Investigating functional brain network integrity using a traditional and novel categorical scheme for neurodevelopmental disorders
ConclusionsUsing clinical diagnosis and behavioral measures of executive function, no differences in functional connectivity were observed among the categories examined. Despite our limited ability to detect small- to medium-sized differences between groups, this work contributes to a growing literature suggesting that traditional diagnostic categories do not define neurobiologically separable groups. Future work is necessary to ascertain the validity of the executive function-based nosology, but current results suggest that nosologies reliant on behavioral data alone may not lead to discovery of neurobiologically distinct...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 18, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Local connectivity of the resting brain connectome in patients with low back-related leg pain: A multiscale frequency-related Kendall's coefficient of concordance and coherence-regional homogeneity study
Publication date: Available online 14 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Fuqing Zhou, Lin Wu, Linghong Guo, Yong Zhang, Xianjun ZengAbstractIncreasing evidence has suggested that central plasticity plays a crucial role in the development and maintenance of (chronic) nonspecific low back pain. However, it is unclear how local or short-distance functional interactions contribute to persisting low back-related leg pain (LBLP) due to a specific condition (i.e., lumbar disc herniation). In particular, the multiscale nature of local connectivity properties in various brain regions is still unclear. Here, we used ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Segregating sustained attention from response inhibition in ADHD: An fMRI study
ConclusionThe current study reveals two separable forms of dysfunction that together probably contribute to the impairments shown by patients with ADHD on go/no-go tasks. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 15, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Using neuroimaging to predict relapse in stimulant dependence: A comparison of linear and machine learning models
ConclusionsAlthough machine learning algorithms may have advantages, in this study neither model's performance was sufficient to be clinically useful. In order to improve predictive models, stronger predictor variables and larger samples are needed. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 12, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Computer modelling of connectivity change suggests epileptogenesis mechanisms in idiopathic generalised epilepsy
In this study, we applied connectometry, an advanced quantitative neuroimaging technique for investigating localised changes in white-matter tissues in vivo. Analysing white matter structures of 32 subjects we incorporated our in vivo findings in a computational model of seizure dynamics to suggest a plausible mechanism of epileptogenesis.Patients with IGE have significant bilateral alterations in major white-matter fascicles. In the cingulum, fornix, and superior longitudinal fasciculus, tract integrity is compromised, whereas in specific parts of tracts between thalamus and the precentral gyrus, tract integrity is enhanc...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 12, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Graph theory analysis of DTI tractography in children with traumatic injury
ConclusionsGraph theory analysis of DTI tractography showed diffuse differences in structural brain network connectivity in children 2 months post-TI. Network differences were consistent with lower network integration and higher segregation in the injured groups compared to healthy controls. Findings suggest that inclusion of trauma-exposed comparison groups in studies of TBI outcome is warranted to better characterize the indirect effect of stress on brain networks. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Increased brain age in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome
In this study, a machine learning approach was used to predict brain age based on grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maps derived from structural neuroimaging data using T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Brain-predicted age difference (brain-PAD) scores, calculated as the difference between chronological age and brain-predicted age, are designed to reflect deviations from healthy brain aging, with higher brain-PAD scores indicating premature aging.Two separate adult cohorts underwent brain-predicted age calculation. The main cohort consisted of PWS (n = 20; age mean 23.1 years, range 19.8–...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Subjective memory complaints are associated with altered resting-state functional connectivity but not structural atrophy
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Toshikazu Kawagoe, Keiichi Onoda, Shuhei YamaguchiAbstractResearch indicates that a subtle cognitive decline, accompanied by pathological changes, occurs in individuals with subjective memory complaints (SMC). However, there is less evidence regarding the measurement of resting-state functional connectivity to detect subtle brain network alterations in neurodegenerative illnesses before cognitive change manifestation. We investigated the correlation between SMC and cognitive performance and explored functional and structural brain chan...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Optimized preoperative motor cortex mapping in brain tumors using advanced processing of transcranial magnetic stimulation data
