Low-dose CT for the spatial normalization of PET images: A validation procedure for amyloid-PET semi-quantification
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 20Author(s): Luca Presotto, Leonardo Iaccarino, Arianna Sala, Emilia G. Vanoli, Cristina Muscio, Anna Nigri, Maria Grazia Bruzzone, Fabrizio Tagliavini, Luigi Gianolli, Daniela Perani, Valentino BettinardiAbstractThe reference standard for spatial normalization of brain positron emission tomography (PET) images involves structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data. However, the lack of such structural information is fairly common in clinical settings. This might lead to lack of proper image quantification and to evaluation based only on visual ratings, which do...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Microstructure of the superior temporal gyrus and hallucination proneness - a multi-compartment diffusion imaging study
This study investigated the relationship between hallucination proneness and the brain structure of the STG.Hallucination proneness was assessed by the Launey Slade Hallucination Scale (LSHS) in 25 healthy individuals who varied in their propensity to hear voices. Brain volume and microstructure of the STG was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Microstructure was examined by conventional diffusion-tensor imaging as well as by neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI). The latter decomposes diffusion-based MRI into multiple compartments that characterize the brain microstructure by its neurite co...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Bihemispheric alterations in myelination in children following unilateral perinatal stroke
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 20Author(s): Sabrina Yu, Helen L. Carlson, Aleksandra Mineyko, Brian L. Brooks, Andrea Kuczynski, Jacquie Hodge, Sean Dukelow, Adam KirtonAbstractBackgroundStroke is a leading cause of perinatal brain injury with variable outcomes including cerebral palsy and epilepsy. The biological processes that underlie these heterogeneous outcomes are poorly understood. Alterations in developmental myelination are recognized as a major determinant of outcome in preterm brain injury but have not been explored in perinatal stroke. We aimed to characterize myelination in hemipare...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

dACC response to presentation of negative feedback predicts stimulant dependence diagnosis and stimulant use severity
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 20Author(s): Eric D. Claus, Matthew S. ShaneAbstractError-monitoring abnormalities in stimulant-dependent individuals (SDIs) may be due to reduced awareness of committed errors, or to reduced sensitivity upon such awareness. The distinction between these alternatives remains largely undifferentiated, but may have substantial clinical relevance. We sought to better characterize the nature, and clinical relevance, of SDIs' error-monitoring processes by comparing carefully isolated neural responses during the presentation of negative feedback to a) stimulant dependenc...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Resting-state fMRI reveals network disintegration during delirium
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 20Author(s): Simone J.T. van Montfort, Edwin van Dellen, Aletta M.R. van den Bosch, Willem M. Otte, Maya J.L. Schutte, Soo-Hee Choi, Tae-Sub Chung, Sunghyon Kyeong, Arjen J.C. Slooter, Jae-Jin KimAbstractDelirium is characterized by inattention and other cognitive deficits, symptoms that have been associated with disturbed interactions between remote brain regions. Recent EEG studies confirm that disturbed global network topology may underlie the syndrome, but lack an anatomical basis. The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the global organizati...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Regional cortical thickness changes accompanying generalized tonic-clonic seizures
Publication date: Available online 18 July 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Jennifer A. Ogren, Raghav Tripathi, Paul M. Macey, Rajesh Kumar, John M. Stern, Dawn S. Eliashiv, Luke A. Allen, Beate Diehl, Jerome Engel, M.R. Sandhya Rani, Samden D. Lhatoo, Ronald M. HarperAbstractObjectiveGeneralized tonic-clonic seizures are accompanied by cardiovascular and respiratory sequelae that threaten survival. The frequency of these seizures is a major risk factor for sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), a leading cause of untimely death in epilepsy. The circumstances accompanying such fatal events suggest a cardiov...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Left lateralized cerebral glucose metabolism declines in amyloid-β positive persons with mild cognitive impairment
