pathogenicity. Here, random mutant library of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) was constructed using transposon mutagenesis. After careful screening, 30 transposon mutants with different transposon insertion sites were identified by conducting quantitative phagocytosis and insertion-site confirmation assays, whose anti-phagocytic abilities were significantly reduced relative to the wild...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Porcine pathogenic Escherichia coli strains differ from human fecal strains in occurrence of bacteriocin types
In this study, frequencies of four phylogenetic groups, fourteen virulence- and thirty bacteriocin determinants were analyzed in a set of 443 fecal E. coli isolates from diseased pigs and compared to a previously characterized set of 1283 human fecal E. coli isolates collected in the same geographical region. In addition, these characteristics were compared among ETEC, STEC, and non-toxigenic porcine E. coli isolates.Phylogenetic group A was prevalent among porcine pathogenic E. coli isolates, whereas the frequency of phylogroup B2, adhesion/invasion (fimA, pap, sfa, afaI, ial, ipaH, and pCVD432) and iron acquisition (aer ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Susceptibility of porcine IPI-2I intestinal epithelial cells to infection with swine enteric coronaviruses
This study was conducted to investigate the susceptibility of the porcine ileum epithelial cell line, IPI-2I, to different swine enteric CoVs. We found that IPI-2I cells are highly susceptible to TGEV, PDCoV, and PEAV, as demonstrated by cytopathic effect and virus multiplication. However, only a small number of cells could be infected by PEDV, possibly due to the heterogeneity of IPI-2I cells. A homogeneous cell line, designated IPI-FX, obtained from IPI-2I cells by sub-cloning with limited serial dilutions, was found to be highly susceptible to PEDV. Furthermore, IPI-FX cells were also highly susceptible to TGEV, PDCoV, ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Limited adaptation of chimeric H9N2 viruses containing internal genes from bat influenza viruses in chickens
In this study, two modified bat influenza viruses cH9cN2/H17 and cH9cN2/H18 containing HA and NA coding regions replaced with those of H9N2 influenza A virus were generated in the background of the H17N10 or H18N11 viruses. These two modified viruses replicated less efficiently than wild type H9N2 virus in cultured chicken cells. The mini-genome assay showed that viral ribonucleoproteins (vRNPs) of H9N2 has significantly higher polymerase activity than that of bat influenza viruses in avian cells. In chicken study, compared with H9N2 virus, which replicated and transmitted efficiently in chickens, the cH9cN2/H17 and cH9cN2...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Recombinant duck enteritis viruses expressing the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) F gene protects chickens from lethal NDV challenge
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Leilei Ding, Pucheng Chen, Xingzhi Bao, Aixin Li, Yongping Jiang, Yuzhen Hu, Jinying Ge, Yubo Zhao, Bo Wang, Jinxiong Liu, Hualan ChenAbstractNewcastle disease virus (NDV) is a major threat to poultry worldwide. Virulent Newcastle disease virus infection can cause 100% morbidity and mortality in chickens. Vaccination is the most effective way to prevent and control NDV outbreaks in poultry. Previously, we demonstrated that a duck enteritis virus (DEV) vaccine strain is a promising vector to generate recombinant vaccines in chickens. H...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Interleukin 1 alpha (IL-1α) restricts Brucella abortus 544 survival through promoting lysosomal-mediated killing and NO production in macrophages
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Huynh Tan Hop, Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo Reyes, Lauren Togonon Arayan, Tran Xuan Ngoc Huy, Son Hai Vu, WonGi Min, Hu Jang Lee, Chang Keun Kang, Man Hee Rhee, Suk KimAbstractThe interleukin-1 (IL-1) family of cytokines, particularly IL-1α and IL-1β, are potent regulators of innate immunity that play key roles in host defense against infection, hence we evaluated the role of these cytokines in the control of brucellosis within RAW 264.7 cells. Marked expression and secretion of IL-1α and IL-1β were observed during...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Impact of PRRSV strains of different in vivo virulence on the macrophage population of the thymus
This study aimed at evaluating the impact of two PRRSV strains of different virulence on thymic macrophages as well as after heterologous vaccination. After experimental infection with PR11 and PR40 PRRSV1 subtype 1 strains (low and high virulent, respectively) samples from thymus were analysed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry for PRRSV N protein, TUNEL, CD172a, CD163, CD107a and BA4D5 expression. Mortality was similar in both infected groups, but lung lesions and thymus atrophy were more intense in PR40 group. Animals died at 10-14 dpi after PR11 or PR40 infection showed the most severe histopathological lesions...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The influence of centrifugation and incubation temperatures on various veterinary and human chlamydial species
