Antimicrobial resistance in N'Djamena (Chad): Four-year experience of the French Forward Medical and Surgical Team engaged in the "Barkhane Operation".

Antimicrobial resistance in N'Djamena (Chad): Four-year experience of the French Forward Medical and Surgical Team engaged in the "Barkhane Operation". Med Mal Infect. 2020 Feb 05;: Authors: Cardinale M, Bourbotte-Salmon F, Scheiwe C, Boulezaz S, Ridet M, Laitselart P Abstract OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of local antimicrobial resistance (AMR) patterns is required for effective empirical treatment of bacterial diseases. Very little is known about current resistance patterns of common pathogenic bacteria in the African region and particularly in the Sahel region. We aimed to describe the local bacterial epidemiology and to determine whether French recommendations for empirical treatment could be implemented. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed a single-center observational study. Data was collected retrospectively from the Forward Medical and Surgical Center (FFMSC) bacterial database from January 2015 to December 2018. All bacteriological analyses, negative or positive, were included. RESULTS: A total of 2194 samples were analyzed. Infectious diseases were urinary tract infections (20.8%), bone and joint infections (20.4%), skin infections of chronic wounds (13.4%), soft tissue abscesses (13%), and gastroenteritis (10.8%). The most frequent infections were enterobacterial infections (43.6%) and staphylococcal infections (31.1%). The prevalence of AMR was 32.1%. Significantly more ESBL-producing bacteria (41.3%) were observed in the Chadian popu...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research

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Conclusions: No significant difference in treatment outcomes was found between pediatric patients receiving AT and IAT for the treatment of UTI. In the era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, third-generation cephalosporins may still be a good choice as an empirical antimicrobial for children diagnosed with community-onset UTI.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Antimicrobial Reports Source Type: research
ConclusionGLASS is feasible to implement and more beneficial than laboratory-based surveillance. This study collects additional information beyond GLASS including causative bacteria and colonizing bacteria; types of UTI; and more specific criteria to distinguish HAI from CAI so that such data can be used for developing more valid local guidelines for selecting antibiotic therapy in UTI patients in addition to AMR surveillance in urine samples.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Authors: Bader MS, Loeb M, Leto D, Brooks AA Abstract Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic- resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited treatment options. Knowledge of the common uropathogens in addition to local susceptibility patterns is essential in determining appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy of UTIs. The recommended first-line empiric antibiotic therapy for acute uncomplicated bacterial cystitis in otherwise healthy adult nonpregnant females is a 5-day course of nitrofurantion, a 3-g single dose of fosfomycin tromethamine, or a 5-day course of pevmecillinam. High...
Source: Postgraduate Medicine - Category: Internal Medicine Tags: Postgrad Med Source Type: research
Conclusion: New carbapenem/βLI combinations may be viable alternatives to antimicrobial combination therapy as they displayed high efficacy in vitro and in vivo. Meropenem/Avibactam and Meropenem/Relebactam should be tested on larger sample sizes with different carbapenemases before progressing further in its preclinical development. Introduction Carbapenem resistant Gram-negative bacteria have been gradually increasing in prevalence in recent years. In the United States, the latest CDC Antibiotic Resistance Threat Report indicates that Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CREs) are responsible for 9,000 a...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe emergence of coexistence of carbapenemase genes and mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae highlights a serious threat to antimicrobial therapy.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe emergency of coexistence of carbapenemase genes and mcr-1 in Enterobacteriaceae highlights the serious threat to antimicrobial therapy.
Source: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance - Category: Infectious Diseases Source Type: research
Conclusion: The study findings showed a significant distribution of MDR Gram-negative bacteria which may increase the burden of healthcare-associated infections in cancer patients. Although, carbapenem can be considered as effective agents toward MDR strains for empirical antibiotic therapy in our region. PMID: 29862218 [PubMed]
Source: Biomed Res - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Adv Biomed Res Source Type: research
Authors: Chervet D, Lortholary O, Zahar JR, Dufougeray A, Pilmis B, Partouche H Abstract BACKGROUND: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most frequent community-acquired infection. Escherichia coli resistance has been on the rise since 2000s. METHODS: We conducted a prospective multicenter cohort study including adults who had a positive urine cytobacteriological examination (UCBE) performed in our Parisian suburb laboratory platform from October 2014 to March 2015. RESULTS: A total of 1223 patients were included: 995 (81.4%) women and 228 (18.6%) men. Gram-negative bacilli were isolated in 91% of c...
Source: Medecine et Maladies Infectieuses - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Med Mal Infect Source Type: research
B, Pigrau C Abstract Objectives. The aim of the current study is to compare community-acquired acute pyelonephritis (CA-APN) with healthcare-associated acute pyelonephritis (HCA-APN), describe outcomes and identify variables that could predict antimicrobial susceptibility.Methods. We conducted an observational study that included all consecutive episodes of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in adults during 2014 at a Spanish university-hospital. From each episode demographic data, co-morbidities, clinical presentation, microbiological data, antimicrobial therapy, and outcome were recorded. A multivariable logistic regres...
Source: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Antimicrob Agents Chemother Source Type: research
Conclusions MinION sequencing comprehensively identified pathogens and acquired resistance genes from urine in a timeframe similar to PCR (4 h from sample to result). Bioinformatic pipeline optimization is needed to better detect resistances conferred by point mutations. Metagenomic-sequencing-based diagnosis will enable clinicians to adjust antimicrobial therapy before the second dose of a typical (i.e. every 8 h) antibiotic.
Source: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Original research Source Type: research
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