An update and perspectives on the use of promoters in plant genetic engineering.
Abstract Genetically engineered plants have varied applications in agriculture for enhancing the values of food and feed. Genetic engineering aims to introduce selected genetic regions with desirable traits into target plants for both spatial and temporal expressions. Promoters are the key elements responsible for regulating gene expressions by modulating the transcription factors (TFs) through recognition of RNA polymerases. Based on their recognition and expression, RNA polymerases were categorized into RNA pol II and pol III promoters. Promoter activity and specificity are the two prime parameters in regulating...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kummari D, Palakolanu SR, Kishor PBK, Bhatnagar-Mathur P, Singam P, Vadez V, Sharma KK Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Plant abiotic stress tolerance: Insights into resilience build-up.
Abstract Climate change and the consequential unpredictable environmental stress conditions negatively impact crop productivity. It has thus become a challenge to develop solutions for food security and sustainable agriculture in the backdrop of increasing population pressure and dwindling land and water resources. This further necessitates that focus of international research should be on curtailing yield losses through improved crop breeding practices and genetic manipulation for the development of resistant crop varieties. Plants being sessile, have developed a complex regulatory network of genetic machinery wh...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Suprasanna P Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient colorectal cancer cells: 5-Fluorouracil treatment response and correlation to CD133 and MGMT expression.
Abstract Cancer stem cells (CSCs) from colorectal cancer (CRC), characterized by CD133 expression, have been associated with 5-fluorouracile (5-FU) chemoresistance. DNA repair mechanisms, such as O6-alkylguanine DNA alkyltransferase (MGMT) and mismatch repair (MMR) systems, have also been correlated to 5-FU resistance in CRC. The aim of this study was to evaluate the modulation of CD133 and MGMT in MMRproficient and MMR-deficient CRC cells under 5-FU treatment and the effect of this drug in CSCs. CD133 and MGMT methylation status were determined in MMR-proficient (SW480 and HT29) and MMR-deficient (RKO and HCT116)...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Oliver JA, Ortiz R, Jimenez-Luna C, Cabeza L, Perazzoli G, Caba O, Mesas C, Melguizo C, Prados J Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Quorum sensing-induced phenotypic switching as a regulatory nutritional stress response in a competitive two-species biofilm: An individual-based cellular automata model.
We present an individual-based two-species biofilm model in which interactions between entities induce emergent properties. As the biofilm matured, the difference in growth rates of the two species caused a non-uniform distribution of nutrients leading to nutritional stress for P. aeruginosa and a concurrent increase in the proportion of S. aureus subpopulation. The latter resulted in increased release of autoinducer, and subsequently the upregulation of P. aeruginosa cells via quorum sensing. Upregulated P. aeruginosa cells released HQNO at enhanced rates, thereby inducing phenotypic switching of S. aureus to SCVs which c...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chirathanamettu TR, Pawar PD Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Advancements in molecular marker technologies and their applications in diversity studies.
Abstract Crop improvement is a continuous effort, since some 10,000 years ago when primitive man made the transition from hunting and foraging to domestication and crop cultivation. Since then, man-made interventions have changed the entire scenario of crop evolution, by means of genetic alterations of plants and animals made to satisfy man's needs. The process of domestication has led to dramatic changes in their appearance, quality and productivity that have contributed substantially to global food security. The tremendous decline in cultivable land, freshwater, and increasing risk of biotic and abiotic stress d...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Ramesh P, Mallikarjuna G, Sameena S, Kumar A, Gurulakshmi K, Reddy BV, Reddy PCO, Sekhar AC Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Development of local vancomycin delivery system from fibrin gel to prevent Staphylococcus aureus biofilms graft infection.
In this study, human plasma was collected from peripheral blood that was used to create fibrin gel by supplement ion Ca2+. Antibiotic-containing fibrin gel was then evaluated in some characteristics such as surface structure, biodegradation, antibiotic delivery, cytotoxicity, and bacterial biofilm prevention in vitro and in vivo. The results showed that fibrin gel was excellent material for the extended delivery of antibiotics. Most importantly, antibiotic-containing fibrin gel was not toxic for human fibroblast cells in vitro and inhibited bacterial biofilm growth in vitro and in vivo. This research is the first step in d...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 26, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Doan VN, Truong TT, Tran HLB Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Advances in the Xoo-rice pathosystem interaction and its exploitation in disease management.
