Poly(I:C) augments inactivated influenza virus-chitosan nanovaccine induced cell mediated immune response in pigs vaccinated intranasally
In conclusion, coadministration of CS NPs-poly(I:C) with CS NPs-KAg augmented the cross-reactive specific HI titers and the cell-mediated immune responses in pigs. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 14, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Regulatory mechanism of microRNA-155 in chicken embryo fibroblasts in response to reticuloendotheliosis virus infection
Publication date: Available online 10 February 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Chang Gao, Shengyuan Dang, Jie Zhai, Shimin ZhengAbstractReticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) infection of multiple avian species can lead to a number of diseases such as runting syndrome, immunosuppression and oncogenesis, causing major economic losses. MicroRNAs play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation, effectively inhibiting protein synthesis, and participating in many biological processes in cells, including proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, lipometabolism, virus infection and replication, and tumorigenesis...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 12, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Natural inactivation of African swine fever virus in tissues: influence of temperature and environmental conditions on virus survival
In this study we aimed to assess ASFV stability in naturally contaminated tissues during storage in selected environmental conditions. Virus half-life (T ½) and decimal reduction rate (D-value) were determined for temperatures relevant for freezing, chilling and ambient storage. A nonlinear regression model was developed to predict T ½ for temperatures between -20 °C and +23 °C. The half-life of the infectious ASFV in tissues ranged from 31.95 days at -20 °C to 0.38 days at +23 °C, with estimated D-values between 106.12 to 1.27 days, respectively. In order to assess...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Disruption of the Burkholderia pseudomallei two-component signal transduction system BbeR-BbeS leads to increased extracellular DNA secretion and altered biofilm formation
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Priyangi A Alwis, Puthayalai Treerat, Lan Gong, Deanna Deveson Lucas, Elizabeth M Allwood, Mark Prescott, Rodney J Devenish, Ben Adler, John D BoyceAbstractTwo-component signal transduction systems (TCSTS) are abundant among prokaryotes and regulate important functions, including drug resistance and virulence. The Gram-negative bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei, which causes the severe infectious disease melioidosis, encodes 136 putative TCSTS components. In silico analyses of these TCSTS indicated that the predicted BbeR-BbeS sys...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Gut microbial signatures associated with moxidectin treatment efficacy of Haemonchus contortus in infected goats
Publication date: Available online 8 February 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Fang Liu, Yue Xie, Anne M. Zajac, Yan Hu, Raffi V. Aroian, Joseph F. Urban, Robert W. LiAbstractParasitic infections are associated with profound changes in the structure and function of the gut microbiome in various host-parasite systems. Here we examined the microbial composition and function in the abomasum, proximal colon and feces of Haemonchus contortus-infected goats after a partial anthelmintic drug clearance. A single-dose treatment of H. contortus-infected goats with Cydectin (moxidectin) resulted in an 83.9% and 61.8% red...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 10, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Dynamics of the within-herd prevalence of Mycoplasma bovis intramammary infection in endemically infected dairy herds
Publication date: Available online 6 February 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Anri A.E. Timonen, Tiina Autio, Tarja Pohjanvirta, Liidia Häkkinen, Jørgen Katholm, Anders Petersen, Kerli Mõtus, Piret KalmusAbstractWe aimed to identify the dynamics of the within-herd prevalence of Mycoplasma (M.) bovis intramammary infection (IMI) in four dairy herds, estimate prevalence of M. bovis in colostrum and clinical mastitis cases and compare M. bovis strains from calves’ respiratory and cow clinical mastitis samples. Within a six-month study period, cow composite milk samples (CMS) were collect...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 6, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Efficacy of orally administered porcine epidemic diarrhea vaccine-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate microspheres and RANKL-secreting L. lactis
Publication date: Available online 4 February 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): SeEun Choe, Sok Song, Dachuan Piao, Gyu-Nam Park, Jihye Shin, Yun-Jaie Choi, Sang-Kee Kang, Ra Mi Cha, Bang-Hun Hyun, Bong-Kyun Park, Dong-Jun AnAbstractHere, we examined the efficacy of are combinant subunit antigen-based oral vaccine for preventing porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). First, we generated a soluble recombinant partial spike S1 protein (aP2) from PEDV in E. coli and then evaluated the utility of aP2 subunit vaccine-loaded hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate microspheres (HPMCP) and RANKL-secreting L. lactis (...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genomic island type IV secretion system and transposons in genomic islands involved in antimicrobial resistance in Trueperella pyogenes
