The history of respiratory disease management

Over the past 200 years lung diseases have shifted from infections – tuberculosis, pneumonia – to diseases of dirty air – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer. New diseases have emerged from industrial pollution and HIV infection, while better imaging has revealed others previously unrecognized. Scientific advances in microbiology, im aging and clinical measurement have improved diagnosis and allowed better targeted treatment. Advances in treatment have been dramatic, the most important being drugs (antibiotics, cortisone, β2-adrenoceptor agonists), ventilatory support (from iron lung to nasal positive-pressure ventilation), inh aled therapy (metered dose inhalers, nebulizers) and lung surgery (resections, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, transplantation).
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Clinical aspects Source Type: research

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Publication date: Available online 5 June 2020Source: Respiratory Physiology &NeurobiologyAuthor(s): Daniela Rodrigues Andrade, Kelly Critine Pinto, Julia Sampel de Castro, Daniela Kuguimoto Andaku, Viviani Aparecida Lara, Fabio Augusto de Luca, Carlos Gun, Felipe Augusto Rodrigues Mendes, Mayron F. Oliveira, Wladimir Musetti Medeiros
Source: Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology - Category: Respiratory Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 3 June 2020Source: Journal of the American College of RadiologyAuthor(s): Ruth C. Carlos, Katy Lowry, Gelareh Sadigh
Source: Journal of the American College of Radiology - Category: Radiology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Chelation therapy, particularly with deferiprone, may cause distal ulnar growth arrest causing ulnar shortening and progressive radial bowing in these children. Level of Evidence: Level IV—case series.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Upper Extremity Source Type: research
Conclusions: Short-term results indicate that MCGR may be a good option in SMA-associated collapsing spine deformity to reduce the burden of repetitive lengthening procedures. The authors recommend apical deformity control in the convex side in case of curve rigidity. In addition, including the pelvis in the instrumentation at index surgery is critical to prevent distal adding-on. Level of Evidence: Level IV—retrospective case series.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Orthopaedics - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: Early Onset Scoliosis Source Type: research
Conclusion. The spontaneous incidence rate of vertebral body infection among OVF patients was 0.7%; however, the occurrence of this complication led to serious events. Clinicians should pay attention to the possibility of bacillemia in elderly or immunocompromised OVF patients. Level of Evidence: 4
Source: Spine - Category: Orthopaedics Tags: CLINICAL CASE SERIES Source Type: research
Authors: Mur LA, Huws SA, Cameron SJ, Lewis PD, Lewis KE Abstract The lung microbiome has been shown to reflect a range of pulmonary diseases-for example: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cystic fibrosis. Studies have now begun to show microbiological changes in the lung that correlate with lung cancer (LC) which could provide new insights into lung carcinogenesis and new biomarkers for disease screening. Clinical studies have suggested that infections with tuberculosis or pneumonia increased the risk of LC possibly through inflammatory or immunological changes. These have now been supersede...
Source: Ecancermedicalscience - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Ecancermedicalscience Source Type: research
Conclusions: Peroral arsenic has little effect on local airway immune responses to bacteria but compromises respiratory epithelial barrier integrity, increasing systemic translocation of inhaled pathogens and small molecules. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP1878 Received: 09 March 2017 Revised: 14 August 2017 Accepted: 16 August 2017 Published: 28 September 2017 Address correspondence to M.B. Fessler, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 111 T.W. Alexander Dr., P.O. Box 12233, Maildrop D2-01, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 USA. Telephone: (919) 541-3701. Email: fesslerm@niehs.nih.gov *Current address: UN...
Source: EHP Research - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
Abstract BackgroundCommon diseases with potential to increase the risk of death from lung cancer have so far not been studied in large populations. MethodsWe did a population‐based retrospective cohort study using nationwide health insurance claims data from 2005 to 2012 in Korea including 205 403 lung cancer patients. Multivariate‐adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of lung cancer mortality by presence, time intervals with lung cancer diagnosis and combinations of pre‐existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), pneumonia, asthma and tuberculosis were calculated using the Cox‐proportional hazards model. R...
Source: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
AbstractWe aimed to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Egypt, currently unknown, based on the size of the populations at risk and available epidemiological data. Data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO), the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), and published reports with clearcut denominators. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies of fungal infections, using previously described methodology. The population of Egypt in 2011 was ∼82,500,000; 31% children, and 8% women>60  years of age. Amongst about 21.8 million women aged 15&n...
Source: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Lung diseases have shifted from infections – tuberculosis, pneumonia – to diseases of dirty air – chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer. New diseases have emerged from industrial pollution and HIV, while better imaging has revealed others previously unrecognized. Scientific advances in microbiology, imaging and clinical measurement have improved diagnosis and allowed better targeted treatment. Advances in treatment have been dramatic, the most important being drugs (antibiotics, cortisone, β2-adrenoreceptor agonists), ventilatory support (from iron lung to nasal positive-press...
Source: Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Infection Source Type: research
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