Abstract Bacterial blight caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), is one of the devastating diseases of rice worldwide. The pathogen reported to cause 70% crop loss in some of the susceptible genotypes under disease favoring environments, viz., temperature ranging between 25 to 34°C and relative humidity more than 70%. In Xoo, about 245 genes govern the pathogenicity and host specificity. The hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) genes responsible for disease occurrence were clustered in the pathogenicity island of 31.3 Kb. The protein secreted through type three secretory system and type one ...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Joshi JB, Arul L, Ramalingam J, Uthandi S Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Curvularia eragrostidis, a new threat to large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) causing leaf blight in Sikkim.
Abstract Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) is now affected by several diseases caused by both viruses and fungi. At present, leaf blight is considered a major threat to cardamom cultivation in Sikkim. During the past two decades, cultivation of the crop in this region has dropped by almost 60%. Hence, to quantify the severity of leaf blight damage and identification of the causal organism for the disease, a survey was conducted from May to August 2017 in different large cardamom growing regions of Sikkim. During this survey, a typical symptom of leaf blight was observed on cardamom leaves in many locations. ...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Gurung K, Dasila K, Pandey A, Bag N Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Genetic engineering of crops for insect resistance: An overview.
Abstract Phytophagous insect incidence is a serious threat for reduction of crop productivity globally. There is an estimation of one fourth of crop is being destroyed by insects annually. Indeed, the development of insect-resistant crops is a great milestone in agriculture to increase crop yield and reduce pesticide dependency. Genetic engineering facilitates development of insect resistant crops by expressing bacterial δ-endotoxins and vegetative insecticidal proteins and other plant genes like lectins, protease inhibitors, etc. In addition, RNA interference and genome editing through CRISPR Cas9 also prov...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Talakayala A, Katta S, Garladinne M Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Elucidation and genetic intervention of CO2 concentration mechanism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii for increased plant primary productivity.
Abstract The rising global population is forcing the need for adapting alternative sustainable technologies for enhanced crop productivity. The CO2 Concentration Mechanisms (CCMs) evolved in algae to counter the inefficient CO2 fixing enzyme, RuBisCo and slower diffusion of CO2 in water offers good scope for the above purpose. The CCMs are single-celled CO2 supply mechanisms that depend on multiple CO2/HCO3 transporters and acclimation states and accumulate 100-fold more CO2 than low CO2 environments. Although some insights have been obtained regarding the CCMs of blue-green algae and green algae like Chlamydomona...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mallikarjuna K, Narendra K, Ragalatha R, Rao BJ Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

MicroRNAs as potential targets for improving rice yield via plant architecture modulation: Recent studies and future perspectives.
Abstract Ensuring agricultural food security is a major concern for the future world, and being the second most consumed crop, rice yield needs an urgent upliftment. Grain yield is a pleiotropic trait that employs a plethora of genes functioning in complex signalling cascades. The yield related genes are controlled by various regulatory factors including the microRNAs (miRNAs), the small 20-22 nucleotide (nt) non-coding RNAs, which have emerged as the master ribo-regulators of eukaryotic genes. Plant miRNAs can bind to highly complementary sequences in the target messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and negatively regulate gene...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Kaur R, Bhunia RK, Rajam MV Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Freeing the brake: Proliferation needs primary cilium to disassemble.
Abstract Primary cilia are non-motile, microtubule-based, antennae-like organelle that protrude out from the cell surface and perform sensory function or transduce physiological signals in majority of the vertebrate cells. Cilia are assembled on basal bodies that are transformed centrioles. The assembly-disassembly of primary cilia may pose an additional measure on regulating cell cycle in vertebrate cells. While primary cilia are commonly found in differentiated or quiescent cells that are not cycling, disassembly of primary cilia may promote re-entry of these cells into the mitotic cycle, and support proliferati...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Halder P, Khatun S, Majumder S Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

RNA silencing technology: A boon for crop improvement.