The objective of this research was to get insight into the gene context and the location of the antimicrobial resistance determinants in the two multi-resistant T. pyogenes isolates TP3 and TP4. Comparative analysis of key factors leading to antimicrobial resistance was performed. Both isolates were resistant to erythromycin, azithromycin and tetracycline, and susceptible to ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, cefazolin and florfenicol. In addition, TP4 was resistant to amikacin and gentamicin. Whole-genome analyses revealed that both TP3 and TP4 contained two different genomic islands (TP3-GI1, TP3-GI5, TP4-GI5 and TP4-GI8) invo...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Bearing the brunt: Mongolian khulan (Equus hemionus hemionus) are exposed to multiple influenza A strains
Publication date: Available online 5 February 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Eirini S. Soilemetzidou, Erwin de Bruin, Kathrin Eschke, Walid Azab, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Gábor Á. Czirják, Bayarbaatar Buuveibaatar, Petra Kaczensky, Marion Koopmans, Chris Walzer, Alex D. GreenwoodAbstractThe majority of influenza A virus strains are hosted in nature by avian species in the orders of Anseriformes and Charadriformes. A minority of strains have been able to cross species boundaries and establish themselves in novel non-avian hosts. Influenza viruses of horses, donkeys, and mules represent such ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Pathogenesis of a Senecavirus A isolate from swine in Shandong Province, China
In this study, a SVA strain was isolated from a pig herd in Shandong Province in China and identified as SVV-CH-SD. The full genome was 7286 nucleotides (nt) in length and contained a single open reading frame (ORF) of 6546 nt, encoding a 2182 amino acid (aa). A phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate shares highest sequence homology (98.52%) with SVA strain USA-GBI26-2015. A genetic comparison of virulent and weakly virulent SVA strains showed that some amino acid residues may be associated with virulence. Animal challenge experiments showed that 90–100-day-old pigs inoculated with SVV-CH-SD intraorally...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 5, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Heterogeneity of antimicrobial susceptibility testing results for sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim obtained from clinical equine Staphylococcus aureus isolates using different methods
In this study, we investigated 19 equine Staphylococcus aureus isolates for their susceptibility to the combination sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (SXT) by using broth microdilution (BMD), agar disk diffusion (DD) and automated test systems. To elucidate the presence of the corresponding genetic resistance properties among the isolates, whole genome sequence analysis was performed and the genomes were screened for trimethoprim (TMP) resistance genes and mutations in the deduced FolP amino acid (aa) sequences, known to confer sulfonamide (SUL) resistance. To check for hetero-resistance, zone diameters in DD were screened aft...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Genome analysis of Enterobacteriaceae with non-wild type susceptibility to third-generation cephalosporins recovered from diseased dogs and cats in Europe
ConclusionsWe report here a 6.3% prevalence of ESBL/pAmpC producing Enterobacteriaceae in diseased dogs and cats. This EU survey confirms that dogs and cats can be infected with epidemic multidrug resistant clones that may also spread in humans. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - February 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Complement C3aR/C5aR-binding protein Suilysin of Streptococcus suis contributes to monocyte chemotaxis
In this study, we analyze and construct an S. suis bacterial two-hybrid prey library containing 39 LPXTG motif anchored proteins and 18 secreted proteins. Two highly possible C3aR-binding proteins: thiol-activated toxin Suilysin, putative RTX family exoprotein A gene and three highly possible C5aR-binding proteins: thiol-activated toxin Suilysin, putative 5’-nucleotidase and subtilisin-like serine protease are identified through bacterial two-hybrid assay. Far-western blot assay confirms that a cholesterol-binding cytolysin Suilysin can interact with both C3aR and C5aR. Chemotaxis assays demonstrate that recombinant ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 31, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Mechanisms of β-lactam resistance of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis cases