In conclusion, we found that all Chlamydia species are viable and can grow at low incubation temperatures, although all strains grew better and more rapidly at 37 °C compared to 28 °C. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Carriage and population genetics of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in cats and dogs in New Zealand
In this study, we analysed the ESBL-E faecal carriage rate in cats and dogs in Auckland, New Zealand, and the factors associated with carriage.Faecal swabs collected from 586 pets (225 cats; 361 dogs) were analysed for the presence of ESBL-E by culture, and a questionnaire was delivered to the owners. The ESBL-E were characterised, and data elicited by the questionnaires were used to investigate the factors associated with carriage.The prevalence of ESBL-E in faecal swabs was 6.4%. The β-lactamase genes detected in the ESBL-E were the blaCTX-M-14 (n = 2) and blaCMY-2 (n = 34). Several isola...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Changes in the small intestine mucosal immune barrier in Muscovy ducklings infected with Muscovy duck reovirus
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Yijian Wu, Zhenni Liu, Erpeng Zhu, Minghui Li, Huihui Jiang, Yu Luo, Quanxi Wang, Xiaoping Wu, Baocheng Wu, Yifan HuangAbstractMuscovy duck reovirus (MDRV) causes serious immunodeficiency in the intestinal mucosa, although the underlying histopathological mechanisms remain unclear. Thus, we investigated the impact of MDRV infection on intestinal morphology using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Immune-related cells were also quantified by staining with hematoxylin and eosin, toluidine blue, and periodic acid-Schiff stain, or by immunoh...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Diversity of staphylococcal species in food producing animals in Spain, with detection of PVL-positive MRSA ST8 (USA300)
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Olouwafemi Mistourath Mama, Elena Gómez-Sanz, Laura Ruiz-Ripa, Paula Gómez, Carmen TorresAbstractThis work aimed to determine the prevalence, diversity, antibiotic-resistance phenotype/genotype and virulence factors in staphylococci of farm-animals. Nasal samples of 117 farm-animals (calve: 72; lamb: 37; goat: 8) were collected from one slaughterhouse in La Rioja/Spain and cultured for staphylococci and methicillin-resistant-Staphylococcus (MRS) recovery. Identification was performed by MALDI-TOF. Antimicrobial resistanc...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Infection of Chicken H9N2 Influenza Viruses in Different Species of Domestic Ducks
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Chenxi Wang, Zejiang Wang, Xiaolei Ren, Lan Wang, Chong Li, Yipeng Sun, Mingyang Wang, Qi Tong, Honglei Sun, Juan PuAbstractDomestic ducks are considered as an interface between wild aquatic birds and terrestrial poultry and play an important role in transmission and evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). However, the infectivity of H9N2 AIVs in different domestic duck species has not been systematically evaluated. Here we investigated the infectivity of various genotypes of chicken H9N2 AIVs in Pekin duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility and genetic characterization of Trueperella pyogenes isolates from pigs reared under intensive and extensive farming practices
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Ángela Galán-Relaño, Lidia Gómez-Gascón, Inmaculada Luque, Belén Barrero-Domínguez, Almudena Casamayor, Fernando Cardoso-Toset, Ana I. Vela, José F. Fernández-Garayzábal, Carmen TarradasAbstractTrueperella pyogenes is an opportunistic pathogen associated with a variety of diseases and responsible for important economic losses for pig production. Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) typing analysis were used to determine t...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 10, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Diversity in prevalence and characteristics of ESBL/pAmpC producing E. coli in food in Germany
The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence of cefotaxime resistant E. coli as well as ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli and their characteristics in foods in Germany.Out of 2256 food samples, the highest prevalence of cefotaxime resistant E. coli was observed in chicken meat (74.9%), followed by turkey meat (40.1%). Prevalence in beef, pork and minced meat was considerably lower (4.2-15.3%). Whereas 18.0% of the raw milk samples, collected at farm level were positive, this was true only for few cheese samples (1.3%). In one out of 399 vegetable samples a cefotaxime-resistant E. coli was isolated.ESBL resistance ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pasteurella multocida isolates associated with ovine pneumonia are toxigenic
