Current state and perspectives of checkpoint inhibitors in ovarian cancer treatment

SummaryThe introduction of checkpoint inhibitors (CPI) has set a  paradigm shift within the therapies for a variety of advanced solid tumors. By altering key regulators of cellular immune response, so-called immune checkpoints, CPIs modulate peripheral cancer immune tolerance to induce cancer-targeted immune reactions. Response rates, however, vary significantl y between different solid tumor types. A certain efficacy of CPIs has been described for gynecological malignancies, as the KEYNOTE-028 study reported an objective response rate (ORR) of 13.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.8–33.6) for endometrial and the CheckMate-358 study an ORR of 26.3% (95% CI 9.1–51.2) for cervical cancer. With respect to epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), recent evidence suggests only modest response, as the largest study to date by Matulonis et al. reported in 2019 that pembrolizumab induced an ORR of only 8.0% in 376 patients with EOC. Thus, latest clinical data indicate EOC to be rather “immunologically cold”, most likely due to both an inherently low tumor mutational burden (TMB) and a subsequently limited cellular antigen presentation. As CPI monotherapy therefore seems to be of limited clinical significance, ongoing clinical trials moved to combine CPI with PARP inhibitors and/or with antiangiogenic agents to elucidate possible synergistic antitumoral effects of these combinations. Despite promising preliminary data, the large phase 3 tr...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

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Conclusions: The risks of hormone therapy should be assessed on an individual basis, with consideration of age, type of hormone therapy, dose, duration of use, regimen, route, and prior exposure. Systemic hormone therapy is not recommended in breast cancer survivors, whereas vaginal low-dose estrogen appears safe. Hormone therapy may be used by endometrial, cervical, and ovarian cancer survivors with low-risk, non-estrogen-receptor–positive subtypes. Video Summary:http://links.lww.com/MENO/A516.
Source: Menopause - Category: OBGYN Tags: Review Article Source Type: research
This article summarizes the associations between miR-429 and malignant tumors as well as potential action mechanisms. miR-429 has a potential to be used in the future as a biomarker for the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of certain cancers. PMID: 31884798 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Neoplasma - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Neoplasma Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Monalizumab 10 mg/kg IV q 2 weekly is well tolerated in patients with pre-treated gynecologic cancers. Short term disease stabilization was observed. Future studies should assess combinations with other agents including immunotherapeutics. PMID: 31308062 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Clin Cancer Res Source Type: research
AbstractPurpose of ReviewThe consequence of treatment for gynaecological cancers can cause sudden onset of intense menopausal symptoms, such as vasomotor symptoms, sexual dysfunction and emotional instability. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is often effective and can overcome these unpleasant and severe symptoms. However, data regarding its safety remains controversial. The big question therefore is whether HRT in gynaecological cancer survivors is possible. This is due to the fear of disease relapse. So, the purpose of this study was to review the evidence regarding cancer recurrence or death following use of HRT in su...
Source: Current Obstetrics and Gynecology Reports - Category: OBGYN Source Type: research
This study is an important step forward in highlighting C1q as a new prognostic candidate biomarker for a range of carcinomas. Methods Oncomine Database Analysis The expression levels of C1QA, C1QB, and C1QC genes in various carcinomas were analyzed using Oncomine (www.oncomine.org), a cancer microarray database and web-based data mining platform from genome-wide expression analyses (22, 23). We compared the differences in mRNA level between normal tissue and carcinoma. The mRNA expression levels in neoplastic tissues compared to the healthy tissues were obtained as the parameters of p-value 2, and gene ranking in the t...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion MTDH is pro-oncogenic factor playing multifaceted and diverse roles in cancer progression. Its association and central role in regulating signaling pathways such a MAPK, wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/AkT, NF-κβ pathways in various cancers shows that it plays a vital role in metastasis. MTDH contribution to chemo and radiotherapy resistance provides a new direction for the development of anticancer therapeutics. Multiple mechanisms converge to promote expression of MTDH in cancers. Further studies are therefore warranted to determine whether the elevated MTDH expression has prognostic value for development...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Li Liu, Jiajing Lin and Hongying He* Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Liuzhou Worker’s Hospital, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University, Liuzhou, China Background and Objective: Endometrial cancer (EC) is a common gynecological malignancy worldwide. Despite advances in the development of strategies for treating EC, prognosis of the disease remains unsatisfactory, especially for advanced EC. The aim of this study was to identify novel genes that can be used as potential biomarkers for identifying the prognosis of EC and to construct a novel risk stratification using these genes. Me...
Source: Frontiers in Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate whether combining anti-PD-L1 Atezolizumab with BEV may have a synergistic effect and enhance the efficacy of both treatments in cisplatin resistant epithelial ovarian cancer (CREOC). We retrospectively analyzed 124 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients from Gynecologic Oncology Department of Tianjin Cancer Hospital between January 2013 and June 2018, who all were diagnosed with cisplatin resistance due to progressing
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
We report a case of misdiagnosed endometrial cancer by D&C, but with a positive cytopathological finding. Following that, a meta-analysis including 4,179 patients of endometrial diseases with cyto-histopathological results was performed to assess the value of the endometrial cytological method in endometrial cancer diagnosis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of the cytological method in detecting endometrial atypical hyperplasia or cancer was 0.91[95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74–0.97] and 0.96 (95% CI 0.90–0.99), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio was 25.4 (...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In this study, vaginal microbiome was divided in five biotypes, being four of them dominated by lactobacilli and considered as healthy (pH 5.0) and higher diversity. In a healthy status, microbiota is balanced and forms a stable ecological unit dominated by Lactobacillus species, which fixes pH below 5.0 and controls non-desirable groups. In a pathogenic process, the microbiome shifts to a dysbiotic state, in which lactobacilli drop, pH is increased to values above 4.5 and other groups such as Gardnerella, Atopobium, Prevotella, and Streptococcus, among others, can overgrow (Srinivasan et al., 2012). Short chain fatty acid...
Source: Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
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