The objective of this study was to determine the genetic basis of this increase in MIC for β-lactams amongst S. uberis. Illumina sequencing and determination of oxacillin MIC was performed on 265 clinical isolates. Published sequences of the five penicillin binding proteins pbp1a, pbp1b, pbp2a, pbp2b, and pbp2x were used to identify, extract and align these sequences from the study isolates. Amino acid substitutions resulting from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within these genes were analysed for associations with elevated (≥ 0.5 mg/L) oxacillin MIC together with a genome wide association study. The populat...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 31, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The chemokines CCL2 and CXCL10 produced by bovine endometrial epithelial cells induce migration of bovine B lymphocytes, contributing to transuterine transmission of BLV infection
Publication date: Available online 28 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Kiyohiko Andoh, Asami Nishimori, Ryosuke Sakumoto, Ken-Go Hayashi, Shinichi HatamaAbstractBovine leukemia virus (BLV) causes a lymphoproliferative disease in cattle and is transmitted horizontally and vertically via infected lymphocytes. Although transplacental infection is considered the predominant route of vertical transmission of BLV, the molecular mechanisms of this process remain to be elucidated. Notably, how BLV passes through the blood-placental barrier remains unclear, given that BLV is transmitted primarily by cell-to-cel...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 28, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Update on Glässer’s disease: How to control the disease under restrictive use of antimicrobials
Publication date: Available online 25 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Mar Costa-Hurtado, Emili Barba-Vidal, Jaime Maldonado, Virginia AragonAbstractAntimicrobials have been commonly used to control bacterial diseases in farm animals. The efficacy of these drugs deterred the development of other control measures, such as vaccines, which are currently getting more attention due to the increased concern about antimicrobial resistance. Glässer’s disease is caused by Glaesserella (Haemophilus) parasuis and affects pork production around the world. Balance between colonization and immunity seems ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 26, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Influence of pigeon interferon alpha (PiIFN-α) on pigeon circovirus (PiCV) replication and cytokine expression in Columba livia
In this study pigeon interferon alpha (PiIFN-α) was cloned and expressed and its antiviral effects were tested against fowl adenovirus type 4 (FAdV-4) in vitro and PiCV in vivo. No detectable levels of FAdV-4 viral genome in LMH cells stimulated with 300 µg/mL PiIFN-α were found. Additionally, PiIFN-α was stable at different temperature and pH for 4 h, and no reduction in antiviral activity was observed in untreated and treated cells. In pigeons naturally and experimentally infected by PiCV, no detectable levels of PiCV virus titers were found after treatment with PiIFN-α. Cytoki...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Non-S. aureus staphylococci (NAS) in milk samples: Infection or contamination?
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Johannes Hamel, Yanchao Zhang, Nicole Wente, Volker KrömkerAbstractNon-S. aureus staphylococci (NAS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens from bovine milk and can cause intramammary infections (IMI). They can also be found in teat canals, on bovine skin and in cows’ environment, which may lead to unnoticed contamination of milk samples. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of NAS species as mastitis-causing pathogens or contaminants, and to identify possible differences between NAS species. A longitudin...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Overview of spatio-temporal distribution inferred by multi-locus sequence typing of Taylorella equigenitalis isolated worldwide from 1977 to 2018 in equidae
This study compared 367 worldwide equine strains using multilocus sequence typing according to the geographical origin, isolation year and equine breed. The strains were divided into 49 sequence types (STs), including 10 described for the first time. Three major and three minor clonal complexes (CCs), and 11 singletons, were identified. The genetic heterogeneity was low (0.13 STs/strain) despite the wide diversity of geographical origins (n = 16), isolation years (1977 to 2018) and equine breeds (n = 18). It was highest outside Europe and in the 1977-1997 period; current major STs and CCs alread...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Yersinia enterocolitica-specific modulation of innate immune responses in jejunal epithelial cells
Publication date: Available online 24 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Elisabetta Razzuoli, Walter Vencia, Paola Modesto, Giulia Franzoni, Silvia Dei Giudici, Erica Parisi, Angelo Ferrari, Massimo AmadoriAbstractGut is often subject to infection by different pathogens like Y. enterocolitica. To date, biotypes (BTs) 1A have been considered as non-pathogenic, because they do not express plasmid of virulence pYV; however, BTs 1A strains present other chromosomic virulence genes and recent studies suggest an implication of this microorganism in reactive arthritis. Although many studies highlighted the mole...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 25, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility of Trueperella pyogenes isolated from food-producing ruminants
