TET methylcytosine oxidases: new insights from a decade of research.

TET methylcytosine oxidases: new insights from a decade of research. J Biosci. 2020;45: Authors: Lio CJ, Yue X, Lopez-Moyado IF, Tahiliani M, Aravind L, Rao A Abstract In mammals, DNA methyltransferases transfer a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine to the 5 position of cytosine in DNA. The product of this reaction, 5-methylcytosine (5mC), has many roles, particularly in suppressing transposable and repeat elements in DNA. Moreover, in many cellular systems, cell lineage specification is accompanied by DNA demethylation at the promoters of genes expressed at high levels in the differentiated cells. However, since direct cleavage of the C-C bond connecting the methyl group to the 5 position of cytosine is thermodynamically disfavoured, the question of whether DNA methylation was reversible remained unclear for many decades. This puzzle was solved by our discovery of the TET (Ten- Eleven Translocation) family of 5-methylcytosine oxidases, which use reduced iron, molecular oxygen and the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolite 2-oxoglutarate (also known as a-ketoglutarate) to oxidise the methyl group of 5mC to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and beyond. TET-generated oxidised methylcytosines are intermediates in at least two pathways of DNA demethylation, which differ in their dependence on DNA replication. In the decade since their discovery, TET enzymes have been shown to have important roles in embryonic development, cell lineage specification, neuronal fu...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

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L-GILZ binds and inhibits nuclear factor κB nuclear translocation in undifferentiated thyroid cancer cells. J Chemother. 2020 Feb 18;:1-5 Authors: Marchetti MC, Cannarile L, Ronchetti S, Delfino DV, Riccardi C, Ayroldi E Abstract Proto-oncogene mutations and abnormal activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling are recurrently found in thyroid cancers. Some thyroid neoplasms respond to drugs that inhibit MAPK pathway activation. Previously, we showed that pharmacological inhibition of MAPK in thyroid cancer cells inhibits cell proliferation and upregulates L-GILZ (long glucoco...
Source: Journal of Chemotherapy - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: J Chemother Source Type: research
Authors: Nakashima C, Yamamoto K, Kishi S, Sasaki T, Ohmori H, Fujiwara-Tani R, Mori S, Kawahara I, Nishiguchi Y, Mori T, Kondoh M, Luo Y, Kirita T, Kuniyasu H Abstract Claudin (CLDN)-4 expression has been associated with malignancy in various cancers. When CLDN4 expression was examined in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), 22 out of 57 (39%) cases showed immunoreactivity in the nucleus. Nuclear CLDN4-positive cases showed a stronger correlation with cancer progression than the negative cases. Intratumoral anaerobic bacterial DNA examination revealed nuclear CLDN4 expression in 81% of Clostridium perfringens-posi...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
Arnidiol is a pentacyclic triterpene diol that has multiple pharmacological activities. However, the apoptotic activities of arnidiol in human cancer cells have not yet been explored, nor has the mechanism by ...
Source: Journal of Experimental and Clinical Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Research Source Type: research
trán Tiznado Ruiz The expression of HIGD2A is dependent on oxygen levels, glucose concentration, and cell cycle progression. This gene encodes for protein HIG2A, found in mitochondria and the nucleus, promoting cell survival in hypoxic conditions. The genomic location of HIGD2A is in chromosome 5q35.2, where several chromosomal abnormalities are related to numerous cancers. The analysis of high definition expression profiles of HIGD2A suggests a role for HIG2A in cancer biology. Accordingly, the research objective was to perform a molecular biosystem analysis of HIGD2A aiming to discover HIG2A implications...
Source: Genes - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Article Source Type: research
The research community has long used progeroid syndromes such as Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome and Werner syndrome as tools in the investigation of aging. This category of conditions are colloquially thought of as accelerated aging, but are in fact only a little similar to aging. The various underling genetic causes of progeria result in accelerated accumulation of cellular damage of various sorts, different in each case, leading to tissue dysfunction and outcomes that resemble a range of normal age-related conditions. Aging is itself a process of damage accumulation, so it isn't surprising to find some degree of si...
Source: Fight Aging! - Category: Research Authors: Tags: Daily News Source Type: blogs
ConclusionThe present results provide initial evidence that the root extract of R.natalensis contains compounds with both cytotoxic and antioxidant activity. Further studies are needed to determine activity on other cancer cell lines and to further elucidate the mechanism of cytotoxic activity.
Source: Phytochemistry Letters - Category: Chemistry Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 11 February 2020Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Shuang Zhao, Ke Xu, Rong Jiang, Dan-Yang Li, Xing-Xian Guo, Peng Zhou, Jia-Feng Tang, Li-Sha Li, Di Zeng, Ling Hu, Jian-Hua Ran, Jing Li, Di-Long ChenAbstractAimsDysfunction of the Hippo-Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) signaling pathway is known to be associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Evodiamine (Evo), a plant-derived bioactive alkaloid, exerts inhibitory effects on cancer. However, the precise influence of Evo on HCC and its potential effects on Hippo-YAP signaling have yet to be ascertained. Here, the effects of Evo on cell prol...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
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Source: Clinical Colorectal Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: J Cancer Res Clin Oncol Source Type: research
ConclusionsCells devoid of MARCKS function showed incomplete ABCB1 internalization, leading to higher ABCB1 activity enhancing chemoresistance. Vice versa our data suggest the prevention of MARCKS inhibition by reversing hyperphosphorylation or genomic restoration after deletion as two promising approaches to overcome tumor cell resistance towards chemotherapeutic ABCB1 substrates.
Source: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion: Our findings suggest that sulforaphane and WE have anti-allergic inflammatory effects by intercepting caspase-1/NF-κB/MAPKs signaling pathways. PMID: 32041439 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol Source Type: research
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