Longitudinal changes in airway hyperresponsiveness and COPD mortality

Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) is associated with an increased mortality risk among males [1] and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients [2]. However, this association is largely based on cross-sectional studies using a single measurement of AHR to predict mortality; inherently ignoring the longitudinal variability of AHR. AHR is variable regardless of disease or medication status, and is linked with changes in smoking habits, seasonal variations and exposure to pollutants [3–5]. Considering this, it remains unclear how changes in AHR affect mortality, specifically from causes such as COPD, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer.
Source: European Respiratory Journal - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Asthma and allergy Original Articles: Research letters Source Type: research

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Emerging findings indicate there is a vital cross-talk between gut microbiota and the lungs, which is known as gut–lung axis. The gut disturbances in lung diseases including allergy, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis and lung cancer were observed by extensive studies. Investigating how gut microbiota impact other distant organs is of great interest in recent years. Although it has not been fully understood whether the disturbance is the cause or effect of lung diseases, alterations in the gut microbial species and metabolites have been linked to changes in immune responses and inflammatio...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
AbstractMast cells (MCs) are granular cells of the innate immune system which develop from CD34+/CD117+ progenitors and play a role in orchestrating adaptive immune responses. They have a well-known role in allergic reactions following immunoglobulin (Ig)E-mediated activation of the cell-surface expressed IgE high-affinity receptor (Fc εRI). MCs can also respond to various other stimuli due to the expression of a variety of receptors including toll-like receptors (TLRs), immunoglobulin (IgG) receptors (FcγR), complement receptors such as C5a (CD88) expressed by skin MCs, neuropeptides receptors including nerv...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
AbstractSeveral factors have been associated with the development of asthma and asthma-related morbidity and mortality. Exposures in the environment such as allergens and air pollutants have traditionally been linked to the risk of asthma and asthma outcomes. More recent literature has identified chronic psychosocial stress as an additional environmental exposure to consider in relation to asthma. Adverse childhood events (ACEs) and chronic and toxic stress have been associated with chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Chronic stress has also been shown to resu...
Source: Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
Conclusion Analysis of the pleiotropic effects of IL-33 on multiple immunological cells (macrophages, mastocytes), as well as neurological cells of medulla oblongata, dorsal root ganglion, antigen-induced arthritis system, carrageen, and formalin, shows that this alarmin plays curtail, yet not fully known role in mediating inflammation, especially in chronic inflammatory pulmonary diseases such as asthma, COPD, and OSA. Taken into consideration the engagement in this process, in particular of mastocytes and their secretion of CXCL2, 4, 8, and other cytokines, there is no doubt regarding the etiopathogenic role of IL-33 in...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
This study evaluated the effects of dried ginger and LGWWJX decoction on cold asthma at the metabolomics level. It provides a reference for the research on the compatibility of Chinese Medicine. Introduction Ginger is a Chinese medicine (CM) used as a food and as a medicine, and is often used to treat cold syndrome through the property of warming. Dried ginger (Zingiberis Rhizoma, GanJiang, GJ) is processed from fresh ginger and is also commonly used in CM. It is used to treat cold asthma by “warming the stomach to dispel cold, warming the lung to resolve fluid,” and it has significant anti-inflammatory...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Discussion There are numerous microbial communities inhabited in the human body, which is critical to human health. The relationship between human microbiome and diseases received much attention from both medical and bioinformatics community recently. However, traditional methods to detect their association is costly and labor-intensive. Thus, we proposed here a new computational model called NBLPIHMDA to infer potential microbe-disease associations. NBLPIHMDA first combined known microbe-disease associations in HMDAD and the Gaussian interaction profile kernel similarity to construct disease similarity network and microb...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Conclusion Human microbiome is normal flora for humans, which has been proved to be of symbiotic relationship with humans and harmless to humans. If the microbes that breed in the human body become “unhealthy,” it will definitely affect the host's physical condition. People are continuing to explore the pathologic relationship between microorganisms and the human body through high-throughput sequencing technologies and analysis systems. However, it is a pity that their pathogenesis cannot be fully understood as yet. Considering that relying only on conventional experimental methods is time-consuming an...
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
This study was supported by grants from GSK and the UK Medical Research Council (U105178805). Conflict of Interest Statement AM has grant funding from GSK and AstraZeneca/MedImmune. MB, DJ, AP, DT, and AvO are employees of GSK. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Acknowledgments We are grateful to the Ares staff, genotyping facility, and flow cytometry core for their technical assistance. We thank Jen Walker for advice on the manuscript. Supplementary Material The Supplem...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: IL-17A is a major regulator of inflammatory responses. In all the mentioned diseases, IL-17A plays a prime role in inducing the diseases, whereas the lack of this pro-inflammatory cytokine reduces the severity of respective respiratory diseases. Thereby, this review suggests IL-17A as an instrumental target in the chronic respiratory diseases. PMID: 30652654 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Endocrine, Metabolic and Immune Disorders Drug Targets - Category: Endocrinology Authors: Tags: Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets Source Type: research
INTRODUCTIONUsually attributed to allergies or parasites (Seifert et. al Medline 2008) eosinophila is often overlooked. However hypereosinophilia (absolute eosinophil count>1.5 X 109/L on two separate exams one month apart or with pathologic confirmation) can have serious manifestations. When hypereosinophilia is associated with eosinophil-mediated organ damage or dysfunction, a hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) exists.With an unpredictable course, eosinophilic infiltration commonly affects the skin (eczema), lung (dyspnea), &GIT (gastritis). However life-threatening damage to the CVS (myocarditis) or the CNS may occ...
Source: Blood - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 634. Myeloproliferative Syndromes: Clinical Source Type: research
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