In this study we have investigated the ability of ovine toxA+ P. multocida isolates (n = 57) to express a functional toxin by detection of PMT toxin antigen using an ELISA test and its cytopathic effect in a Vero cell assay. PMT antigen was expressed in the great majority (54/57; 94.7%) of toxA+ isolates. Moreover, the 100% toxA+ ovine isolates analyzed produced a cytopathic effect in Vero cells within 24–48 h post-inoculation, identical to that described for porcine toxigenic P. multocida isolates. These results show for the first time that, in addition to isolates associated with PAR, isolates ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular characterisation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius from dogs and the description of their SCCmec elements
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Martina Krapf, Elke Müller, Annett Reissig, Peter Slickers, Sascha D. Braun, Elisabeth Müller, Ralf Ehricht, Stefan MoneckeAbstractIn recent years an increasing number of methicillin-resistant S. pseudintermedius (MRSP) has been observed in both, healthy and clinically infected dogs. The aim of the study was the characterisation of MRSP isolates from clinical routine diagnostics of a German laboratory in order to assess the abundancy of resistance genes and SCCmec elements. 97 isolates from 96 dogs were analysed using microar...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Porcine pathogenic E. coli strains differ from human fecal strains in occurrence of bacteriocin types
In this study, frequencies of four phylogenetic groups, fourteen virulence- and thirty bacteriocin determinants were analyzed in a set of 443 fecal E. coli isolates from diseased pigs and compared to a previously characterized set of 1283 human fecal E. coli isolates collected in the same geographical region. In addition, these characteristics were compared among ETEC, STEC, and non-toxigenic porcine E. coli isolates.Phylogenetic group A was prevalent among porcine pathogenic E. coli isolates, whereas the frequency of phylogroup B2, adhesion/invasion (fimA, pap, sfa, afaI, ial, ipaH, and pCVD432) and iron acquisition (aer ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Continuing occurrence of vancomycin resistance determinants in Danish pig farms 20 years after removing exposure to avoparcin
In conclusion, vancomycin resistance determinants are still present in Danish pig production 25 years after the ban on avoparcin use. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

CRISPR tracking reveals global spreading of antimicrobial resistance genes by Staphylococcus of canine origin
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Ciro César Rossi, Ana Luisa Andrade Oliveira, Marcia Giambiagi-deMarvalAbstractThe close contact between pets and their owners is a potential source for microorganisms and genetic material exchange. Staphylococcus species considered as harmless inhabitants of animals’ and humans’ microbiota can act as reservoirs of antimicrobial resistance genes to more virulent species, thereby increasing their potential to resist drug therapy. This process could be inhibited by the antiplasmid immunity conferred by CRISPR systems. ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Prevalence of extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli in Dutch dairy herds
This study was conducted to assess: (1) a change in between-herd prevalence of extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL/AmpC-EC) between 2011 and 2013, the period during which the antimicrobial policy in animal husbandry in the Netherlands changed significantly, and (2) the prevalence of ESBL/AmpC-EC in individual calves, young stock, and dairy cows in the Netherlands.In 196 randomly selected conventional dairy herds, faecal samples were collected from calves (maximum n = 15), and randomly selected young stock (n = 5) and dairy cows (n = 15). Add...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Longitudinal study reveals persistent environmental Salmonella Heidelberg in Brazilian broiler farms
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Daiane Voss-Rech, Beatris Kramer, Virgínia Santiago Silva, Raquel Rebelatto, Paulo Giovani Abreu, Arlei Coldebella, Clarissa Silveira Luiz VazAbstractThe vast capacity for maintenance and dissemination in the environment are major challenges for the control of Salmonella spp. in poultry farms. The aim of this study was to assess environmental contamination by non-typhoidal Salmonella in successive broiler flocks in nine commercial broiler farms integrated with three companies in the south of Brazil, for a twelve-month production...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of macrolide- and rifampicin-resistant Rhodococcus equi in environmental samples from equine breeding farms in central Kentucky during 2018