Publication date: Available online 17 July 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Christopher M. Weise, Kewei Chen, Yinghua Chen, Xiaoying Kuang, Cary R. Savage, Eric M. Reiman, Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging InitiativeAbstractBackgroundPrevious publications indicate that Alzheimer's Disease (AD) related cortical atrophy may develop in asymmetric patterns, with accentuation of the left hemisphere. Since fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) measurements of the regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRgl) provide a sensitive and specific marker of neurodegenerative disease progression, we s...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Single-subject classification of presymptomatic frontotemporal dementia mutation carriers using multimodal MRI
ConclusionsFTD mutation carriers can be separated from controls with a modest AUC even before symptom-onset, using a newly created carrier-control classification model, while this was not possible using a recent bvFTD classification model. A multimodal MRI-based classification score may therefore be a useful biomarker to aid earlier FTD diagnosis. The exclusive selection of white matter features in the best performing model suggests that the earliest FTD-related pathological processes occur in white matter. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Altered cortical functional network in major depressive disorder: A resting-state electroencephalogram study
ConclusionDisturbances in EEG-based brain network indices might reflect altered emotional processing in MDD. These source-level network indices might provide useful biomarkers to understand regional brain pathology in MDD. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

It takes two to pantomime: Communication meets motor cognition
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Lisa Finkel, Katharina Hogrefe, Scott H. Frey, Georg Goldenberg, Jennifer RanderathAbstractFor over a century, pantomime of tool use has been employed to diagnose limb apraxia, a disorder of motor cognition primarily induced by left brain damage. While research consistently implicates damage to a left fronto-temporo-parietal network in limb apraxia, findings are inconsistent regarding the impact of damage to anterior versus posterior nodes within this network on pantomime. Complicating matters is the fact that tool use pantomime can be affected and eva...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neurophysiological correlates of the attention training technique: A component study
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): David Rosenbaum, Moritz J. Maier, Justin Hudak, Florian G. Metzger, Adrian Wells, Andreas J. Fallgatter, Ann-Christine EhlisAbstractIn the current study, we investigate the neuronal correlates of the Attention Training Technique (ATT), a psychotherapeutic intervention used in metacognitive therapy to enhance flexible cognitive control and ameliorate rumination.We adapted the ATT in a neuroscientific attention paradigm in order to investigate the effects of its components: selective attention, attention switching and divided attention in comparison to a...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain activation during the expectations of sensory experience for cutaneous electrical stimulation
This study included 22 participants who wore sticker-type electrodes attached on three different acupoints on different body regions: CV17 (chest), CV23 (chin), and left PC6 (arm). Participants evaluated de qi sensations after they expected electrical stimulation on those points in random order without actual stimulation. All stimuli were presented with corresponding visual information of the stimulation sites. The control condition included the same visual information but outside the body. The expectations of cutaneous electrical stimuli without actual stimulation on three acupoints resulted in greater de qi sensation com...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Predicting seizure outcome of vagus nerve stimulation using MEG-based network topology
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Abbas Babajani-Feremi, Negar Noorizadeh, Basanagoud Mudigoudar, James W. WhelessAbstractVagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a low-risk surgical option for patients with drug resistant epilepsy, although it is impossible to predict which patients may respond to VNS treatment. Resting-state magnetoencephalography (rs-MEG) connectivity analysis has been increasingly utilized to investigate the impact of epilepsy on brain networks and identify alteration of these networks after different treatments; however, there is no study to date utilizing this modality t...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 14, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Alterations to task positive and task negative networks during executive functioning in Mild Cognitive Impairment
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Rebecca J. Melrose, Amy M. Jimenez, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Gali Weissberger, Joseph Veliz, Arpi S. Hasratian, Stacy Wilkins, David L. SultzerAbstractPoor executive functioning increases risk of decline in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Executive functioning can be conceptualized within the framework of working memory. While some components are responsible for maintaining representations in working memory, the central executive is involved in the manipulation of information and creation of new representations. We aimed to examine the neural correlates o...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Magnetic resonance markers of tissue damage related to connectivity disruption in multiple sclerosis
