Resistance to chemotherapy and anti-angiogenic therapy in ovarian cancer
SummaryOvarian cancer (OC) is the foremost lethal gynaecologic malignancy and among the top five deadliest cancers in women. Current treatment comprises a  combination therapy of surgery, platinum-based chemotherapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) antibodies. However, patients typically experience a disease relapse within two years. Recurrent OC is incurable and resistance to platins and anti-VEGF treatment is a major determinant of prognosis. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that contribute to tumour metastasis and chemoresistance are essential to improve patient outcome and especia...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - February 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Educational no.5: next-generation gene panel sequencing
SummaryNext-generation sequencing allows the simultaneous interrogation of a  large number of genomic targets and is therefore highly suitable for situations, in which mutations in many different genes may have a clinical impact. This short educational discusses the process from the sample to the reported mutations and the limits of the method. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - February 21, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Influencing factors on career choice and current occupation analysis of adult survivors of childhood cancer: a  special focus on health-related occupations
ConclusionsThere was found a  significant trend that adult survivors of childhood cancer are more likely to work in health-related professions than the average population. Occupational planning should consequently be supported and mental health might be addressed during regular follow-up visits. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - February 18, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The path of an esophageal carcinoma patient from curative to palliative treatment
SummaryWe hereby report the course and management of a  patient with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 negative esophageal cancer who received neoadjuvant chemoradiation, surgical resection and subsequently palliative therapy for recurrent disease. The critical role of the staging procedure is discussed. Additionally the options of systemic pall iative therapies are presented and the rationale for immuno-oncologic treatment is highlighted. The patient received pembrolizumab as second-line therapy, which unfortunately did not result in a response and caused minor autoimmune side effects. (Source: Memo - Mag...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - February 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Surgical concepts in esophageal cancer
SummaryDespite neoadjuvant treatment being available for esophageal cancer, surgery remains the cornerstone of treatment. The aim of this article is to give a clear and simple overview of current issues in the available surgical strategies relating to locally limited and advanced disease, including the following: clinical staging, preoperative general condition and comorbidities, surgical strategy, surgical approaches, postoperative complications and the role of surgery in advanced disease. Based on a literature search and our personal professional experience to date, enhanced surgical treatment protocols for the treatment...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - January 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Solitary scalp metastatic lesion as a  sign of breast cancer recurrence—a case report
ConclusionsDespite its rarity, solitary scalp metastasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients with a  history of cancer especially breast cancer. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - January 29, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

ESMO 2018 —personal highlights
This article intends to summarize personal highlights of the ESMO (European Society for Medical Oncology) 2018 meeting and does not aim to give a  comprehensive overview. We will summarize the most recent presented data on the treatment of non-small cell lung establishing first-line combinational therapies (chemotherapy backbone with immunotherapy) as standard of care. Furthermore highly practice relevant data on the treatment of recurrent o r metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma were presented. Next the treatment landscape of metastatic prostate cancer is changing rapidly and some new aspects in metastati...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - January 24, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