Abstract RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for gene silencing in different organisms, including plants. It is being used in functional genomics to decipher the function of genes. This technology has also witnessed a variety of potential applications in agriculture for crop improvement, including the development of crops for resistance against biotic (weeds, pathogens, insect pests and nematode parasites) and abiotic stresses (drought, high and low temperature, etc.), nutritional quality improvement, healthier oils, delayed ripening, male sterility, modification of flowering time and flower colour, alterat...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - October 20, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Rajam MV Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Downregulation of hsa_circ_0000936 sensitizes resistant glioma cells to temozolomide by sponging miR-1294.
In conclusion, downregulation of hsa_circ_0000936 sensitizes TMZ-resistant glioma cells to TMZ by sponging miR-1294, suggesting that hsa_circ_0000936 may be a potential target for overcoming the resistance of glioma cells to TMZ. PMID: 32975228 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Hua L, Huang L, Zhang X, Feng H Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Low-light and its effects on crop yield: Genetic and genomic implications.
This article describes several important aspects of shade on rice yield with appropriate examples in other plants such as Arabidopsis. To start with, how different environmental or growth conditions create shade is explained. Themorphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics due to different kinds of shade are selectively explained. The molecular characteristics of rice under shade from genetic, genomic and epigenetic studied are discussed. Signalling components for the manifestation of shade tolerance responses and their interconnection with other signalling networks and hormone pathway components are from r...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Panigrahy M, Majeed N, Panigrahi KC Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

High-throughput sequencing reveals the molecular mechanisms determining the stay-green characteristic in soybeans.
Abstract Senescence is an internally systematized degeneration process leading to death in plants. Leaf yellowing, one of the most prominent features of plant aging may lead to reduced crop yields. The molecular mechanism of responses to senescence in soybean leaves is not completely clear. In our research, two soybean varieties were selected with different stay-green traits: stay-green variety (BN106) and non-stay-green variety (KF14). RNA samples extracted from the leaves of two varieties were sequenced and compared using high-throughput sequencing. Six key enzyme genes in chlorophyll degradation pathways were s...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wang C, Gao LE, Li RZ, Wang YE, Liu YY, Zhang X, Xie H Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Differential transcriptome analysis in HPV-positive and HPV-negative cervical cancer cells through CRISPR knockout of miR-214.
This study represents the first report of miR-214 on global gene expression in the context of HPV. PMID: 32975231 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sen P, Ganguly P, Kulkarni KK, Budhwar R, Ganguly N Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Mouse model for endometriosis is characterized by proliferation and inflammation but not epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and fibrosis.
Abstract Endometriosis is a common disorder of unknown etiology, and non-surgical therapies are still a challenge. To understand the pathogenesis and preclinical testing of drugs for endometriosis, animal models are highly desirous. Herein, we carried out longitudinal characterization of a mouse model for endometriosis where uterine tissue was transplanted onto the intestinal mesentery. During the course of lesion development from day 15 to 60 post-induction, the ectopic endometrium became pale, fluid-filled and the animals developed peritoneal adhesions. Most lesions resembled a well-differentiated type of endome...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mishra A, Galvankar M, Vaidya S, Chaudhari U, Modi D Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

VacPred: Sequence-based prediction of plant vacuole proteins using machine-learning techniques.
In this study, we have developed various compositions as well as PSSM-based models and achieved a high accuracy than previously developed methods. We have shown that our best model achieved ~63% accuracy on blind dataset, which is far better than currently available tools. Furthermore, we have implemented our best models in the form of GUI-based free software called 'VacPred' which is compatible with both Linux and Window platform. This software is freely available for download at www.deepaklab.com/vacpred. PMID: 32975233 [PubMed - in process] (Source: Journal of Biosciences)
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Yadav AK, Singla D Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Long non-coding RNA CASC2 targeting miR-18a suppresses glioblastoma cell growth, metastasis and EMT in vitro and in vivo.
Abstract Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) cancer susceptibility candidate 2 (CASC2) has been characterized as a tumor suppressor in glioma. Although CASC2 may predict the prognosis of glioma patients, the role and mechanism of CASC2 in human glioblastoma remain to be fully illuminated. Expression of CASC2 and miR- 18a was detected using RT-qPCR. Cell growth was evaluated by MTT assay, colony formation assay, and flow cytometry; metastasis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) were determined with transwell assay and Western blot, respectively. The target binding between CASC2 and miR-18a was predicted on Starb...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wang J, Qin C, Zhong C, Wen Y, Ke S, Liao BO Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Expansion and characterization of cells from surgically removed intervertebral disc fragments in xenogen-free medium.