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Elisabeth Solana, Eloy Martinez-Heras, Elena H. Martinez-Lapiscina, Maria Sepulveda, Nuria Sola-Valls, Nuria Bargalló, Joan Berenguer, Yolanda Blanco, Magi Andorra, Irene Pulido-Valdeolivas, Irati Zubizarreta, Albert Saiz, Sara LlufriuAbstractPatients with multiple sclerosis (MS) display reduced structural connectivity among brain regions, but the pathogenic mechanisms underlying network disruption are still unknown. We aimed to investigate the association between the loss of diffusion-based structural connectivity, measured with g...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hippocampal functional connectivity is related to self-reported cognitive concerns in breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant therapy
Publication date: Available online 12 July 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Alexandra C. Apple, Matthew P. Schroeder, Anthony J. Ryals, Lynne I. Wagner, David Cella, Pei-An Shih, James Reilly, FFrank J. Penedo, Joel L. Voss, Lei WangAbstractNearly three out of four survivors experience Cancer-Related Cognitive Impairment (CRCI) for months or years following treatment. Both clinical and animal studies point to the hippocampus as a likely brain region affected in CRCI, however no previous study has investigated the functional connectivity of the hippocampus in CRCI. We compared hippocampal connectivity in cancer su...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 13, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hyperintense sensorimotor T1 spin echo MRI is associated with brainstem abnormality in chronic fatigue syndrome
Publication date: Available online 11 July 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Leighton R. Barnden, Zack Y. Shan, Donald R. Staines, Sonya Marshall-Gradisnik, Kevin Finegan, Timothy Ireland, Sandeep BhutaAbstractWe recruited 43 Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) subjects who met Fukuda criteria and 27 healthy controls and performed 3T MRI T1 and T2 weighted spin-echo (T1wSE and T2wSE) scans. T1wSE signal follows T1 relaxation rate (1/T1 relaxation time) and responds to myelin and iron (ferritin) concentrations. We performed MRI signal level group comparisons with SPM12. Spatial normalization after segmentation was perfo...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 12, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Information processing speed in multiple sclerosis: Relevance of default mode network dynamics
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Q. van Geest, L. Douw, S. van 't Klooster, C.E. Leurs, H.M. Genova, G.R. Wylie, M.D. Steenwijk, J. Killestein, J.J.G. Geurts, H.E. HulstAbstractObjectiveTo explore the added value of dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) of the default mode network (DMN) during resting-state (RS), during an information processing speed (IPS) task, and the within-subject difference between these conditions, on top of conventional brain measures in explaining IPS in people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS).MethodsIn 29 pwMS and 18 healthy controls, IPS was assessed with the...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Identifying preclinical vascular dementia in symptomatic small vessel disease using MRI
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Christian Lambert, Eva Zeestraten, Owen Williams, Philip Benjamin, Andrew J. Lawrence, Robin G. Morris, Andrew D. Mackinnon, Thomas R. Barrick, Hugh S. MarkusAbstractSporadic cerebral small vessel disease is an important cause of vascular dementia, a syndrome of cognitive impairment together with vascular brain damage. At post-mortem pure vascular dementia is rare, with evidence of co-existing Alzheimer's disease pathology in 95% of cases. This work used MRI to characterize structural abnormalities during the preclinical phase of vascular dementia in s...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Regional cortical perfusion on arterial spin labeling MRI in dementia with Lewy bodies: Associations with clinical severity, glucose metabolism and tau PET
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Zuzana Nedelska, Matthew L. Senjem, Scott A. Przybelski, Timothy G. Lesnick, Val J. Lowe, Bradley F. Boeve, Arvin Arani, Prashanthi Vemuri, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Tanis J. Ferman, David T. Jones, Rodolfo Savica, David S. Knopman, Ronald C. Petersen, Clifford R. Jack, Kejal KantarciAbstractVisually preserved metabolism in posterior cingulate cortex relative to hypometabolism in precuneus and cuneus, the cingulate island sign, is a feature of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) on FDG-PET. Lower cingulate island sign ratio (posterior cingulate cortex/cuneus...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Test-retest variability of resting-state networks in healthy aging and prodromal Alzheimer's disease