ConclusionsThe method with which TMS mapping data are analyzed clearly affects the predicted area of the primary motor cortex representation. Realistic electric field based modelling is feasible in clinical practice and improves delineation of the motor cortex representation compared to more simple point-cloud based methods. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Nuclei-specific thalamic connectivity predicts seizure frequency in drug-resistant medial temporal lobe epilepsy
ConclusionsMediodorsal thalamic nuclei may play important roles in seizure activity or in the regulation of neuronal activity in the limbic system. The RSFC of motor- and sensory-relay nuclei may help elucidate sensory-motor deficits associated with chronic seizure activity. RSFC of the pulvinar nuclei of the thalamus could also be a key reflection of symptom-related functional deficits in mTLE. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Sensory-motor network functional connectivity in children with unilateral cerebral palsy secondary to perinatal stroke
ConclusionsResting state fMRI measures of sensorimotor connectivity are associated with clinical sensorimotor function in children with unilateral cerebral palsy secondary to PVI. Greater insight into understanding reorganization of brain networks following perinatal stroke may facilitate personalized rehabilitation. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dynamic changes in hippocampal diffusion and kurtosis metrics following experimental mTBI correlate with glial reactivity
In conclusion, our findings point out to the possible role of kurtosis metrics as well as metrics from the white matter model as prognostic biomarker to monitor prolonged glial reactivity and inflammatory responses after a mTBI not only at early timepoints but also several months after injury. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reorganization of the somatosensory pathway after subacute incomplete cervical cord injury
ConclusionThese functional and structural findings may demonstrate the existence of an alternative pathway in the impairment of somatosensory function after SCI, which consists of the ipsilateral cerebellum, the brainstem and the contralateral postCG. It provides a new theoretical basis for the mechanism of sensory-related brain alteration in SCI patients and the rehabilitation therapy based on this pathway in the future. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor imaging in anterior interosseous nerve syndrome – functional MR Neurography on a fascicular level
Publication date: Available online 9 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Tim Godel, Mirko Pham, Henrich Kele, Moritz Kronlage, Daniel Schwarz, Merle Brunneé, Sabine Heiland, Martin Bendszus, Philipp BäumerAbstractPurposeBy applying diffusor tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with anterior interosseous nerve syndrome (AINS), this proof of principle study aims to quantify the extent of structural damage of a peripheral nerve at the anatomical level of individual fascicles.MethodsIn this institutional review board approved prospective study 13 patients with spontaneous AINS were examined at 3 Tesla ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gender-specific structural abnormalities in major depressive disorder revealed by fixel-based analysis
ConclusionsFixel-based analysis appeared to identify different underlying abnormalities than conventional tensor-based metrics, with almost no overlap between significant regions. We show that MDD is associated with gender specific abnormalities in the genu of the corpus callosum (females) and in the anterior limb of the internal capsule (males), as well as gender-independent differences in the tapetum that predict remission. Diffusion MRI may play a key role in future guidance of clinical decision-making for MDD. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain atlas for assessing the impact of tumor location on perioperative quality of life in patients with high-grade glioma: A prospective population-based cohort study
ConclusionsThe impact of anatomical tumor location on overall perioperative HRQoL seems less than frequently believed, and the distinction between critical and less critical brain regions seems more unclear according to the patients than perhaps when judged by physicians. However, worse HRQoL was found in patients with tumors in motor-related regions, indicating that these areas are crucial also from the patients' perspective. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Emerging differences between Huntington's disease-like 2 and Huntington's disease: A comparison using MRI brain volumetry
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): David G. Anderson, Mark Haagensen, Aline Ferreira-Correia, Ronald Pierson, Jonathan Carr, Amanda Krause, Russell L. MargolisAbstractHuntington's Disease-Like 2 (HDL2), caused by a CTG/CAG expansion in JPH3 on chromosome 16q24, is the most common Huntington's Disease (HD) phenocopy in populations with African ancestry. Qualitatively, brain MRIs of HDL2 patients have been indistinguishable from HD. To determine brain regions most affected in HDL2 a cross-sectional study using MRI brain volumetry was undertaken to compare the brains of nin...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain microstructural development in neonates with critical congenital heart disease: An atlas-based diffusion tensor imaging study