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): L. Huber, S. Giguère, N.D. Cohen, N.M. Slovis, L. Berghaus, M. Greiter, K.A. HartAbstractRhodococcus equi causes severe pneumonia in foals and is most often recognized in people as an opportunistic pathogen. Longitudinal studies examining antimicrobial-resistant R. equi from environmental samples are lacking. We hypothesized that antimicrobial-resistant R. equi would be detectable in the ground (pasture soil or stall bedding) and air at breeding farms with previous documentation of foals infected with resistant isolates, and tha...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pathogenicity study of Mycoplasma hyorhinis and M. flocculare in specific-pathogen-free pigs pre-infected with M. hyopneumoniae
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Sarah Fourour, Véronique Tocqueville, Frédéric Paboeuf, Gérald Lediguerher, Nadège Morin, Isabelle Kempf, Corinne Marois-CrehanAbstractMycoplasma (M.) hyopneumoniae is the initiator agent of the porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC) and the etiological agent of enzootic pneumonia. M. hyorhinis and M. flocculare are also found in extensive gross pneumonia-like lesions, but their role is not known. We investigated the pathogenicity of M. hyorhinis and M. flocculare in specific-pathogen-free pigs pr...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 8, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular chracterisation of porcine group A rotaviruses: studies on the age-related occurrence and spatial distribution of circulating virus genotypes in Poland
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Iwona Kozyra, Jerzy Kozyra, Arkadiusz Dors, Artur RzeżutkaSummaryRotaviruses of group A (RVAs) commonly occur in farm animals. In pigs, they cause acute gastrointestinal disease which is considered as significant factor of economic losses in pig farming. The aim of the study was an assessment of the prevalence of rotavirus (RV) infections in farmed pigs in Poland, genotype identification of the virus strains in conjunction with their age-related occurrence and regional (province) distribution pattern in pig herds. In total, 920 pig fa...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 7, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: April 2019Source: Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 231Author(s): (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

N-terminus of Classical swine fever virus strain TD96 glycoprotein Erns contains a potential heparin-binding domain
In this study, the CSFV Erns gene was codon optimized for expression in the yeast Pichia pastoris. A C-terminally truncated Erns recombinant protein lacking the previously identified heparin-binding domain (HBD) bound to heparin column, suggesting the presence of another HBD in CSFV Erns. Sequence analyses of the CSFV Erns coding region revealed a common potential N-terminal HBD at residues 301-311. Site-directed mutagenesis of the basic amino acids at K303 and K306 significantly reduced the heparin-binding affinity of the protein. Further mutations of both T310 and H311 had little effect. Thus, a novel potential heparin...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 5, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Virulence evaluation of classical swine fever virus subgenotype 2.1 and 2.2 isolates circulating in China
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Wenjie Gong, Junhui Li, Zunbao Wang, Jiumeng Sun, Shijiang Mi, Zongji Lu, Jian Cao, Zhihua Dou, Yanjun Sun, Pengjiang Wang, Ke Yuan, Liying Zhang, Xubin Zhou, Sun He, Changchun TuAbstractClassical swine fever (CSF) remains an important pig disease in China, where it usually presents with mild or atypical clinical manifestations, with large scale outbreaks rarely seen. This has led to speculation about the possible circulation of viral strains of low virulence. To investigate this possibility, five field isolates within the predominant ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 4, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Emergence of two novel recombinant porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome viruses 2 (lineage 3) in Southwestern China
Publication date: Available online 1 April 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Long Zhou, Runmin Kang, Yi Zhang, Jifeng Yu, Bo Xie, Changying Chen, Xingyu Li, Bin Chen, Luqi Liang, Jiawen Zhu, Yiming Tian, Xin Yang, Hongning WangAbstractThe lineage 3 of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus 2 (PRRSV-2) was first reported in mainland China in 2010 and it has spread rapidly in recent years. Here, two novel lineage 3 strains of PRRSV-2 were isolated from diseased pigs in Southwestern China during 2017-2018, and were designated as GZgy17 and SCya18. The complete genomes of the two isolates were then det...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 2, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