Publication date: Available online 22 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Ángela Galán-Relaño, Lidia Gómez-Gascón, Belén Barrero-Domínguez, Inmaculada Luque, Francisco Jurado-Martos, Ana I. Vela, Celia Sanz-Tejero, Carmen TarradasAbstractA total of 96 Trueperella pyogenes isolates, an opportunistic pathogen of food-producing ruminants, obtained from cattle (n = 34), sheep (n = 35) and goats (n = 27), and identified by Real Time PCR (qPCR), were analysed to determine the susceptibility to 12 antimicrobials commonly u...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Mechanisms of ®-lactam resistance of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis cases
The objective of this study was to determine the genetic basis of this increase in MIC for β-lactam amongst S. uberis. Illumina sequencing and determination of oxacillin MIC was performed on 265 clinical isolates. Published sequences of the five penicillin binding proteins pbp1a, pbp1b, pbp2a, pbp2b, and pbp2x were used to identify, extract and align these sequences from the study isolates. Amino acid substitutions resulting from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within these genes were analysed for associations with elevated (≥ 0.5 mg/L) oxacillin MIC together with a genome wide association study. The p...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 23, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Sole recombinant Muscovy duck parvovirus infection in Muscovy ducklings can form characteristic intestinal embolism
In this study, an infectious plasmid clone pZW containing the complete genome of strain ZW, a previously characterized rMDPV isolate, was constructed, and a single nucleotide mutation was then introduced in the VP1 gene within pZW as the genetic marker. Transfection of pZW in 11-day-old embryonated Muscovy duck eggs via the chorioallantoic membrane route resulted in the rescue of the infectious virus. The rescued virus exhibited similar biological characteristics to its parental strain ZW, as evaluated by the median embryo lethal dose and the replication kinetics in embryonated Muscovy duck eggs. Muscovy duckling infection...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 21, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Establishment and characterization of the pig tonsil epithelial (PT) cell line as a new model for persist infection of Japanese Encephalitis Virus
In this study, we established a continuous epithelial cell line, named PT cell, from the pig tonsil. This cell is susceptible to JEV. We determined the growth characteristics, molecular properties, microstructure profiles of PT cell. JEV is easy to enter PT cell which may partly explain the reason of persist infection. We further determined that LMAN2L, a mannose lectin proteins, is the primary viral receptors for JEV entry in PT cell. IFITM3, an cellular surface antiviral factor, is underexpression in PT cell after JEV infection. All these results provide solid evidence that PT cell will promote additional research on JEV...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 20, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Efficacy in pigs of a new inactivated vaccine combining porcine circovirus type 2 and Mycoplasma hyorhinis
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Yan-Wu Wei, Hong-Zhen Zhu, Li-Ping Huang, De-Li Xia, Hong-Li Wu, Hai-Qiao Bian, Li Feng, Chang-Ming LiuAbstractCoinfection with porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and Mycoplasma hyorhinis (Mhr) can induce more-severe disease than a single infection with either. We evaluated the efficacy of a new vaccine combining inactivated PCV2 and Mhr, in a model of PCV2 and Mhr infection. Twenty-five 35-day-old PCV2- and Mhr-free pigs were randomly divided into five groups, with five pigs in each group. The pigs in groups 1 and 2 were vaccinated w...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Marek’s disease virus as a CRISPR/Cas9 delivery system to defend against avian leukosis virus infection in chickens
Publication date: Available online 16 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Yongzhen Liu, Zengkun Xu, Yu Zhang, Mengmeng Yu, Suyan Wang, Yulong Gao, Changjun Liu, Yanping Zhang, Li Gao, Xiaole Qi, Hongyu Cui, Qing Pan, Kai Li, Xiaomei WangAbstractThe CRISPR/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system is a powerful gene-editing tool originally discovered as an integral mediator of bacterial adaptive immunity. Recently, this technology has been explored for its potential utility in providing new and unique treatments for viral infection. Marek’s disease virus (MDV) and avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

AAV-expressed G protein induces robust humoral and cellular immune response and provides durable protection from rabies virus challenges in mice