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Nathalie H.P. Claessens, Johannes M.P.J. Breur, Floris Groenendaal, Roelie M. Wösten-van Asperen, Raymond Stegeman, Felix Haas, Jeroen Dudink, Linda S. Vries, Nicolaas J.G. Jansen, Manon J.N.L. BendersAbstractBackgroundBrain microstructural maturation progresses rapidly in the third trimester of gestation and first weeks of life, but typical microstructural development may be influenced by the presence of critical congenital heart disease (CHD).ObjectiveThe aim of this study was to investigate the pattern of white matter (WM) micro...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 8, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Interhemispheric connectivity and hemispheric specialization in schizophrenia patients and their unaffected siblings
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Xiao Chang, Guusje Collin, René C.W. Mandl, Wiepke Cahn, René S. KahnAbstractHemispheric integration and specialization are two prominent organizational principles for macroscopic brain function. Impairments of interhemispheric cooperation have been reported in schizophrenia patients, but whether such abnormalities should be attributed to effects of illness or familial risk remains inconclusive. Moreover, it is unclear how abnormalities in interhemispheric connectivity impact hemispheric specialization. To address these qu...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain connectivity tracks effects of chemotherapy separately from behavioral measures
Publication date: Available online 6 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Omid Kardan, Patricia A. Reuter-Lorenz, Scott Peltier, Nathan W. Churchill, Bratislav Misic, Mary K. Askren, Misook Jung, Bernadine Cimprich, Marc G. BermanAbstractSeveral studies in cancer research have suggested that cognitive dysfunction following chemotherapy, referred to in lay terms as “chemobrain”, is a serious problem. At present, the changes in integrative brain function that underlie such dysfunction remain poorly understood. Recent developments in neuroimaging suggest that patterns of functional connectivity can p...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Identifying lesions in paediatric epilepsy using morphometric and textural analysis of magnetic resonance images
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Sancgeetha Kulaseharan, Azad Aminpour, Mehran Ebrahimi, Elysa WidjajaAbstractWe seek to examine the use of an image processing pipeline on Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to identify features of Focal Cortical Dysplasia (FCD) in children who were suspected to have FCD on MRI (MRI-positive) and those with MRI-negative epilepsy. We aim to use a computer-aided diagnosis system to identify epileptogenic lesions with a combination of established morphometric features and textural analysis using Gray-Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCM) on MR...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Lack of response to disgusting food in the hypothalamus and related structures in Prader Willi syndrome
ConclusionsOur study provides novel insights into the neural substrates of appetite control in a genetically-mediated cause of obesity. The presence of significant cortical changes further indicates that PWS patients consciously process disgusting stimuli, but the virtual absence of response in deep, limbic structures suggests that disgusting signals do not adequately reach the primary brain system for the appetite control. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thalamic diaschisis following perinatal stroke is associated with clinical disability
Publication date: Available online 4 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Brandon Craig, Helen L. Carlson, Adam KirtonAbstractBackgroundPerinatal stroke causes most hemiparetic cerebral palsy and leads to lifelong disability. Understanding developmental neuroplasticity following early stroke is increasingly translated into novel therapies. Diaschisis refers to alterations brain structures remote from, but connected to, stroke lesions. Ipsilesional thalamic diaschisis has been described following adult stroke but has not been investigated in perinatal stroke. We hypothesized that thalamic diaschisis occurs in ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Novel imaging phantom for accurate and robust measurement of brain atrophy rates using clinical MRI
In this study we developed and performed initial validation tests of an MR-compatible phantom and analysis software for robust and reliable evaluation of the brain volume loss. The phantom contained three inflatable models of brain structures, i.e. cerebral hemisphere, putamen, and caudate nucleus. Software to reliably quantify volumes form the phantom images was also developed. To validate the method, the phantom was imaged using 3D T1-weighted protocols at three clinical 3T MR scanners from different vendors. Calculated volume change from MRI was compared with the known applied volume change using ICC and mean absolute d...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

7T MRI allows detection of disturbed cortical lamination of the medial temporal lobe in patients with Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 5 January 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Boyd Kenkhuis, Laura E. Jonkman, Marjolein Bulk, Mathijs Buijs, Baayla D.C. Boon, Femke H. Bouwman, Jeroen J.G. Geurts, Wilma D.J. van de Berg, Louise van der WeerdAbstractUsing 7T T2⁎-weighted imaging, we scanned post-mortem hemispheres of Alzheimer patients and age-matched controls to describe the patterns of appearance of cortical lamination on T2*-weighted MRI in the medial temporal lobe and to assess the changes in Alzheimer patients versus controls. While controls showed a hypointense line of Baillarger in the majority of the ca...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal changes in cocaine intake and cognition are linked to cortical thickness adaptations in cocaine users