In vitro analysis of genetically distinct Chlamydia pecorum isolates reveals key growth differences in mammalian epithelial and immune cells
In this study, we evaluated whether genetically distinct C. pecorum isolates (IPA, E58, 1710S, W73, JP-1-751) display different in vitro growth phenotypes in different mammalian epithelial and immune cells. In McCoy cells, shorter lag phases were observed for W73 and JP-1-751 isolates. Significantly smaller inclusions were observed for the naturally plasmid-free E58 isolate. C. pecorum isolates of bovine (E58) and ovine origin (IPA, W73, JP-1-751) grew faster in bovine cells compared to a porcine isolate (1710S). C. pecorum isolates could infect but appear not able to complete their developmental cycle in bovine peripheral...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - April 1, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Characterization and epidemiological survey of porcine sapelovirus in China
Publication date: Available online 29 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Ying Li, Liuyang Du, Tao Jin, Yao Cheng, Xin Zhang, Shaoyong Jiao, Tong Huang, Yu Zhang, Yan Yan, Jinyan Gu, Jiyong ZhouAbstractPorcine sapelovirus (PSV) is a causative agent of acute diarrhoea, respiratory distress, reproductive failure, and polioencephalomyelitis in swine. Here, we report the isolation, genomic sequence, and biological characterization of PSV isolated from pig diarrhoeal samples. In our study, two PSV strains were identified with a diameter of approximately 25 nm, and their full genomes were 7,564 nucleotides...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Labeled quantitative mass spectrometry to study the host response during aspergillosis in the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)
Publication date: Available online 30 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Guillaume Desoubeaux, Maria del Carmen Piqueras, Carolina Le-Bert, Vanessa Fravel, Tonya Clauss, Alexa J. Delaune, Risa Daniels, Eric D. Jensen, Jennifer E. Flower, Gregory D. Bossart, Sanjoy K. Bhattacharya, Carolyn CrayAbstractAspergillosis is a fungal infection caused by Aspergillus molds that can affect both humans and animals. Despite advances in diagnostics and therapy, medical management of this disease remains difficult. Expansion of the basic knowledge regarding its pathophysiology in animals is critical to aid in the identif...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infections induce apoptosis in Vero cells via a Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)/p53, but not p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK signalling pathways
In this study, the pro-apoptotic effect of PEDV was examined in Vero cells and we observed that PEDV infection increased MDM2 and CBP, promoted p53 phosphorylation at serine 20 and, promoted p53 nuclear translocation, leading to p53 activation in Vero cells. Treatment with the p53 inhibitor PFT-α could significantly inhibit PEDV-induced apoptosis. We also observed PEDV infection induced time-dependent ROS accumulation. Treatment with antioxidants, such as pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), significantly inhibited PEDV-induced apoptosis.Moreover, further inhibition tests were established to ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of co-infections of influenza D virus and Mannheimia haemolytica in cattle
The objective of this study was to evaluate the synergistic pathogenesis in cattle co-infected with IDV and MHA. Sixteen dairy calves were randomly assigned to four groups of four calves. The IDV + MHA + group received D/bovine/C00046 N/Mississippi/2014 (D/46 N) intranasally at 0 days post-inoculation (DPI) and Mannheimia haemolytica D153 (MHA D153) intratracheally at 5 DPI. The IDV + MHA- group received only D/46 N at 0 DPI; the IDV-MHA + group received only MHA D153 at 5 DPI; and the IDV-MHA- group received neither agent. Clinical scores were ca...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 26, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Development of an Attenuated Live Vaccine Candidate of Duck Tembusu Virus Strain
In this study, we isolated a virulent strain of DTMUV (SDS) from sparrows near a duck farm and attenuated it via serially passaging (alternately for 100 passages) in specific pathogen-free chicken and duck embryos. We attenuated the virus after the 60th passage (SDS-60), based on the production of embryos that were free of visible lesions and still alive. The 70th adapted strain (SDS-70), obtained with a virus titer of 10−2.46 EID50 was chosen to be the live attenuated vaccine. After immunizing ducklings with the SDS-70 strain, they obtained 100% protection against infection by the SDS-10 virulent strain. Our data de...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 24, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