An update on immunotherapy in breast cancer
SummaryWhile immunotherapy (IOT) with monoclonal antibodies has long been present in HER2-positive breast cancer, the development of modern IOT concepts such as PD-1/PD-L1 targeting immune checkpoint inhibitors has been slow compared with other malignancies such a  melanoma or lung cancer. Recent clinical trials of IOT have focused on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) as no specific treatment options beyond chemotherapy have been available in this subtype; in addition, TNBC apparently harbours the largest immunogenic potential. Meanwhile, initial results from the phase III IMpassion130 trial have been presente...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - January 23, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Role of immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastrointestinal cancer treatment
SummaryIn this short review we aim to summarize the role current clinical role of immunotherapy in particular of immune checkpoint inhibition in gastrointestinal malignancies and highlight the most important clinical trials. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - January 22, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Current lymphoma diagnostic standards: the pathologists ’ view
SummaryThis short review aims at summarizing the current standards of lymphoma diagnostics and some novelties in the recent WHO classification. The importance of close collaboration between clinicians and pathologists to render the correct diagnosis and to find the most appropriate treatment for each individual patient is highlighted. In lymphomas, the diagnostic evaluation of histopathology, immune phenotype and genetics are puzzle pieces that have to be put into a  broader context with the help of the information given by the clinical colleagues, such as patient’s age and sex, location of the lesion, previous ...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - January 16, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Investigation of seasonal frequency and pathogens in febrile neutropenia
SummaryBackgroundIn patients with hematological malignancies, febrile neutropenia (FEN) is the most frequent complication and the most important cause of mortality. Various risk factors have been identified for severe infection in neutropenic patients. However, to the best of our knowledge, it is not defined whether there is a  change in the risk of febrile neutropenia according to seasons. The first aim of study was to determine the difference in frequency of febrile neutropenic episodes (FNEs) according to months and seasons. The second aim was to document isolated pathogens, as well as demographical and clinical ch...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - January 15, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Changes in patients ’ quality of life during radiotherapy and 1 month after treatment
SummaryBackgroundThe EORTC QLQ-C30 quality of life (QOL) questionnaire is designed to measure cancer patients ’ physical, psychological, and social functions. There are few reports on the impact of radiotherapy (RT) on QOL; thus, we investigated QOL changes during the RT period and 1 month after RT.MethodsWe scored EORTC QLQ-C30 (version  3.0) questionnaires from 66 patients. The questionnaire contained 30 items, including 1 item on financial concerns, a global health domain, 5 functional domains, 3 symptom domains, and 5 single-symptom items. Assessments were performed before RT, at the...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - January 7, 2019 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Toxicities in B ‑cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma—new agents, new pitfalls
SummaryImmunochemotherapy has long been the backbone of all treatment for B ‑cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma. These therapies led to long-term disease control or even cure for some patients. However, these treatments also caused—sometimes severe—toxicities and deterioration of the quality of life. Novel agents targeting the B‑cell-receptor pathway and bcl2 have made great inroads in the treatment of mature lymphoid neoplasms. These new agents present themselves with a wide variety of new toxicities, which have to be taken into account when being administered to our patients. Hematological toxicities are very...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - December 21, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Demystification of palliative care. In regard to Masel and Kreye
(Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - December 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Therapeutic endoscopic strategies in early esophageal cancer and dysplastic Barrett ’s epithelium
SummaryEndoscopic therapy is the gold standard for curative treatment of early esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) including dysplastic Barrett ´s epithelium (BE) and very early squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) because it is superior to surgery in regard to morbidity, mortality and cost effectiveness while yielding excellent results and low complication rates.Tumor detection at an early stage is often challenging and a multimodal approach using high resolution white light endoscopy, virtual chromoendoscopy (e.g. narrow band imaging, NBI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is recommended. Importantly, histological diagnosi...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - December 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Personalized prostate cancer diagnosis and treatment —are we ready?
(Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

BEST of ASCO 2018
(Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - December 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Report from the ESMO 2018 Congress, Munich, October 19th –23rd, 2018
(Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 29, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Radiochemotherapy in esophageal cancer
SummaryEsophageal cancer is one of the ten most frequent tumors worldwide. There are two major histologies: squamous cell carcinomas, which appear more frequently in the upper part of the esophagus, and adenocarcinomas, which are predominantly found in the distal part and at the gastroesophageal junction. Most patients suffer from locally advanced tumors, for which the prognosis is still poor with a  5-year survival rate of 15–25%. Treatment is based on histology, tumor stage, location of the tumor, performance status, age, and comorbidities and it consists of surgery, chemotherapy, or radiotherapy or a com...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

ASCO Congress 2018: melanoma treatment
SummaryThe 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting provided a  closer look on the details of studies already presented. In melanoma, the interest was on neoadjuvant treatment options with high pathological response rates as well as updates on large phase III studies in stage IV disease. Further new targets were discussed focusing on additional drugs to a PD- 1 backbone treatment.Another focus was on Merkel cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinomas, giving new data on PD-1 antibody treatments as well as on vismodegib as neoadjuvant therapy. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