Publication date: March 2020Source: Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 242Author(s): Chuangang Liu, Jianglong Li, Qili Yao, Zhisong Gao, Yanqing Cheng, Meiling Zhou, Yajie Tang, Leqiang Sun, Jinxia Dai, Gang Cao, Xiao-Lian Zhang, Ran ZhangAbstractRabies is a highly lethal infectious zoonosis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and the mortality rate is almost 100 % once clinical symptoms appear, which poses a huge threat to public health security across the many parts of the word. Vaccination is reported to be the most effective approach to prevent the disease. G protein is the only protein present on the surface of RABV, it also ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 17, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Adenosine receptor Adora2b antagonism attenuates Brucella abortus 544 infection in professional phagocyte RAW 264.7 cells and BALB/c mice
Publication date: Available online 13 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Alisha Wehdnesday Bernardo Reyes, Son Hai Vu, Tran Xuan Ngoc Huy, WonGi Min, Hu Jang Lee, Hong Hee Chang, John Hwa Lee, Suk KimAbstractBrucella as a stealthy intracellular pathogen avoids activation of innate immune response. Here we investigated the contribution of an adenosine receptor, Adora2b, during Brucella infection in professional phagocyte RAW 264.7 cells and in a murine model. Adora2b-deficient cells showed attenuated Brucella internalization and intracellular survival with enhanced release of IL-6, TNF-α, IL-12 and ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 14, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

AAV- expressed G protein induces robust humoral and cellular immune response and provides durable protection from rabies virus challenges in mice
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Chuangang Liu, Jianglong Li, Qili Yao, Zhisong Gao, Yanqing Cheng, Meiling Zhou, Yajie Tang, Leqiang Sun, Jinxia Dai, Gang Cao, Xiao-Lian Zhang, Ran ZhangAbstractRabies is a highly lethal infectious zoonosis caused by rabies virus (RABV), and the mortality rate is almost 100% once clinical symptoms appear, which poses a huge threat to public health security across the many parts of the word. Vaccination is reported to be the most effective approach to prevent the disease. G protein is the only protein present on the surface of RABV,...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 13, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

A novel low virulent respiratory infectious bronchitis virus originating from the recombination of QX, TW and 4/91 genotype strains in China
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Mengjiao Huang, Chuangchao Zou, Yuan Liu, Zhenling Han, Chunyi Xue, Yongchang CaoAbstractIn China, variants of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) evolve continually and diverse recombinant strains have been reported. Here, an IBV strain, designated as ck/CH/LJX/2017/07 (referred as JX17) was isolated from chicken vaccinated with H120 and 4/91 in Jiangxi, China, in 2017. Sequence analysis reveals of the S1 gene of JX17 the highest nucleotide identity of 98.15% with that of GI-7 genotype TW2575/98 strain. Furthermore, whole genome anal...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 11, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: February 2020Source: Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 241Author(s): (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 11, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Rhodococcus equi from necropsied foals with rhodococcosis
In this study, the foal necropsy records between 01/01/2011 and 08/30/2019 were reviewed for culture-positive R. equi with MICs and, whether or not the affected foals received any mainstay dual therapy before their deaths. Resistance to antimicrobials in the R. equi isolates from necropsied foals were then compared between treated foals with dual therapy and untreated foals to determine the association between the administration of antimicrobials and development of the drug resistance. A total of 256 R. equi isolates from each of the 256 necropsied foals with rhodococcosis, rifampicin, azithromycin, clarithromycin and eryt...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 7, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Molecular characterisation of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli of bovine origin
In this study, the genotypic and phenotypic characterisation of twelve Escherichia coli isolates of bovine origin is reported.Twelve bacterial isolates of animal origin were selected from a previous study based on their multidrug resistant (MDR) profile. Efflux pump activity was measured using ethidium bromide (EtBr) and the biofilm forming ability of the individual strains was assessed using a number of phenotypic assays.All isolates were resistant to tetracyclines and a number of the isolates expressed resistance to fluoroquinolones which was also confirmed in silico by the presence of a number of these resistance marker...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 7, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: January 2020Source: Veterinary Microbiology, Volume 240Author(s): (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

The association of Equine Parvovirus-Hepatitis (EqPV-H) with cases of non-biologic-associated Theiler’s disease on a farm in Ontario, Canada
