Reorganization of Rich-Clubs in Functional Brain Networks during Propofol-Induced Unconsciousness and Natural Sleep

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that the rich-club reorganization in functional brain networks is characterized by switching of rich-club nodes between the high-order cognitive and sensory and motor networks during propofol-induced alteration of consciousness and natural sleep. These findings will help understand the common neurological mechanism of pharmacological and physiological unconsciousness.
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - Category: Radiology Source Type: research

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ConclusionA solution based on Melatonin- tryptophan-vitamin B6 can be a helpful sedative to administer to neonates undergoing brain MRI, avoiding the use of anesthetics and achieving adequate assessments.
Source: Italian Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
Conclusion: These findings indicate that TBI differentially affects the levels of sex-steroid hormones in men and women patients. Plasma levels of testosterone could be a good candidate blood marker to predict recovery from unconsciousness after sTBI for male patients. Introduction Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of death and disability worldwide and is increasing in incidence (1). Patients with acute severe TBI (sTBI) often develop severe disorders of consciousness, i.e., coma, minimally conscious state or vegetative state. Although many patients may regain consciousness during the 1-month post-TBI p...
Source: Frontiers in Endocrinology - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Conclusions: The characteristic EEG pattern in the acute phase promoted timely diagnosis of FIRES. Our data suggest that KD may be a safe and promising therapy for FIRES with SRSE, and that early initiation of KD produces a favorable prognosis. Therefore, KD should be applied earlier in the course of FIRES. Intravenous KD can be an effective alternative route of administration for patients who may not take KD enterally. Introduction Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a rare epileptic encephalopathy of unknown etiology which occurs in patients without active epilepsy or underlying neurological diso...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Nicola Cellini1,2, Renee E. Shimizu3, Patrick M. Connolly3, Diana M. Armstrong4, Lexus T. Hernandez2, Anthony G. Polakiewicz3, Rolando Estrada3†, Mario Aguilar-Simon3, Michael P. Weisend4†, Sara C. Mednick2 and Stephen B. Simons3* 1Department of General Psychology, University of Padova, Padova, Italy 2Department of Cognitive Science, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States 3Teledyne Scientific &Imaging, Durham, NC, United States 4Rio Grande Neurosciences, Dayton, OH, United States Transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) during sleep has been shown to successfully modula...
Source: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
This study indicated that switch from H2 blockers to PPIs reduced delirium and, thus, providing an appropriate strategy to combat drug-induced delirium using antiulcer drugs (Fujii et al., 2012). The ventrolateral preoptic nucleus is a sleep-promoting nucleus located in the basal forebrain. A commonly used intravenous anesthetic, propofol, had been reported to induce sleep and augment the firing rate of neurons in ventrolateral GABAergic preoptic nucleus, but the underlining mechanism is yet to be clearly determined. Interestingly, the propofol-induced inhibition of inhibitory postsynaptic currents on noradrenalin-inhibite...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusions Instantaneous transition of gadodiamide from blood to cerebrospinal fluid was indicated by dynamic MRI. The gadodiamide distribution to the cerebral cortex and deep cerebellar nuclei seemed to depend on both blood flow and cerebrospinal fluid. This confirms previous studies indicating that the cerebrospinal fluid is one potential pathway of gadolinium-based contrast agent entry into the brain. For the distribution and clearance of the gadodiamide from brain tissue, involvement of the glymphatic system seemed to be indicated in terms of the influence of sleep and anesthesia.
Source: Investigative Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The parenchymal diffusion of small molecular weight compounds from the CSF is active during wakefulness. General anesthesia has a negative impact on the intracranial CSF circulation, especially when using a high dose of anesthetic agent.
Source: Theranostics - Category: Molecular Biology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
A 71-YEAR-OLD, 83-kg, 180-cm man with a history of obstructive sleep apnea and hyperlipidemia presented to the authors ’ institution complaining of chest pain and dyspnea on exertion. The physical examination revealed a previously unrecognized systolic murmur. Transthoracic echocardiography showed severe aortic valve stenosis and concentric left ventricular (LV) pressure-overload hypertrophy. LV systolic function was preserved. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was performed to assess for possible asymmetric septal hypertrophy.
Source: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia - Category: Anesthesiology Authors: Tags: Diagnostic Dilemma Source Type: research
Conclusion TBI is a distinct and complex pathophysiological entity. Neurocognitive deficits and mood disorders are common sequelae of TBI. While nonmodifiable factors influence risk of developing post-TBI depression, there is also evidence that biological factors are involved. People who have suffered TBI are at increased risk for ictal events and cognitive impairment. ECT has been documented to successfully treat patients with post-TBI mood symptoms in only three published cases. While these vignettes suggest that ECT might be a safe and effective therapeutic option in treating individuals with post-TBI depression, more r...
Source: Innovations in Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Authors: Tags: Current Issue Hot Topics in Neuroscience depression ECT Electroconvulsive therapy mood disorders TBI traumatic brain injury treatments Source Type: research
Conclusion: The use of melatonin before the musculoskeletal MRI in preschool children is an effective, safe, and inexpensive alternative to standard sedation and general anesthesia in preventing motion artifacts.What is Known:• Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a well-recognized diagnostic method to visualize synovial inflammation and changes of cartilage and bone in juvenile idiopathic arthritis.• MRI examination requires sedation or general anesthesia to ensure immobility in children who are uncooperative.What is New:• Melatonin without sleep deprivation is efficacious and safe alternative to conventiona...
Source: European Journal of Pediatrics - Category: Pediatrics Source Type: research
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