In this study, we investigated the test-retest reliability of three memory related RSN (i.e., the default mode, salience, and executive control network) in 15 young, 15 healthy seniors (HS), and 15 subjects affected by mild cognitive impairment (MCI) with positive biomarkers suggestive of incipient AD (6 females each). FMRI was conducted on three separate occasions. Independent Component Analysis decomposed the resting-state data into RSNs. Comparisons of variation in functional connectivity between groups were made applying different thresholds in an explorative approach. Intersession test-retest reliability was evaluated...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The cumulative effect of small vessel disease lesions is reflected in structural brain networks of memory clinic patients
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Rutger Heinen, Naomi Vlegels, Jeroen de Bresser, Alexander Leemans, Geert Jan Biessels, Yael D. Reijmer, Utrecht Vascular Cognitive Impairment study groupAbstractBackground and purposeMechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in patients with small vessel disease (SVD) are still unknown. We hypothesized that cognition is affected by the cumulative effect of multiple SVD-related lesions on brain connectivity. We therefore assessed the relationship between the total SVD burden on MRI, global brain network efficiency, and cognition in memory clinic patie...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The cerebral metabolic topography of spinocerebellar ataxia type 3
ConclusionThe SCA3 metabolic profile reflects network-level alterations which are primarily associated with the motor features of the disease. Striatum decreases additional to cerebellar hypometabolism underscores an intrinsic extrapyramidal involvement in SCA3. Cerebellar-posterior parietal hypometabolism together with anterior parietal (sensory) cortex hypermetabolism may reflect a shift from impaired feedforward to compensatory feedback processing in higher-order motor control. The demonstrated SCA3-RP provides basic insight in cerebral network changes in this disease. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sexually dimorphic structural abnormalities in major connections of the medial forebrain bundle in alcoholism
ConclusionAlcoholism is associated with sexually dimorphic structural abnormalities in the MFB. The results expand upon other findings of differences in brain reward circuitry of alcoholic men and women. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Real-time fMRI neurofeedback training of the amygdala activity with simultaneous EEG in veterans with combat-related PTSD
We report the first controlled emotion self-regulation study in veterans with combat-related PTSD utilizing rtfMRI-nf of the amygdala activity. PTSD patients in the experimental group (EG, n = 20) learned to upregulate blood‑oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) activity of the left amygdala (LA) using the rtfMRI-nf during a happy emotion induction task. PTSD patients in the control group (CG, n = 11) were provided with a sham rtfMRI-nf. The study included three rtfMRI-nf training sessions, and EEG recordings were performed simultaneously with fMRI. PTSD severity was assessed before and after the training using the ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Altered white matter microarchitecture in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A voxel-based meta-analysis of diffusion tensor imaging
ConclusionsThis study provides a thorough profile of WM microarchitecture alterations in patients with ALS and further evidence that the neuronal degeneration is not limited to the corticospinal tract but also includes extra-motor areas, which supports the view that ALS is a multisystem degenerative disorder that involves the white matter. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Lower 123I-FP-CIT binding to the striatal dopamine transporter, but not to the extrastriatal serotonin transporter, in Parkinson's disease compared with dementia with Lewy bodies
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Merijn Joling, Chris Vriend, Jessica J. van der Zande, Afina W. Lemstra, Odile A. van den Heuvel, Jan Booij, Henk W. BerendseAbstractIn this retrospective cross-sectional study we compared 123I‑N‑ω‑fluoropropyl‑2β‑carbomethoxy‑3β‑(4‑iodophenyl)nortropane (123I-FP-CIT) binding to the striatal dopamine and the extrastriatal serotonin transporter (DAT and SERT, respectively) between Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) to gain more insight in the pathophysiology of the two diseases.We compared 123I-F...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The cerebellum and learning of non-motor associations in individuals at clinical-high risk for psychosis