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): John Baird, Birthe Tegtmeyer, Luis Arroyo, Alexander Stang, Yannick Brüggemann, Murray Hazlett, Eike SteinmannAbstractTheiler’s disease was confirmed within a group horses located on a farm in southwestern Ontario during the summer and autumn of 2005. Five sudden deaths occurred between 3 July and 21 August, 2005, none of which were necropsied, however two of the horses showed clinical signs compatible with hepatic encephalopathy prior to death. No horse on the farm had received a biologic product of equine blood origin in...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

First isolation and genetic characterization of porcine circovirus type 3 using primary porcine kidney cells
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Taehwan Oh, Chanhee ChaeAbstractPorcine circovirus type 3 (PCV3) was first detected in aborted fetuses in 2015 when sows displaying clinical signs that looked like porcine dermatitis and nephropathy syndrome died suddenly. Primary porcine kidney cells were selected for both the isolation and propagation of PCV3 strain SNUVR181115 (GenBank accession number MK503331) as these cells were permissive to PCV3 infection. PCV3 did not produce cytopathic effect on infected monolayers, therefore PCV3 infection was confirmed by in situ hybridiz...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Complete genome analysis of avian hepatitis E virus from chicken with hepatic rupture hemorrhage syndrome
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Qi Su, Zhihui Zhang, Yawen Zhang, Zhizhong Cui, Shuang Chang, Peng ZhaoAbstractSince 2016, severe outbreaks of hepatic rupture hemorrhage syndrome (HRHS) associated with infections of tentative novel avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) have emerged in chickens in China, causing increased mortality and decreased laying rate in adult hens and disturbing the hatching and breeding of chicks. To further identify the genotype and gain a better understanding of the genetic properties of the avian HEV responsible for that, a strain from Hebei prov...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 4, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Interferon-stimulated genes inhibit caprine parainfluenza virus type 3 replication in Madin-Darby bovine kidney cells
In this study, we used RNA-Seq to understand the responses of madin-darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells to CPIV3 infection. A total of 261 differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in CPIV3-infected compared with mock-infected MDBK cells at 24 h post-infection (hpi). The DEGs were mainly involved in immune system processes, metabolic processes, and signal transduction. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis demonstrated that the most significantly enriched signaling pathways were MAPK, Wnt, PI3K-Akt, tumor necrosis factor, Toll-like receptor and ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis. STRING analys...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Serological evidence of swine exposure to pandemic H1N1/2009 influenza A virus in Burkina Faso
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Dieudonné Tialla, Aurélie Sausy, Assana Cissé, Tani Sagna, Abdoul Kader Ilboudo, Georges Anicet Ouédraogo, Judith M. Hübschen, Zékiba Tarnagda, Chantal J. SnoeckAbstractDespite improvement of human and avian influenza surveillance, swine influenza surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa is scarce and pandemic preparedness is still deemed inadequate, including in Burkina Faso. This cross-sectional study therefore aimed to investigate the (past) exposure of pigs to influenza A viruses. Practices of ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Evaluation of a novel inactivated vaccine against duck circovirus in Muscovy ducks
In this study, we isolated DuCVs from Muscovy ducks, helped them proliferate using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and developed an inactivated vaccine. Muscovy ducks vaccinated with the inactivated vaccine had higher neutralizing antibody titers than the control ducks and higher protection in the challenge experiment (as assessed by weight measurement). Moreover, the inactivated vaccine did not cause feather abnormalities, growth repression, and dwarf syndrome; likewise, lesions and lymphocyte apoptosis in the bursa of Fabricius, spleen, and thymus were not observed. Significantly lower virus shedding from the...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - January 2, 2020 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Comparing PFGE, MLST, and WGS in monitoring the spread of macrolide and rifampin resistant Rhodococcus equi in horse production
This study compares three different genotyping techniques, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE), Multilocus Sequence Typing (MLST) and whole genome SNP-based phylogeny to determine the most accurate method to monitor the spread of macrolide-and-rifampin-resistant R. equi.Methods16 macrolide and rifampin-resistant and 6 susceptible R. equi and their Illumina Miseq whole genome sequences were used in this study. The isolates were sub-typed by PFGE with VspI and a dendrogram based on their similarities generated. Additionally, three phylogenetic trees were constructed using CSI phylogeny on (i) whole genome sequences (WGS)...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 30, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Transcriptional analysis of RstA/RstB in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli identifies its role in the regulation of hdeD-mediated virulence and survival in chicken macrophages