ConclusionsThese results suggest that frontal abnormalities in CU are partially drug-induced and can recover with decreased substance use. Moreover, recovery of frontal CT is accompanied by improved cognitive performance confirming that cognitive decline associated with cocaine use is potentially reversible. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Positron emission tomography of tau in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans with blast neurotrauma
In this study, we sought to identify the types of head trauma most likely to lead to the deposition of tau, a protein identified as a likely indicator of long-term negative consequences of brain injury. To define the types of head trauma in a military population, we applied a factor analysis to interviews from a larger cohort of 428 Veterans enrolled in the Translational Research Center for Traumatic Brain Injury and Stress Disorders. Three factors were identified: Blast Exposure, Symptom Duration, and Blunt Concussions. Sixteen male Veterans from this study and one additional male civilian (aged 25–69, mean 35.2 y...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

White matter integrity in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: Tract- and voxel-based analyses of diffusion data from the Connectom scanner
Publication date: Available online 31 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Daniel Mamah, Andrew Ji, Jerrel Rutlin, Joshua S. ShimonyAbstractBackgroundDiffusion imaging abnormalities have been associated with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), indicating impaired structural connectivity. Newer methods permit the automated reconstruction of major white matter tracts from diffusion-weighted MR images in each individual's native space. Using high-definition diffusion data from SZ and BP subjects, we investigated brain white matter integrity using both an automated tract-based and voxel-based methods.M...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - January 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Girls' internalizing symptoms and white matter tracts in Cortico-Limbic circuitry
Publication date: Available online 27 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Ola Mohamed Ali, Matthew R.J. Vandermeer, Haroon I. Sheikh, Marc F. Joanisse, Elizabeth P. HaydenAbstractDysfunction in cortico-limbic circuitry is implicated in internalizing disorders (i.e., depressive and anxious disorders), but less is known about whether structural variations precede frank disorder and thus potentially mark risk. We therefore examined associations between white matter (WM) tract microstructure in cortico-limbic circuitry at age 7 and concurrent and longitudinal patterns of internalizing symptoms in 42 typically d...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 28, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tissue-type mapping of gliomas
Publication date: Available online 25 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Felix Raschke, Thomas R. Barrick, Timothy L. Jones, Guang Yang, Xujiong Ye, Franklyn A. HoweAbstractPurposeTo develop a statistical method of combining multimodal MRI (mMRI) of adult glial brain tumours to generate tissue heterogeneity maps that indicate tumour grade and infiltration margins.Materials and methodsWe performed a retrospective analysis of mMRI from patients with histological diagnosis of glioma (n = 25). 1H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging (MRSI) was used to label regions of “pure” low- or high-gr...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 26, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Brain processing of pictures of children in men with pedophilic disorder: A positron emission tomography study
Publication date: Available online 24 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Véronique Fonteille, Jérôme Redouté, Pierre Lamothe, Dominique Straub, Frank Lavenne, Didier Le Bars, Véronique Raverot, Virginie Moulier, Jean-Jacques Marchand, Aurélie Vittoz, Charlotte Leriche, Michel Pugeat, Serge StoléruAbstractAlthough structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the mechanisms of sexual attraction to children, a hallmark of pedophilic disorder, the differences in the processing of child sexual stimuli between men attract...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 25, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Early extra-uterine exposure alters regional cerebellar growth in infants born preterm
Publication date: Available online 19 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Marie Brossard-Racine, Robert McCarter, Jonathan Murnick, L. Tinkleman, Gilbert Vezina, Catherine LimperopoulosAbstractObjectivesTo compare third trimester global and regional cerebellar volumetric growth at two time-points between very preterm (PT) infants and healthy gestational age-matched fetuses in the PT period and at term equivalent age (TEA).Study designUsing a prospective study design, high resolution anatomic magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired in PT infants (gestational age at birth 
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 20, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Functional imaging correlates of akinesia in Parkinson's disease: Still open issues