We report here that viable cells can be harvested from surgically removed, herniated disc tissue and can be potentially used in cell based therapy. Further, we have successfully replaced xenogenic supplements such as foetal bovine serum with either autologous serum or human platelet lysate for culturing IVD cells from patient's surgically removed disc tissue, without loss of any cell characteristics, including cell surface markers, growth factor secretion in the conditioned medium and osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation potential in vitro. The present work will not only contribute to overcoming some of the major ba...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mujawar S, Iyengar K, Nadkarni S, Mulherkar R Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

RNA silencing of hormonal biosynthetic genes impairs larval growth and development in cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera.
Abstract The cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is a highly polyphagous pest, causing enormous losses to various economically important crops. The identification and in vitro functional validation of target genes of a pest is a prerequisite to combat pest via host-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). In the present study, six hormonal biosynthesis genes of H. armigera were chosen and evaluated by feeding insect larvae with dsRNAs corresponding to each target gene, viz., juvenile hormone acid methyltransferase (HaJHAMT), prothoracicotropic hormone (HaPTTH), pheromone biosynthesis-activating peptide (HaPBAP), molt ...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jaiwal A, Natarajaswamy K, Venkat Rajam M Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Helicobacter pylori: Perturbation and restoration of gut microbiome.
Abstract Alternate remedies with natural products provides unlimited opportunities for new drug development. These can be either as pure compounds or as standardized set of compounds. The phytochemicals and secondary metabolites are in great demand for screening bioactive compounds and plays an important role towards drug development. Natural products have many advantages over to synthetic chemical drugs. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) a Gram-negative bacteria has been classified as Class I carcinogen by World Health Organization in 1994. Current treatment regimens for H. pylori is 'triple therapy' administrated ...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Saxena A, Mukhopadhyay AK, Nandi SP Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Plant phenomics: High-throughput technology for accelerating genomics.
Abstract Plant phenomics is a high-throughput path-breaking area that meets all the requirements for the collection of accurate, rapid and multi-faceted phenotypic data. Plant phenomics is an approach to envisage complex traits that are appropriate for selection, and provides relevant information as to why particular genotype can stand out in particular environmental conditions. The technique of plant phenotyping can be operated in various dimensions, from the gene to the whole-plant level under a specific environment, and management practices. Through this review, we discuss the recent advances in plant phenomics...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - September 27, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pasala R, Pandey BB Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

miRNA-mediated regulation of auxin signaling pathway during plant development and stress responses.
Abstract Auxin is one of the most important plant growth hormones, playing a crucial role in development as well as in stress responses. Auxin biosynthesis and signaling pathway comprises a series of events including auxin perception by the receptor, activation, and function of auxin response factors and control by auxin repressors. All these factors are regulated by several different microRNAs during leaf, flower and fruit development, anther development, nodulation, lateral and adventitious root development, potato tuber development as well as during heat stress, submergence, boron toxicity, aluminium stress res...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jodder J Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Cardiac differentiation of bone-marrow-resident c-kit+ stem cells by L-carnitine increases through secretion of VEGF, IL6, IGF-1, and TGF- β as clinical agents in cardiac regeneration.
Cardiac differentiation of bone-marrow-resident c-kit+ stem cells by L-carnitine increases through secretion of VEGF, IL6, IGF-1, and TGF- β as clinical agents in cardiac regeneration. J Biosci. 2020;45: Authors: Fathi E, Farahzadi R, Vietor I, Javanmardi S Abstract The idea of regenerating lost myocardium via cell-based therapies remains as highly considerable. C-kit? stem/ progenitor cells are represented to be suitable candidates for cardiac regeneration compared to other stem cells. A multitude of cytokines from these cells are known to give such multifunctional properties; however, the assoc...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Fathi E, Farahzadi R, Vietor I, Javanmardi S Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Human placental laminin: Role in neuronal differentiation, cell adhesion and proliferation.