ASCO 2018 highlights: metastatic breast cancer
This article reviews the clinically most relevant presentations at the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting 2018 on the topic of metastatic breast cancer. In the randomized placebo-controlled phase  3 trial MONALEESA-3, testing ribociclib vs. placebo in combination with fulvestrant in postmenopausal women or men with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) and HER2-negative (HER2−) advanced breast cancer (ABC), an increase of median progression-free survival (PFS) from 12.8 months to 20.5 months by the addition of the CDK4/6 inhibitor was reported (HR 0.59;P >  0.01). Taselis...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Diffuse large B ‑cell lymphoma
SummarySince the introduction of anti-CD20 antibodies and polychemotherapy, diffuse large B ‑cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has become a treatable, and, for a high proportion of patients, curable disease. However, a sizeable proportion of patients, especially in poor-prognosis subgroups, will relapse.The landscape of therapy in DLBCL has seen some exciting changes in the past years, most notably with the introduction of CAR-T-cell therapy. All three major trials were recently updated and showed sustained responses and excellent preliminary survival data.Other immunotherapies are gaining ground as well, as the antib...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A  case report of pseudo-progression after pembrolizumab in metastatic gastric cancer and a review of immunotherapy in gastroesophageal tumors
In this report, we present the medical history of a  30-year-old male patient with HER2- and PD-L1-negative metastasized adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia, who received three cycles of pembrolizumab (200  mg every 2 weeks) after the failure of the first-line (1L) treatment with docetaxel, cisplatin, 5‑fluorouracil (DCF). A restaging compu ted tomography (CT) scan for the chest and abdomen revealed an apparent progressive disease; therefore, the treatment was terminated. Five months after the termination of the treatment, a new CT scan demonstrated a spontaneous treatment response...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Educational no.  4: PCR-based methods
SummaryFor decades, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been playing a  fundamental role in hematology. Not only in diagnostics, but also in follow-up and therapeutic decision-making, PCR impacts the treatment of patients with neoplastic diseases. In this educational, commonly used PCR methods are explained. In addition, the strengths and weaknesses of PCR in the clin ical setting are illustrated. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 19, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Short review of biparametric prostate MRI
SummaryMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate has become the gold standard for visualization of prostate cancer. Prostate MRI is usually performed as multiparametric MRI (mpMRI). Since mpMRI has several drawbacks, a  biparametric MRI (bpMRI) of the prostate has been proposed. Many studies have been published on mpMRI and bpMRI in recent years. This short review offers an overview of the latest developments in this rapidly evolving field of research. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 12, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The impact of surgery in oligometastatic prostate cancer
SummaryOligometastatic prostate cancer has been considered an intermediate state between localized disease and widespread metastases, but there is no consensus on the definition of oligometastasis in prostate cancer. At present, a  clinical diagnosis made on the basis of up to five extrapelvic lesions is reasonable for use. Retrospective studies and post hoc analyses suggest that local or metastasis-directed interventions could have benefits in the oligometastatic state including a better response to systematic therapy, low er risk of local complications, and possible positive impact on cancer-specific survival a...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

My burning issues in neuroendocrine tumours (NET)
SummarySeveral compounds have recently been approved for the systemic treatment of advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours (NET) of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) or lung origin. Based on the PROMID and CLARINET trials, somatostatin analogues (SSA) are the preferred first-line approach for all GEP-NET and offer —in addition to antiproliferative effects—durable symptomatic relief for hormonally active tumours. The mTOR inhibitor everolimus has been approved for progressive GEP- and lung-NET and is a widely used drug in this setting. Furthermore, recent results have underlined the high efficacy of ...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 8, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Report from the WCLC 2018 Congress, Toronto, September 23rd –26th, 2018
(Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Lutetium-PSMA therapy —a new therapeutic option in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer?
SummaryAlthough localized prostate cancer (PC) is a  curable disease, a significant proportion of patients progress from advanced PC to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Several new treatments for mCRPC were approved including new hormonal therapies, chemotherapies, and radium-223. For patients with disease progression after the standard therapies, lutetium-prostate-specific membrane antigen (Lu-PSMA) therapy could be an option.The aim of this short review is to give an overview of the available evidence of the efficacy and toxicity of Lu-PSMA therapy. To date, one prospective phase  I...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The microbiome of the prostate
SummaryThe intestinal microbiome plays a  significant role in modulation of the immune system and carcinogenesis. An increasing number of studies are now investigating the microbiome and the effect of dysbiosis on urological diseases.Studies investigating the bacterial composition of urine and prostate tissue as well as fecal bacteria clearly demonstrated an association between the alteration in bacterial composition and prostate cancer. Furthermore, patients with and without prostate cancer seem to have a  distinct cluster of bacteria that alter metabolic pathways including androgen and testosterone synthesis.Ap...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 6, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

The ASCO 2018 annual meeting: update on the adjuvant treatment of early breast cancer
SummaryAt this year ’s American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) annual meeting two large phase 3 trials, the ABCSG-18 and the D‑CARE study, analysed the effects of adjuvant denosumab in breast cancer patients and reported different outcomes. Another phase 3 study, the ASTRRA trial, investigated the use of adj uvant ovarian function suppression (OFS) in high-risk premenopausal patients. This trial confirmed the benefit of OFS similar to the results of the already published SOFT/TEXT trials but raises some crucial questions on the optimal duration of OFS in these patients. The results of the SOFT/TEXT t...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - November 5, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