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Jessica A. Bernard, Joseph M. Orr, Derek J. Dean, Vijay A. MittalAbstractThe cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit (CTCC) has been implicated in schizophrenia. However, this work has been limited to structural and functional networks, or behavior, and to date, has not been evaluated in clinical high-risk (CHR) youth, a group at elevated risk for psychosis. Here, we used an innovative learning paradigm known to activate the CTCC (while limiting potential motor confounds) to evaluate CHR and healthy control individuals during functional magnetic resonance i...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Abnormal functional corticomuscular coupling after stroke
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Xiaoling Chen, Ping Xie, Yuanyuan Zhang, Yuling Chen, Shengcui Cheng, Litai ZhangAbstractMotor dysfunction is a major consequence after stroke and it is generally believed that the loss of motor ability is caused by the impairments in neural network that controls movement. To explore the abnormal mechanisms how the brain controls shoulder abduction and elbow flexion in “flexion synergy” following stroke, we used the functional corticomuscular coupling (FCMC) between the brain and the muscles as a tool to identify the temporal evolution of c...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Polymorphism in schizophrenia risk gene MIR137 is associated with the posterior cingulate Cortex's activation and functional and structural connectivity in healthy controls
This study examined MIR137's associations with task-related (N-back working memory) fMRI, resting state fMRI, and diffusion tensor images (DTI) data in 177 healthy adults. We found less deactivation of the PCC in risk allele homozygotes (TT) as compared to the GT heterozygotes (cluster size = 630 voxels, cluster level PFWE 
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Altered regional brain T2 relaxation times in individuals with chronic orofacial neuropathic pain
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Z. Alshelh, F. Di Pietro, E.P. Mills, E.R. Vickers, C.C. Peck, G.M. Murray, L.A. HendersonAbstractThe neural mechanisms underlying the development and maintenance of chronic pain following nerve injury remain unclear. There is growing evidence that chronic neuropathic pain is associated with altered thalamic firing patterns, thalamocortical dysrhythmia and altered infra-slow oscillations in ascending pain pathways. Preclinical and post-mortem human studies have revealed that neuropathic pain is associated with prolonged astrocyte activation in the dors...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative analysis of neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging in grading gliomas and detecting IDH-1 gene mutation status
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Jing Zhao, Ji-bin Li, Jing-yan Wang, Yu-liang Wang, Da-wei Liu, Xin-bei Li, Yu-kun Song, Yi-su Tian, Xu Yan, Zhu-hao Li, Shao-fu He, Xiao-long Huang, Li Jiang, Zhi-yun Yang, Jian-ping ChuAbstractBackground and purposeNeurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) is a new diffusion MRI technique that has rarely been applied for glioma grading. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of NODDI in tumour parenchyma (TP) and peritumoural area (PT) for grading gliomas and detecting isocitrate dehydrogen...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impact of partial volume correction on the regional correspondence between in vivo [C-11]PiB PET and postmortem measures of Aβ load
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Davneet S. Minhas, Julie C. Price, Charles M. Laymon, Carl R. Becker, William E. Klunk, Dana L. Tudorascu, Eric E. Abrahamson, Ronald L. Hamilton, Julia K. Kofler, Chester A. Mathis, Oscar L. Lopez, Milos D. IkonomovicAbstractThe positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracer Pittsburgh Compound B ([C-11]PiB) demonstrates a high affinity for fibrillary amyloid-beta (Aβ) aggregates. However, [C-11]PiB's in vivo sensitivity and specificity is an ongoing area of investigation in correlation studies with postmortem measures of Aβ pathology. One p...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal structural cerebral changes related to core CSF biomarkers in preclinical Alzheimer's disease: A study of two independent datasets
We report the dependence of atrophy rates, measured in a two-year interval, on Aβ42, computed both over continuous and categorical values of Aβ42, at voxel-level (p 
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neural correlates of attention bias to masked facial threat cues: Examining children at-risk for social anxiety disorder
ConclusionsNon-BI children may more readily engage rapid coordinated frontolimbic circuitry to salient stimuli, whereas BI children may preferentially engage subcortical circuitry, in response to limbic “alarms” triggered by subliminal threat cues. These data help reveal the extent to which temperamental risk shares similar neurocircuitry previously documented in anxious adolescents and young adults in response to masked threat. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hippocampal metabolites in asthma and their implications for cognitive function