Abstract Human placental extract has wound healing potential. Immuno-blots revealed presence of laminin in placental extract (70 +/- 0.257 μg/ml; n=3). It was purified using immuno-affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and SEHPLC indicated a188 kDa protein with some small peptides. Since placental laminin existed in its truncated form, its roles in cellular migration, differentiation and wound healing were verified. Induction of cellular migration and motility in rat fibroblasts were enhanced by placental laminin as observed from scratch wound assay. Promotion of neuronal differentiation of PC12 cells by placental ...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mukherjee C, Saleem S, DAS S, Biswas SC, Bhattacharyya D Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Receptors involved in dexketoprofen analgesia in murine visceral pain.
Abstract Various animal models, especially rodents, are used to study pain, due to the difficulty of studying it in humans. Many drugs that produce analgesia have been studied and there is evidence among which NSAIDs deserve to be highlighted. Dexketoprofen (DEX) provides a broad antinociceptive profile in different types of pain; therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the profile of antinociceptive potency in mice. Analgesic activity was evaluated using the acetic acid abdominal constriction test (writhing test), a chemical model of visceral pain. Dose-response curves for i.p. DEX administration (1, 3, 10...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Noriega V, Sierralta F, Poblete P, Aranda N, Sotomayor-Zarate R, Prieto JC, Miranda HF Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

PRIGSA2: Improved version of protein repeat identification by graph spectral analysis.
Abstract Tandemly repeated structural motifs in proteins form highly stable structural folds and provide multiple binding sites associated with diverse functional roles. The tertiary structure and function of these proteins are determined by the type and copy number of the repeating units. Each repeat type exhibits a unique pattern of intra- and inter-repeat unit interactions that is well-captured by the topological features in the network representation of protein structures. Here we present an improved version of our graph based algorithm, PRIGSA, with structure-based validation and filtering steps incorporated ...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chakrabarty B, Parekh N Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Re-evaluation of the phylogenetic relationships and species delimitation of two closely related families (Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae) using two DNA barcode markers.
Abstract The families Lamiaceae and Verbenaceae comprise several closely related species that possess high morphological synapomorphic traits. Hence, there is a tendency of species misidentification using only the morphological characters. Herein, we evaluated the discriminatory power of the universal DNA barcodes (matK and rbcL) for 53 species spanning the two families. Using these markers, we inferred phylogenetic relationships and conducted species delimitation analysis using four delimitation methods: Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD), TaxonDNA, Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) and General Mixed Yul...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Oyebanji OO, Chukwuma EC, Bolarinwa KA, Adejobi OI, Adeyemi SB, Ayoola AO Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Sensitization of hepatocellular carcinoma cells towards doxorubicin and sorafenib is facilitated by glucosedependent alterations in reactive oxygen species, P-glycoprotein and DKK4.
Abstract Altered glucose uptake and metabolism is the key characteristic of cancer cells including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, role of glucose availability in chemotherapeutic outcome of HCC is unclear. The present study investigates the effect of glucose facilitated sensitization of HCC cells towards doxorubicin (DOX) and sorafenib (SORA). In HCC cells, we observed that hyperglycemic culture condition (HG) is associated with increased sensitivity towards DOX and SORA. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transporter involved in drug efflux, was elevated in HCC cells in NG, rendering them less susceptible to DOX ...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chouhan S, Singh S, Athavale D, Ramteke P, Vanuopadath M, Nair BG, Nair SS, Bhat MK Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Immunomodulatory properties of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Abstract Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are multipotent progenitor cells of mesodermal origin possessing multilineage differentiation potential and ease of expansion in vitro. Over the years, these cells have gained attention owing to their potential in cell-based therapies in treating various diseases. In particular, the wide spectrum of immunoregulatory/immunomodulatory role of MSCs in various clinical conditions has gained immense attention. The immunomodulatory properties of BM-MSCs are mediated by either cell-cell contact (interactions with various immune cells in a context-dependent manner), pa...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mohanty A, Polisetti N, Vemuganti GK Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

RNAi suppressor: The hidden weapon of SARS-CoV.
Abstract The two biological evidences to endorse the antiviral activity of RNA interference (RNAi) are biogenesis of viral-siRNA (v-siRNA) by the host and encoding of RNAi-suppressor protein by viral genome. It has been recently established that mammals and mammalian cell lines mount antiviral RNAi to defend themselves against the invading viruses. The large part of viral pathogenicity is also due to the RNAi suppressor proteins. In this context it is only natural to ask what kinds of RNAi suppressors are encoded by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the central character of the pres...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Karjee S, Mukherjee SK Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Computational search for potential COVID-19 drugs from FDAapproved drugs and small molecules of natural origin identifies several anti-virals and plant products.