ASCO update 2018: upper gastrointestinal cancer
SummaryResults from studies in upper gastrointestinal cancer presented at the 2018 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) meeting are promising. Prophylactic treatment of Barrett ’s esophagus with high proton pump inhibitor therapy plus aspirin showed positive results on death, esophageal adenocarcinoma and dysplasia. Current studies on the treatment of gastric cancer included the following: S‑1 plus docetaxel as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy in Asian patients, tri plet therapy (cisplatin, S1, and docetaxel) in Asian patients, paclitaxel vs. pembrolizumab, and a biomarker study for trastuzumab continuat...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - October 23, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Significance of genetic polymorphisms in hematological malignancies: implications of risk factors for prognosis and relapse
ConclusionConsidering the fact that gene polymorphisms could significantly affect pathophysiology of hematological malignancies, these genetic changes may be considered as potential prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic agents in these disorders. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - October 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

ASCO 2018 NSCLC highlights —combination therapy is key
SummaryNon-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treatment was booming at this year ’s ASCO 2018 meeting as several well-performed phase III trials with practice-changing potential were presented. Thereby immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) consolidated its major role in the treatment of NSCLC patients without genetic alterations and extended its use by showing impressive data on I CB combination therapies (mainly combined with chemotherapy). Furthermore the role of predictive biomarkers for ICB therapy (Programmed death-ligand 1 [PD-L1] expression, tumor mutational burden [TMB] testing and others) have been further ...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - October 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cure in metastatic disease:  how to manage and who is the right patient in colorectal cancer?
SummaryMetastatic colorectal cancer was long considered for palliative therapy, until significant improvement in surgical techniques and more effective chemotherapeutic regimens changed the way metastatic colon cancer patients are being treated today. Prospective trials were designed to answer the question which patient with metastatic disease could potentially be cured by a  multidisciplinary approach with medical oncologists, surgeons and radiation oncology using an induction chemotherapy in combination with a targeted agent and being monitored for resectability in multidisciplinary tumor boards. Patients with ...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - October 22, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Kaposi sarcoma following autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with chronic lymphocytic leukemia
ConclusionEven though the mortality rate is low with Kaposi sarcoma, it can cause physical and psychological burden for the patients. Additional investigations and raising awareness of Kaposi sarcoma while evaluating the differential diagnosis of skin lesions in chronic lymphocytic leukemia are needed. Short-term oral etoposide was tolerated well in this patient with a  good clinical response. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

ASCO 2018: highlights in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer
SummaryAt the 2018 ASCO Annual Meeting, data from several interesting studies in HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer were presented. While not immediately practice changing, these trials indicate the future directions of drug development in this field. Early phase studies with novel antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) such as trastuzumab-deruxtecan and trastuzumab-duocarmazine suggest relevant clinical activity of these drugs in pretreated patients; in addition, these ADCs may offer activity in low HER2-expressing tumours as well. ZW25, a  bispecific HER2-directed antibody targeting the extracellular domains 2 and...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Aggressive variant and treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer: two different terms for the same disease?
SummaryPreviously assumed to be rare, the prevalence of aggressive variants of prostate cancer has increased rapidly. This histologically heterogeneous group of cancers, including different forms of the neuroendocrine carcinoma of the prostate, share a  common clinical course associated with a poor response to androgen deprivation treatment and fatal prognosis. Currently, the most commonly used terms are aggressive variant of prostate cancer and treatment-related neuroendocrine prostate cancer. The best treatment of these tumors in clinical rout ine is still being debated. Here, we highlight the clinically most r...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Economic analysis of biomarker-based anti-EGFR therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer in the Austrian context
ConclusionsIn the therapy of mCRC, predictive biomarker testing has shown to be effective and cost saving. For further improvement, a  strong research focus on predictive biomarkers is considered highly efficient to promote precision oncology by alleviating the pressure on the healthcare system. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - October 11, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