In conclusion, our data suggest that RstA affects APEC E058 virulence partly by directly regulating the acidic resistance gene hdeD. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Prevalence and genetic diversity of bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy herds of China
In conclusion, the prevalence of BVDV persistent infection in dairy cattle was high and genetic diversity was high and increasing, revealing a serious threat to the health of cattle in China and highlighting the need for BVDV control. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Prevalence, etiology, and economic impact of clinical mastitis on large dairy farms in China
This study investigated the continuous monthly prevalence of bovine clinical mastitis (CM) and the distribution of causative pathogens among 36,619 CM milk samples from large dairy farms across seven Chinese provinces from 2015–2017 using data from routine CM recording systems. Based on treatment period and cost per cow, withdrawal period, daily milk production, and milk value data from each farm in 2017, we calculated the economic impact of CM at the farm level with 2,578–9,044 lactating cows per farm. Results showed a wide variation in monthly prevalence of CM (0.6%–18.2%) among the seven farms over the...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 29, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Association of bovine major histocompatibility complex class I (BoLA-A) alleles with immune response to Brucella abortus strain 19 in calves
Publication date: Available online 26 December 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Bisvanath Patra, Manjit Panigrahi, Sheikh Firdous Ahmad, Satyabrata Dandapat, Pushpendra Kumar, Bharat BhushanAbstractIn the present study, we analyzed the immune response of calves to Brucella abortus strain 19 vaccine (S19) and its association with MHC class I (BoLA-A) alleles (exons 2-3 and 4-5). Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used for typing of MHC class I BoLA-A exon 2-3 with DdeI and TaqI restriction enzymes and exon 4-5 with HinfI in 45 crossbred calves. The PCR-RFLP analysi...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Occurrence and diversity of Campylobacter species in captive chelonians
This study suggests that Campylobacter spp. are not common in chelonians, but a variety of species can be detected in these hosts, including those potentially pathogenic for humans. Further studies are needed to understand the epidemiology and the pathogenic potential for both animals and humans of reptile-associated Campylobacter spp. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 27, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Identification of functional lncRNAs in pseudorabies virus type II infected cells
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Yulan Jin, Kailun Zhang, Wenxiang Huang, Haimin Li, Weiren Dong, Jiyong ZhouAbstractLong noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) may play important roles in the antiviral responses. However, little is known about the identification and functions of swine lncRNAs in responses against pseudorabies virus type II (PRV-II). Here, we detected the expression profiles of host lncRNAs from a wild-type (PRV-II DX) and gE/TK deficient (gE-TK-PRV) PRV-II infected cells. RNA-seq identified 664 differentially expressed (DE) lncRNAs from PRV-DX infected cells, ...
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection promotes C1QBP secretion to enhance inflammatory responses
In this study, we confirmed that PRRSV infection promoted C1QBP secretion in Marc-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), the target cells of PRRSV in vivo. Knockdown of endogenous C1QBP decreased PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses. The purified recombinant porcine C1QBP (poC1QBP) had proinflammatory effects. The exogenous addition of poC1QBP significantly enhanced PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses and abolished the inhibitory effects mediated by poC1QBP-knockdown. Taken together, these results demonstrate that PRRSV infection promotes poC1QBP secretion that enhances inflammatory responses. (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 25, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Enhanced replication of swine influenza viruses in dexamethasone-treated juvenile and layer turkeys” [Vet. Microbiol. 162 2–4 (2013) 353–359]
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Ahmed Ali, Mahmoud Ibrahim, Abdelfattah H. Eladl, Yehia M. Saif, Chang-Won Lee (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 19, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Antigenic analysis of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses circulating in Egypt (2006–2012)” [Vet. Microbiol. 167 3–4 (2013) 651–661]
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2019Source: Veterinary MicrobiologyAuthor(s): Mahmoud Ibrahim, Abdelfattah H. Eladl, Hesham A. Sultan, Abdel Satar Arafa, Alaa G. Abdel Razik, Sahar Abd El Rahman, Kamel I. Abou El-Azm, Yehia M. Saif, Chang-Won Lee (Source: Veterinary Microbiology)
Source: Veterinary Microbiology - December 19, 2019 Category: Veterinary Research Source Type: research