Abstract The world is currently facing the COVID-19 pandemic, for which mild symptoms include fever and dry cough. In severe cases, it could lead to pneumonia and ultimately death in some instances. Moreover, the causative pathogen is highly contagious and there are no drugs or vaccines for it yet. The pathogen, SARS-CoV-2, is one of the human coronaviruses which was identified to infect humans first in December 2019. SARS-CoV-2 shares evolutionary relationship to other highly pathogenic viruses such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). We have exploited this sim...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 29, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sharma A, Tiwari V, Sowdhamini R Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species cause major oxidative mitochondrial DNA damages and repair pathways.
Abstract Mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) are produced at a variety of sites and affect the function of bio-molecules. The anti-oxidant system from both mitochondria and cytosol tightly coordinate to maintain the redox balance of cells and reduce damage from mROS. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are highly susceptible to mROS, and are easily oxidized to accumulate DNA modifications. Frequent oxidative damages in mtDNA have been associated with neurological degeneration, inflammasomes, tumorigenesis, and malignant progression. Among mitochondrial DNA repair pathways, the base excision repair pathway ha...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Huang Z, Chen Y, Zhang Y Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Choline-betaine pathway contributes to hyperosmotic stress and subsequent lethal stress resistance in Pseudomonas protegens SN15-2.
Abstract Pseudomonas protegens SN15-2, a typical non-spore-forming rhizosphere bacterium, has excellent biocontrol capabilities; thus, it is necessary to explore the stress resistance of SN15-2. The choline-glycine betaine pathway is considered as an important mechanism by which bacteria adapt to stressful environments. In this work, we demonstrated that the expression of the betA and betB genes, which are involved in the choline- glycine betaine pathway in SN15-2, was highly increased by 12-fold and 26-fold, respectively, by hyperosmotic stress and choline treatment. The accumulation of betaine in SN15-2 (5.54 g/...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Tang D, Wang X, Wang J, Wang M, Wang Y, Wang W Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Genetic diversity analysis of specialty glutinous and low-amylose rice (Oryza sativa L.) landraces of Assam based on Wx locus and microsatellite diversity.
In this report, we analysed the level of variation in grain quality traits in a collection of bora and chokuwa cultivars, and examined the nucleotide diversity at the Wx locus of selected rice accessions to identify the possible cause of low-amylose in these rice cultivar groups. The Wx gene sequencing from 24 bora and chokuwa cultivars revealed several nucleotide variations that can explain the variation in the amylose phenotypes. The nucleotide polymorphisms in the downstream intron regions were similar to those reported in Bangladeshi Beruin cultivars. Among the Wx polymorphisms, the CTn microsatellite in exon 1 and G/T...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Roy S, Banerjee A, Basak N, Bagchi TB, Mandal NP, Patra BC, Misra AK, Singh SK, Rathi RS, Pattanayak A Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Drug targets for COVID-19 therapeutics: Ongoing global efforts.
Abstract The current global pandemic COVID-19 caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has already inflicted insurmountable damage both to the human lives and global economy. There is an immediate need for identification of effective drugs to contain the disastrous virus outbreak. Global efforts are already underway at a war footing to identify the best drug combination to address the disease. In this review, an attempt has been made to understand the SARS-CoV-2 life cycle, and based on this information potential druggable targets against SARS-CoV-2 are summarized. Also, the strategies for ongoing and future drug discovery ...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Saxena A Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Advances in gene therapy for hemophilia.
Abstract Hemophilia is a hereditary disorder that can be life-threatening in individuals who have severe spontaneous bleeding resulting from minor trauma or surgery. Although replacement therapy of the missing exogenous factor has improved patients' quality of life, it has not been possible to establish a long-term treatment. Due to the severity of the disease and the need for repetitive doses throughout the patient's life, replacement therapy has become a high-cost treatment option; therefore, the development of self-sustainable long-term therapies is critical. Hemophilia is a good candidate for gene therapy beca...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Robles-Rodriguez OA, Pe Rez-Trujillo JJ, Villanueva-Olivo A, Villarreal-Martinez L, Marfil-Rivera LJ, Rodriguez-Rocha H, Garcia-Garcia A, Saucedo-Cardenas O, Loera-Arias MJ, Oca-Luna RM Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

RECK and TIMP-2 mediate inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 by Annona muricata.