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Juliet L. Kroll, Ashton M. Steele, Amy E. Pinkham, Changho Choi, David A. Khan, Sheenal V. Patel, Justin R. Chen, Sina Aslan, E. Sherwood Brown, Thomas RitzAbstractEmerging research indicates that individuals with asthma have an increased risk of cognitive impairment, yet the associations of asthma with neural correlates of memory remain relatively unknown. The hippocampus is the predominant neural structure involved in memory, and alterations in the hippocampal metabolic profile are observed in individuals with mild cognitive impairment. We therefore ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Psychomotor slowing is associated with anomalies in baseline and prospective large scale neural networks in youth with epilepsy
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Camille Garcia-Ramos, Kevin Dabbs, Elizabeth Meyerand, Vivek Prabhakaran, David Hsu, Jana Jones, Michael Seidenberg, Bruce HermannAbstractPurposePsychomotor slowing is a common but understudied cognitive impairment in epilepsy. Here we test the hypothesis that psychomotor slowing is associated with alterations in brain status reflected through analysis of large scale structural networks. We test the hypothesis that children with epilepsy with cognitive slowing at diagnosis will exhibit a cross-sectional and prospective pattern of altered brain developm...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Progressive brain rich-club network disruption from clinically isolated syndrome towards multiple sclerosis
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Ni Shu, Yunyun Duan, Jing Huang, Zhuoqiong Ren, Zheng Liu, Huiqing Dong, Frederik Barkhof, Kuncheng Li, Yaou LiuAbstractObjectiveTo investigate the rich-club organization in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and multiple sclerosis (MS), and to characterize its relationships with physical disabilities and cognitive impairments.MethodsWe constructed high-resolution white matter (WM) structural networks in 41 CIS, 32 MS and 35 healthy controls (HCs) using diffusion MRI and deterministic tractography. Group differences in rich-club organization, global an...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Differentiation of Alzheimer's disease based on local and global parameters in personalized Virtual Brain models
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): J. Zimmermann, A. Perry, M. Breakspear, M. Schirner, P. Sachdev, W. Wen, N.A. Kochan, M. Mapstone, P. Ritter, A.R. McIntosh, A. SolodkinAbstractAlzheimer's disease (AD) is marked by cognitive dysfunction emerging from neuropathological processes impacting brain function. AD affects brain dynamics at the local level, such as changes in the balance of inhibitory and excitatory neuronal populations, as well as long-range changes to the global network. Individual differences in these changes as they relate to behaviour are poorly understood. Here, we use a...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal brain structural alterations in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma early after radiotherapy
We examined changes in volume of the whole brain, gray matter, white matter, and ventricles, as well as in cerebral volumes partitioned into temporal, frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes. A linear mixed model was used to evaluate longitudinal changes in these measurements. Statistical significance was evaluated at p 
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tracking resting state connectivity dynamics in veterans with PTSD
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Han Yuan, Raquel Phillips, Chung Ki Wong, Vadim Zotev, Masaya Misaki, Brent Wurfel, Frank Krueger, Matthew Feldner, Jerzy BodurkaAbstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a trauma- and stressor-related disorder that may emerge following a traumatic event. Neuroimaging studies have shown evidence of functional abnormality in many brain regions and systems affected by PTSD. Exaggerated threat detection associated with abnormalities in the salience network, as well as abnormalities in executive functions involved in emotions regulations, self-refere...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Radiomics analysis allows for precise prediction of epilepsy in patients with low-grade gliomas
ConclusionWe developed and validated an effective prediction model for LGG-related epilepsy. Our results suggested that radiomics analysis may enable more precise and individualized prediction of LGG-related epilepsy. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain function characteristics of chronic fatigue syndrome: A task fMRI study
This study investigated the temporal complexity of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) changes in response to the Stroop task in CFS patients.43 CFS patients (47.4 ± 11.8 yrs) and 26 normal controls (NCs, 43.4 ± 13.9 yrs) were included in this study. Their mental component summary (MCS) and physical component summary (PCS) from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) questionnaire were recorded. Their Stroop colour-word task performance was measured by accuracy and response time (RT). The BOLD changes associated with the Stroop task were evaluated using a 2-level general linear model app...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neural correlates of exercise training in individuals with schizophrenia and in healthy individuals: A systematic review