A  rare parasitic infection: visceral leishmaniasis case after gastric cancer treatment
We present a  case ofVisceral Leishmaniasis (VL) in a  patient with gastric cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy. A 69-year-old man with gastric carcinoma had been treated with total gastrectomy, lymphadenectomy and postoperative radiotherapy with chemotherapy. Then 3 years after treatment, due to pancytopenia with progressive trombocytopenia and s plenomegaly, bone marrow examination was performed and Leishmania spp. amastigotes were diagnosed. When antibiotherapy was completed, splenomegaly was eliminated and the laboratory results became normal. VL should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosi...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - October 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Central nervous system-predominant Erdheim –Chester disease mimicking meningioma responding to BRAF inhibitor therapy: the importance of molecular diagnosis and targeted therapy in rare neoplastic disorders
We report a case of symptomatic, central nervous system (CNS)-predominant ECD initially presenting with CNS mass lesions mimicking meningiomas on imaging and prominent periorbital xanthogranulomas. CN S presentation of ECD, although not infrequent, bears particular significance here from a therapeutic point of view, since only partial debulking was possible owing to anatomical complexities. Radiological evaluation following surgery showed no significant change in the size of the lesions. Targete d therapy was commenced following histopathology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and molecular testing, resulting in marke...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - September 20, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Educational no.  3: Cytogenetic analysis (CA)
SummaryIn tumor cytogenetics, individual cancer cells are genetically analyzed, either conventionally by studying the mitotic chromosomes of dividing tumor cells from in vitro cultures (metaphase analysis; karyotyping) or molecularly by identifying specific DNA sequences or chromosomal regions in the nucleus of nondividing tumor cells in situ (interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization). In a  typical cytogenetic study, 20 metaphase cells and/or 200 interphase cells are microscopically investigated for visible somatic chromosome changes that might occur in a given neoplastic clone. The detection sensitivi...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - September 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent patient with primary myelofibrosis on long-term ruxolitinib: report of a  rare case and review of literature
SummaryRuxolitinib is a  Janus kinase (JAK) 2 inhibitor that is an effective therapeutic agent for primary myelofibrosis (PMF), which helps significantly to reduce constitutional symptoms and spleen size. However, this drug has significant immunomodulatory effects that may lead to various opportunistic infections. Reacti vation of tuberculosis and certain viral infections have been well documented. Although a few reports of patients with pulmonary cryptosporidiosis on ruxolitinib exist, an extensive literature review shows only one previously reported case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in an immunocomp...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - September 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Educational no.  3: Cytogenetic analysis (CA)
SummaryIn tumor cytogenetics, individual cancer cells are genetically analyzed, either conventionally by studying the mitotic chromosomes of dividing tumor cells from in vitro cultures (metaphase analysis; karyotyping) or molecularly by identifying specific DNA sequences or chromosomal regions in the nucleus of nondividing tumor cells in situ (interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization). In a  typical cytogenetic study, 20 metaphase cells and/or 200 interphase cells are microscopically investigated for visible somatic chromosome changes that might occur in a given neoplastic clone. The detection sensitivi...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - September 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cryptococcal meningitis in an immunocompetent patient with primary myelofibrosis on long-term ruxolitinib: report of a  rare case and review of literature
SummaryRuxolitinib is a  Janus kinase (JAK) 2 inhibitor that is an effective therapeutic agent for primary myelofibrosis (PMF), which helps significantly to reduce constitutional symptoms and spleen size. However, this drug has significant immunomodulatory effects that may lead to various opportunistic infections. Reacti vation of tuberculosis and certain viral infections have been well documented. Although a few reports of patients with pulmonary cryptosporidiosis on ruxolitinib exist, an extensive literature review shows only one previously reported case of cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in an immunocomp...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - September 18, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cure in metastatic disease: how to manage and who is the right patient in GIST
SummaryGastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are a  rare type of cancer and a heterogeneous disease. The tyrosine kinase receptors KIT and the platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha PDGFRA are the most common mutant genes of GIST. Mutation analysis is a diagnostic standard and is crucial for drug therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TK I). About 10% of patients already have metastases at first diagnosis. R0 resection is the only curative option in GIST and is therefore the therapy for localized tumors. In case of locally advanced primary tumors, neoadjuvant therapy should be offered. Recurrent, ...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Cure in metastatic breast cancer
SummaryOligometastatic disease characterizes a  distinct subgroup of metastatic breast cancer patients that might benefit from different treatment strategies to achieve long-lasting remission and potentially cure. Those long-lasting remissions are reported after locoregional treatment of the primary tumor and all metastatic sites in several cas e series; however, unlike other tumor entities, prospective data are lacking. Furthermore, tumor eradication by excellent systemic anticancer therapy with novel chemotherapies and targeted agents can lead to long-term survival. In addition, reactivation of the host immune defen...
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research

Demystification of palliative care: what palliative care teams don ’t want you to think about them
SummaryThere is robust data that palliative care is prolonging life while there are still prejudices towards this discipline that have to be demystified. Patients, relatives and caregivers benefit from the concept of early integration of palliative care and therefore, palliative care should not be mainly regarded as end-of-life care. (Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology)
Source: Memo - Magazine of European Medical Oncology - September 1, 2018 Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research