Abstract Up-regulation of MMP-2 and MMP-9 plays a significant role in promoting cancer progression by degrading the components of the extracellular matrix, thereby enhancing the migration of tumor cells. Although the antiproliferative and apoptotic effect of Annona muricata is well established, its effect on MMP-2 and MMP-9, a major target in several types of cancers, has not been studied. Powdered samples of various parts of A. muricata like fruit, stem, seed, and twig extracted using aqueous methanol showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in a highly metastatic fibrosarcoma cell line, HT...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Drishya G, Nambiar J, Shaji SK, Vanuopadath M, Achuthan A, Kumar A, Alias A, Sherif A, Joseph C, Divya P, Kumar DS, Bose C, Nair SV, Sudarslal S, Kumar GB, Lakshmi S, Nair BG Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

G604S-HERG mutation in LQT2 leads to autophagy via the UPR-related pathway.
Abstract Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a heart channel disease associated with fatal ventricular arrhythmias or cardiac arrest. Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) mutation is one of the main causes in type 2 LQTS since it may lead to abundant immature HERG channel protein accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In our study, we have successfully constructed the G604S-HERG mutation in HEK293 cells and demonstrated that the immature HERG protein on ER via Western blot and immunofluorescence. Herein we found that unfolded protein reaction (UPR) process has been activated in order to counter this en...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - July 15, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Zhao Y, Ma S, Cao M, Sun C Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

CRISPR-mediated knockdown of miR-214 modulates cell fate in response to anti-cancer drugs in HPV-negative and HPVpositive cervical cancer cells.
In this study we investigated the effect of a tumour suppressor microRNA miR-214 in modulating the cell death against chemotherapeutic drugs like Doxorubicin, Cisplatin and Paclitaxel. CRISPR-facilitated knockdown and plasmid-based overexpression of miR-214 was performed in cervical cancer cell lines HeLa, C33A and CaSki. It was observed that knocking out miR-214 resulted in reduced apoptosis and cell migration upon drug treatments; while overexpression of miR-214 resulted in marginal increase in apoptosis and cell migration when treated with drugs. However, miR-214 had very little effect on production of reactive oxygen s...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - June 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Sen P, Ghosal S, Hazra R, Mohanty R, Arega S, Sahu B, Ganguly N Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Elevated expression of stemness genes in adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells cultured on fibrin scaffold.
In this study, the effect of fibrin scaffold on expression of stemness genes was examined. Adipose-derived MSCs were cultured in tissue culture plates (2D) and 3-dimensional (3D) fibrin scaffolds. The effect of fibrin scaffold on proliferation of adiposederived MSCs was evaluated by MTT assay. The expression of stemness genes (OCT4 and SOX2) were evaluated by qRT-PCR, and flow cytometry was done for Nanog protein level. Cultured MSCs on fibrin scaffold were able to proliferate according to data obtained by MTT assay. Expression of OCT4 and SOX2 had a significant increase in cells were cultured in 3D condition compared to 2D condition (P
Source: Journal of Biosciences - June 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Mousavifard A, Najafabadi EP, Rahnama MA, Anbarlou A, Atashi A Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Current global vaccine and drug efforts against COVID-19: Pros and cons of bypassing animal trials.
Abstract COVID-19 has become one of the biggest health concern, along with huge economic burden. With no clear remedies to treat the disease, doctors are repurposing drugs like chloroquine and remdesivir to treat COVID-19 patients. In parallel, research institutes in collaboration with biotech companies have identified strategies to use viral proteins as vaccine candidates for COVID-19. Although this looks promising, they still need to pass the test of challenge studies in animal models. As various models for SARS-CoV-2 are under testing phase, biotech companies have bypassed animal studies and moved to Phase I cl...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - June 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Deb B, Shah H, Goel S Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Comparative study of the SBP-box gene family in rice siblings.