EsR240, a non-coding sRNA, is required for the resistance of Edwardsiella tarda to stresses in macrophages and for virulence
In this study, 13 novel sRNAs were identified in the intracellular pathogen, Edwardsiella tarda (E. tarda) ET13 strain, based on RNA sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. Eight of the 13 putative sRNAs from the ET strain were transcribed (as indicated by RT-PCR) following exposure to different stresses. The transcription levels of three sRNAs (EsR128, EsR139, and EsR240) were all highly induced under these stress conditions. Northern blot hybridization was employed to verify that EsR240 was expressed in the ET13 strain under both logarithmic and stationary growth phases, and that it formed a single copy transcript in the ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 23, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Influence of the intestinal microbiota on disease susceptibility in kittens with experimentally-induced carriage of atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli: Running title: Experimental atypical EPEC infection in kittens
Publication date: Available online 18 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Victoria E. Watson, Megan E. Jacob, José M. Bruno-Bárcena, Sophia Amirsultan, Stephen H. Stauffer, Victoria O. Píqueras, Rafael Frias, Jody L. GookinAbstractTypical enteropathogenic E. coli (tEPEC) carries the highest hazard of death in children with diarrhea and atypical EPEC (aEPEC) was recently identified as significantly associated with diarrheal mortality in kittens. In both children and kittens there is a significant association between aEPEC burden and diarrheal disease, however the infection can be found i...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 19, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A recombination efficiently increases the pathogenesis of the novel K subgroup of avian leukosis virus
In this study, a recombinant ALV with ALV-K env and ALV-J backbone was generated (designated ALV-K-env-J) and tested in vitro and in vivo. The growth curve in DF1 cells showed that the recombinant virus replicated more efficiently in comparison with the ALV-J and ALV-K. Although all the infected chickens showed growth retardation compared with the non-infected chickens, the viral and serological detection showed that the positive rate and virus load detected in blood and cloaca, and the positive rate and titer of antibody against p27 from the chickens infected with ALV-K-env-J were higher than those from the chickens infec...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

NLRP3 inflammasome plays an important role in caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in macrophages infected with Pasteurella multocida
In this study, the mechanism of caspase-1 activation and subsequent IL-1β secretion in macrophages infected with P. multocida was elucidated. The nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was shown to be involved in inducing this cellular response. Compared with wild-type macrophages, Nlrp3-/- macrophages exhibited a clear decrease in caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion in response to P. multocida infection. Furthermore, spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk) was indicated to be involved in IL-1β secretion, possibly by regulating the NLRP3 infla...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 18, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genotyping Mycoplasma gallisepticum by Multilocus Sequence Typing
Publication date: Available online 15 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Katinka Bekő, Zsuzsa Kreizinger, Kinga M. Sulyok, Áron B. Kovács, Dénes Grózner, Salvatore Catania, Janet Bradbury, Inna Lysnyansky, Olusola Martins Olaogun, Béla Czanik, Hany Ellakany, Miklós GyuraneczAbstractMycoplasma gallisepticum causes chronic respiratory disease and reproductive disorders in many bird species, resulting in considerable economic losses to the poultry industry. Maintenance of M. gallisepticum-free flocks is the most adequate method to control infection. To this end, moni...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 16, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Novel insights into pasteurellosis in captive pinnipeds
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Rebecca L. Crawford, David Blyde, Patrick J. Blackall, Brian M. Forde, Scott A. Beatson, Louise M. Harris, Conny Turni, Lida OmalekiABSTRACTPasteurella multocida is a heterogeneous bacterium, which has the capacity to cause disease in a wide range of host species and is also recognized as an important zoonotic pathogen. Two sequential deaths in captive fur seals occurred at Sea World, Australia during December 2017. A fibrinosuppurative bronchopneumonia in a Subantarctic fur seal (Arctocephalus tropicalis) resulted in death within 24&...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The phosphorylation of the N protein could affect PRRSV virulence in vivo