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Charlotte Spay, Garance Meyer, Marie-Laure Welter, Brian Lau, Philippe Boulinguez, Bénédicte BallangerAbstractAkinesia is a major manifestation of Parkinson's disease (PD) related to difficulties or failures of willed movement to occur. Akinesia is still poorly understood and is not fully alleviated by standard therapeutic strategies. One reason is that the area of the clinical concept has blurred boundaries referring to confounded motor symptoms. Here, we review neuroimaging studies which, by providing access to finer-g...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 19, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Automated classification of Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment using a single MRI and deep neural networks
Publication date: Available online 18 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Silvia Basaia, Federica Agosta, Luca Wagner, Elisa Canu, Giuseppe Magnani, Roberto Santangelo, Massimo Filippi, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging InitiativeAbstractWe built and validated a deep learning algorithm predicting the individual diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment who will convert to AD (c-MCI) based on a single cross-sectional brain structural MRI scan. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were applied on 3D T1-weighted images from ADNI and subjects recruited at our Institute (407 healthy ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 18, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neurocognitive decision-making processes of casual methamphetamine users
This study was part of a larger investigation of neural correlates of risky sexual decision-making in men who have sex with men. While undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, 31 casual MA users and 66 non-users performed the CUPS task, in which they decided to accept or refuse a series of mixed gambles. Convergent results from whole brain, region of interest and psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analyses are presented.Whole brain analysis identified an amygdala-striatal cluster with weaker activation in casual MA users compared to non-users during decision-making. Activity in that cluster inversely correlated...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 16, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Characterisation of brain volume and microstructure at term-equivalent age in infants born across the gestational age spectrum
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Deanne K. Thompson, Claire E. Kelly, Jian Chen, Richard Beare, Bonnie Alexander, Marc L. Seal, Katherine J. Lee, Lillian G. Matthews, Peter J. Anderson, Lex W. Doyle, Jeanie L.Y. Cheong, Alicia J. SpittleAbstractBackgroundRisk of morbidity differs between very preterm (VP;
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 15, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Spatial correlations exploitation based on nonlocal voxel-wise GWAS for biomarker detection of AD
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Meiyan Huang, Chunyan Deng, Yuwei Yu, Tao Lian, Wei Yang, Qianjin Feng, the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging InitiativeAbstractPotential biomarker detection is a crucial area of study for the prediction, diagnosis, and monitoring of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The voxelwise genome-wide association study (vGWAS) is widely used in imaging genomics studies that is usually applied to the detection of AD biomarkers in both imaging and genetic data. However, performing vGWAS remains a challenge because of the computational complexity of the t...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 12, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Exploring individual multiple sclerosis lesion volume change over time: Development of an algorithm for the analyses of longitudinal quantitative MRI measures
ConclusionThis algorithm tracked individual lesions to automatically create an individual lesion growth profile of MS patients. This approach may allow for characterization of patients based on their individual lesion progression. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantification of spinal cord compression using T1 mapping in patients with cervical spinal canal stenosis – Preliminary experience
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Ilko L. Maier, Sabine Hofer, Arun A. Joseph, K. Dietmar Merboldt, Eva Eggert, Daniel Behme, Katharina Schregel, Christian von der Brelie, Veit Rohde, Jan Koch, Marios-Nikos Psychogios, Jens Frahm, Jan Liman, Mathias BährAbstractBackgroundDegenerative changes of the cervical spinal column are the most common cause of spinal cord lesions in the elderly. Conventional clinical, electrophysiological and radiological diagnostics of spinal cord compression are often inconsistent.Materials and methodsThe feasibility and diagnostic potent...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Characterization of brain volume and microstructure at term-equivalent age in infants born across the gestational age spectrum
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Deanne K. Thompson, Claire E. Kelly, Jian Chen, Richard Beare, Bonnie Alexander, Marc L. Seal, Katherine J. Lee, Lillian G. Matthews, Peter J. Anderson, Lex W. Doyle, Jeanie L.Y. Cheong, Alicia J. SpittleAbstractBackgroundRisk of morbidity differs between very preterm (VP;
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Change in brain volume and cortical thickness after behavioral and surgical weight loss intervention
This study is the first to examine changes in cortical thickness and brain volume with weight loss in adults with obesity and the findings show partial support for the hypotheses that weight loss results in increased cortical gray and white matter. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