Abstract SBP-box genes are a class of plant-specific transcription factors which have a common DNA-binding domain (SBP-domain) with an unusual zinc-finger architecture. Many of the genes in this class are thought to play a developmental role and a few are involved in the determination of plant architecture. We have made a comparative study of these genes in the genomes of rice (Oryza sativa japonica and Oryza sativa indica) and its nine siblings using a recently proposed hybrid method for orthology and paralogy detection (HyPPO). According to HyPPO, the SBP-box proteins of rice siblings could be divided into twent...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - June 21, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Agarwal PR, Lahiri A Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Assessment of telomerase as drug target in breast cancer.
Abstract Telomerase is a specialized enzyme which maintains telomere length at the extreme end of the chromosome. Over 90% of all cases of cancer show high expression of telomerase while in normal cells, its expression is extremely low or undetectable. Detection of telomerase activity in a wide range of breast cancer makes telomerase an interesting target for diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we have aimed to describe telomerase as a therapeutic and accurate diagnostic target in breast cancer. Telomerase performs many extracurricular activities apart from maintaining telomere length; here, we have also tried ...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - June 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Jaiswal RK, Yadava PK Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Contrasting the expression pattern change of polyamine oxidase genes and photosynthetic efficiency of maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes under drought stress.
Abstract The aim of this study was to contrast the effects of drought stress on polyamine oxidases gene expression and activity as well as photosynthetic efficiency in relatively tolerant (Karoon) and sensitive (260) maize genotype. d Reduction in leaf relative water content as a result of drought led to increase in root growth, but diminished shoot growth indices. Under drought stress, activity of antioxidant enzyme, catalase, significantly increased in both genotypes, whereas significant higher activity of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase was only observed in Karoon genotype. Expression of polyamine oxidase (...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - June 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Pakdel H, Hassani SB, Ghotbi-Ravandi AA, Bernard F Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Evaluation of memory in persons with mesial temporal lobe sclerosis: A combined fMRI and VBM study.
Abstract Persons with drug refractory TLE have the option of being managed by surgery. They may develop memory impairment with specific etiology of mesial temporal sclerosis and anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR). The study evaluated the semantic verbal memory outcomes in pre- and post-surgery temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients using functional MRI and voxel morphometric methods. Twenty consecutive persons with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) and 20 healthy controls were recruited after obtaining the institute ethics approval. The fMRI scans were performed on a 1.5 T MR Scanner using standardized semantic ve...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - June 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Chaudhary K, Tripathi M, Chandra SP, Nehra A, Kumaran SS Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Apigenin attenuates myocardial infarction-induced cardiomyocyte injury by modulating Parkin-mediated mitochondrial autophagy.
Abstract We aimedto detect whether the effect of apigenin (Apig) on themyocardial infarction-induced cardiomyocyte injury of mouse myocardial cells and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) mice was through regulating Parkin expression via miR-103-1-5p. The myocardial infarction cardiomyocyte model (Hypoxia/reoxygenation) was first constructed, then the mouse myocardial cells were treated with Apig, and the expression of miR-103-1-5p was decreased and the expression of Parkin was increased by qRT-PCR and Western blot. It was confirmed by miRNA pulldown and luciferase reporter system that miR-103-1-5p in mouse myocardi...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - June 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Wang Z, Zhang H, Liu Z, Ma Z, An D, Xu D Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research

Mutations in SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA identified in Eastern India: Possible implications for the ongoing outbreak in India and impact on viral structure and host susceptibility.
Abstract Direct massively parallel sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 genome was undertaken from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swab samples of infected individuals in Eastern India. Seven of the isolates belonged to the A2a clade, while one belonged to the B4 clade. Specific mutations, characteristic of the A2a clade, were also detected, which included the P323L in RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and D614G in the Spike glycoprotein. Further, our data revealed emergence of novel subclones harbouring nonsynonymous mutations, viz. G1124V in Spike (S) protein, R203K, and G204R in the nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein muta...
Source: Journal of Biosciences - June 11, 2020 Category: Biomedical Science Authors: Maitra A, Sarkar MC, Raheja H, Biswas NK, Chakraborti S, Singh AK, Ghosh S, Sarkar S, Patra S, Mondal RK, Ghosh T, Chatterjee A, Banu H, Majumdar A, Chinnaswamy S, Srinivasan N, Dutta S, DAS S Tags: J Biosci Source Type: research