In conclusion, our study will improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of PRRSV pathogenicity. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Population divergence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa can lead to the coexistence with Escherichia coli in animal suppurative lesions
In this study, we identified a P. aeruginosa strain MYL-2, which harbored a loss-of-function mutation in the central regulator (LasR) of quorum-sensing (QS) system, from the lung pus of a dying forest musk deer with co-infecting E. coli strain MYL-58. Interestingly, P. aeruginosa MYL-2 could coexist with E. coli MYL-58 compared to the dominant role of lasR-intact P. aeruginosa strain MYL-1 in the competitive experiments. The results of in vitro coevolution assay further revealed that the QS-mediated competitive advantage of P. aeruginosa MYL-1 would be decreased along with the enrichment of lasR mutants in the communities,...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Circular RNA GATAD2A promotes H1N1 replication through inhibiting autophagy
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Yina Zhang, Boli Hu, Tianqi Yu, Yulan Liu, Yahui Li, Yingnan Ding, Jiyong ZhouAbstractCircular RNAs (circRNAs) play critical roles in various diseases. However, whether and how circular RNA regulates influenza A virus (IAV) infection is unknown. Here, we studied the role of circular RNA GATAD2A(circ-GATAD2A) in the replication of IAV H1N1 in A549 cells. Circ-GATAD2A was formed upon H1N1 infection. Knockdown of circ-GATAD2A in A549 cells enhanced autophagy and inhibited H1N1 replication. By contrast, overexpression of circ-GATAD2A impa...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Use of recombinant canine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to increase leukocyte count in dogs naturally infected by canine parvovirus
Publication date: Available online 14 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Andrea Armenise, Paolo Trerotoli, Francesco Cirone, Anna De Nitto, Costantina De Sario, Walter Bertazzolo, Annamaria Pratelli, Nicola DecaroAbstractCanine parvovirus (CPV) is one of the most important cause of mortality in young dogs and no specific treatment exists. Since prolonged leukopenia greatly increases the risk of death in infected pups, strategies to counteract this decline were investigated. The outcomes of CPV naturally infected pups treated with the recombinant canine granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (rcG-CSF), in co...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 15, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Protecting Intestinal Epithelial Cells against Deoxynivalenol and E. coli Damage by Recombinant Porcine IL-22
This study provided a theoretical basis for curing intestinal inflammation caused by ETEC infection and epithelial apoptosis induced by DON with rIL-22 in pigs. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 14, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Age-dependent Pathogenesis of Clade 2.3.4.4A H5N2 HPAIV in Experimentally Infected Broad Breasted White Turkeys
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): S. Carnaccini, J.J.S. Santos, A.O. Obadan, M.J. Pantin-Jackwood, D.L. Suarez, D.S. Rajão, D.R. PerezAbstractHighly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) is a viral disease with devastating consequences to the poultry industry as it results in high morbidity, mortality and international trade restrictions. In the present study, we characterized age-related differences in terms of pathology in commercial white broad breasted turkeys inoculated with A/turkey/Minnesota/12582/2015 (H5N2) HPAIV clade 2.3.4.4A, a virus from the largest HP...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Double-Attenuated Influenza Virus Elicits Broad Protection against Challenge Viruses with Different Serotypes in Swine
Publication date: Available online 12 March 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Svenja Mamerow, Robert Scheffter, Susanne Röhrs, Olga Stech, Ulrike Blohm, Theresa Schwaiger, Charlotte Schröder, Reiner Ulrich, Jan Schinköthe, Martin Beer, Thomas C. Mettenleiter, Jürgen StechAbstractInfluenza A viruses (IAV) have caused seasonal epidemics and severe pandemics in humans. Novel pandemic strains as in 2009 may emerge from pigs, serving as perpetual virus reservoir. However, reliably effective vaccination has remained a key issue for humans and swine. Here, we generated a novel double-attenuated inf...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - March 13, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research