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): E.C.D. van der Stouwe, J.T. van Busschbach, B. de Vries, W. Cahn, A. Aleman, G.H.M. PijnenborgAbstractA body of evidence has revealed positive effects of physical exercise on behavioral, cognitive and physical outcomes in patients with schizophrenia. Notably, the effect of exercise at the neural level may be particularly relevant as well as it is hypothesized that exercise may stimulate the brain in a way that might normalize neural alterations related to the disorder. The aim of the current systematic review was to provide an up to date overview of st...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Which of the branched-chain amino acids increases cerebral blood flow in hepatic encephalopathy? A double-blind randomized trial
This study compared brain perfusion and clinical improvement during leucine or isoleucine supplementation. After randomization, 27 subjects with cirrhosis and HE received leucine or isoleucine supplements for one year. Brain single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) and dynamic brain scintigraphy (DBS) were performed pretreatment and at 1, 8 and 12 months of supplementation. Brain perfusion was increased only in the isoleucine group at 8 months of treatment by both SPECT and DBS (p 
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Patients with a severe prolonged Disorder of Consciousness can show classical EEG responses to their own name compared with others' names
This study shows the feasibility of using self-relevant stimuli such as a subject's own name for assessment of brain function in pDOC patients. This neurophysiological test is suitable for bed-side/hospital based assessment of pDOC patients. As it does not require sophisticated scanning equipment it can feasibly be used within a hospital or care setting to help professionals tailor medical and psycho-social management for patients. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Aberrant hemodynamic responses in autism: Implications for resting state fMRI functional connectivity studies
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Wenjing Yan, D. Rangaprakash, Gopikrishna DeshpandeAbstractFunctional MRI (fMRI) is modeled as a convolution of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) and an unmeasured latent neural signal. However, HRF itself is variable across brain regions and subjects. This variability is induced by both neural and non-neural factors. Aberrations in underlying neurochemical mechanisms, which control HRF shape, have been reported in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, we hypothesized that this will lead to voxel-specific, yet systematic differences in HRF ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Connectome-derived diffusion characteristics of the fornix in Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: 2018Source: NeuroImage: Clinical, Volume 19Author(s): Rodrigo D. Perea, Jennifer S. Rabin, Megan G. Fujiyoshi, Taylor E. Neal, Emily E. Smith, Koene R.A. Van Dijk, Trey HeddenAbstractThe fornix bundle is a major white matter pathway of the hippocampus. While volume of the hippocampus has been a primary imaging biomarker of Alzheimer's disease progression, recent research has suggested that the volume and microstructural characteristics of the fornix bundle connecting the hippocampus could add relevant information for diagnosing and staging Alzheimer's disease. Using a robust fornix bundle isolation techni...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Feeling excluded no matter what? Bias in the processing of social participation in borderline personality disorder
ConclusionsThe EEG results imply that being socially included violates the expectations of patients with BPD, irrespective of the actual degree of social participation. However, when overincluded, patients with BPD no longer feel ostracized. Except for need threat, patients with SAD might show a comparable bias in the processing of social participation as patients with BPD. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Identifying first-episode drug naïve patients with schizophrenia with or without auditory verbal hallucinations using whole-brain functional connectivity: A pattern analysis study
The objectives of this study are to classify between first-episode drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls, and to classify between patients with and without AVHs. Resting state fMRI data from 41 patients with schizophrenia (22 with and 19 without AVHs) and 23 normal controls (NC) were included to compute functional connectivity between brain regions. Classifiers based on support vector machine (SVM) were developed to classify patients with schizophrenia from NC, as well as between the two subgroups of patients. The classification accuracy was evaluated with a leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV)...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - July 10, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research