One-shot domain adaptation in multiple sclerosis lesion segmentation using convolutional neural networks
In this study, we analyzed the effect of intensity domain adaptation on our recently proposed CNN-based MS lesion segmentation method. Given a source model trained on two public MS datasets, we investigated the transferability of the CNN model when applied to other MRI scanners and protocols, evaluating the minimum number of annotated images needed from the new domain and the minimum number of layers needed to re-train to obtain comparable accuracy. Our analysis comprised MS patient data from both a clinical center and the public ISBI2015 challenge database, which permitted us to compare the domain adaptation capability of...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prognosis of conversion of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's dementia by voxel-wise Cox regression based on FDG PET data
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Arnd Sörensen, Ganna Blazhenets, Gerta Rücker, Florian Schiller, Philipp Tobias Meyer, Lars Frings, for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging InitiativeAbstractAimThe value of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET for the prognosis of conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's dementia (AD) is controversial. In the present work, the identification of cerebral metabolic patterns with significant prognostic value for conversion of MCI patients to AD is investigated with voxel-based Cox regression, which in contra...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Regional gray matter changes and age predict individual treatment response in Parkinson's disease
In conclusion, both increasing age and reduced gray matter density are valid and independent predictors of dopaminergic therapy response in Parkinson's disease. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Increased scale-free dynamics in salience network in adult high-functioning autism
Publication date: Available online 10 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Stefano Damiani, Andrea Scalabrini, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Natascia Brondino, Georg NorthoffAbstractAutism spectrum disorder (ASD) is clinically characterized by extremely slow and inflexible behavior. The neuronal mechanisms of these symptoms remain unclear though. Using fMRI, we investigate the resting state's temporal structure in the frequency domain (scale-free activity as measured with Power-Law Exponent, PLE, and Spectral Entropy, SE) and temporal variance (neural variability) in high-functioning, adult ASD comparing them with sch...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Altered myelin maturation in four year old children born very preterm
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Marlee M. Vandewouw, Julia M. Young, Manohar M. Shroff, Margot J. Taylor, John G. SledAbstractChildren born very preterm (VPT;
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fatigue in Gulf War Illness is associated with tonically high activation in the executive control network
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): G.R. Wylie, H. Genova, E. Dobryakova, J. DeLuca, N. Chiaravalloti, M. Falvo, D. CookAbstractGulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic, multi-symptom illness that affects approximately 25% of Gulf veterans, with cognitive fatigue as one of its primary symptoms. Here, we investigated the neural networks associated with cognitive fatigue in GWI by asking 35 veterans with GWI and 25 healthy control subjects to perform a series of fatiguing tasks while in the MRI scanner. Two types of cognitive fatigue were assessed: state fatigue, which is the ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Differences in hippocampal subfield volume are seen in phenotypic variants of early onset Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Thomas D. Parker, Catherine F. Slattery, Keir X.X. Yong, Jennifer M. Nicholas, Ross W. Paterson, Alexander J.M. Foulkes, Ian B. Malone, David L. Thomas, David M. Cash, Sebastian J. Crutch, Nick C. Fox, Jonathan M. SchottAbstractThe most common presentation of early onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD – defined as symptom onset
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Selective sensory deafferentation induces structural and functional brain plasticity
Publication date: Available online 11 December 2018Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Raphael F. Casseb, Brunno M. de Campos, Alberto R.M. Martinez, Gabriela Castellano, Marcondes C. França JuniorAbstractSensory-motor integration models have been proposed aiming to explain how the brain uses sensory information to guide and check the planning and execution of movements. Sensory neuronopathy (SN) is a peculiar disease characterized by exclusive, severe and widespread sensory loss. It is a valuable condition to investigate how sensory deafferentation impacts brain organization. We thus recruited patients with clin...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 11, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Different patterns of white matter changes after successful surgery of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy
ConclusionsFA changes after successful ATL presented as four distinct patterns, reflecting different structural adaptions following epilepsy surgery. Some FA increases indicated the reversibility of preoperative diffusion abnormalities and the possibility of structural reorganization, especially in the contralateral hemisphere. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - December 9, 2018 Category: Radiology Source Type: research