Quantitative brain morphological analysis in CHARGE syndrome
Publication date: Available online 21 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Tadashi Shiohama, Jeremy McDavid, Jacob Levman, Emi TakahashiAbstractCHARGE syndrome (CS) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized by coloboma, heart anomaly, choanal atresia, retardation of growth and development, and genital and ear anomalies. While several neuroimaging studies have revealed abnormalities such as hypoplasia of the semicircular canal, olfactory nerve, cerebellum, and brainstem, no quantitative analysis of brain morphology in CS has been reported. We quantitatively investigated brain morphology in CS participants using ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Functional connectivity of language networks after perinatal stroke
We examined functional connectivity (FC) of language networks in children with arterial and venous perinatal stroke and typically developing controls (TDC) in a population-based, controlled, cohort study. Resting state functional MRI was performed at 3 T (TR/TE = 2000/30 ms, 150 volumes, 3.6mm3 voxels). Seed-based analyses used bilateral inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri. A subset of stroke participants completed clinical language testing.Sixty-six children participated (median age: 12.85±3.8y, range 6–19; arterial N = 17; venous N = 15; TDC N = 34]. Children with left hemisphere ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Expectation of sexual images of adults and children elicits differential dorsal anterior cingulate cortex activation in pedophilic sexual offenders and healthy controls
ConclusionOur findings support the notion of decreased brain activation to adult cues in PSOs and preference specificity in neural response during expectancy of erotic stimuli. The localization of these cue reactivity differences in the salience network supports the interpretation that PSOs show abnormally increased preparatory activation even before relevant sexual stimuli are actually presented. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Revealing hemodynamic heterogeneity of gliomas based on signal profile features of dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced MRI
We report a new approach of combining model free independent component analysis (ICA) identification of specific signal profiles of DSC MRI time course data and extraction of the features from those time course profiles to interrogate time course data followed by calculating the region specific blood volume based on selected individual time courses. Based on the retrospective analysis of DSC MRI data from 38 patients with pathology confirmed low (n = 18) and high (n = 20) grade gliomas, the results reveal the spatially defined intra-tumoral hemodynamic heterogeneity of brain tumors based on features of time course ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Response to the letter concerning the publication: Amyloid pathology fingerprint differentiates post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. Mohamed AZ, et al. NeuroImage Clinical 2018 June 5;19:716–726
Publication date: Available online 22 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Abdalla Z. Mohamed, Paul Cumming, Fatima NasrallahAbstractIn August 2018, Weiner and colleagues raised a red flag concerning certain errors in the tables and figures of our article, “Amyloid pathology fingerprint differentiates post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury. NeuroImage Clinical 2018 Jun 5;19:716–726”. We have addressed this in detail in our published “Corrigendum to ‘Amyloid pathology fingerprint differentiates post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury’ NeuroIm...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 22, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Differential medial temporal lobe and default-mode network functional connectivity and morphometric changes in Alzheimer's disease
We report group level differential detection of medial temporal lobe resting-state functional connectivity disruption and morphometric changes in the transition from cognitively normal to early mild cognitive impairment in an age-, education- and gender-matched 105 subjects Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset. In mild Alzheimer's Disease, but not early mild cognitive impairment, characteristic brain atrophy was detected in FreeSurfer estimates of subcortical and hippocampal subfield volumes and cortical thinning. By contrast, functional connectivity analysis detected earlier significant changes. In early mi...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diagnosis and prognosis of Alzheimer's disease using brain morphometry and white matter connectomes
Publication date: Available online 13 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Yun Wang, Chenxiao Xu, Ji-Hwan Park, Seonjoo Lee, Yaakov Stern, Shinjae Yoo, Jong Hun Kim, Hyoung Seop Kim, Jiook Cha, The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging InitiativeAbstractAccurate, reliable prediction of risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is essential for early, disease-modifying therapeutics. Multimodal MRI, such as structural and diffusion MRI, is likely to contain complementary information of neurodegenerative processes in AD. Here we tested the utility of the multimodal MRI (T1-weighted structure and diffusion MRI), combined with hig...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A totally data-driven whole-brain multimodal pipeline for the discrimination of Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy and healthy control
In this study, we used such a complete MRI protocol and adapted a fully-data driven analysis pipeline to discriminate between these populations and a healthy controls (HC) group. The pipeline combined several feature selection and reduction steps to obtain interpretable models with a low number of discriminant features that can shed light onto the brain pathology of PD and MSA. Using this pipeline, we could discriminate between PD and HC (best accuracy = 0.78), MSA and HC (best accuracy = 0.94) and PD and MSA (best accuracy = 0.88). Moreover, we showed that indexes derived from resting-state fMRI alone could di...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 14, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Reduced hippocampal subfield volumes and memory function in school-aged children born preterm with very low birthweight (VLBW)
Publication date: Available online 11 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Synne Aanes, Knut Jørgen Bjuland, Kam Sripada, Anne Elisabeth Sølsnes, Kristine H. Grunewaldt, Asta Håberg, Gro C. Løhaugen, Jon SkranesAbstractBackgroundThe hippocampus, an essential structure for learning and memory, has a reduced volume in preterm born (gestational age 
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Functional plasticity of the ipsilateral primary sensorimotor cortex in an elite long jumper with below-knee amputation
Publication date: Available online 9 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Nobuaki Mizuguchi, Kento Nakagawa, Yutaka Tazawa, Kazuyuki Kanosue, Kimitaka NakazawaAbstractFunctional plasticity of the sensorimotor cortex occurs following motor practice, as well as after limb amputation. However, the joint effect of limb amputation and intensive, long-term motor practice on cortical plasticity remains unclear. Here, we recorded brain activity during unilateral contraction of the hip, knee, and ankle joint muscles from a long jump Paralympic gold medalist with a unilateral below-knee amputation (Amputee Long Jumper, ALJ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 10, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Joint pattern analysis applied to PET DAT and VMAT2 imaging reveals new insights into Parkinson's disease induced presynaptic alterations
Publication date: Available online 8 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Jessie Fanglu Fu, Ivan Klyuzhin, Jessamyn McKenzie, Nicole Neilson, Elham Shahinfard, Katie Dinelle, Martin J. McKeown, A. Jon Stoessl, Vesna SossiAbstractMost neurodegenerative diseases are known to affect several aspects of brain function, including neurotransmitter systems, metabolic and functional connectivity. Diseases are generally characterized by common clinical characteristics across subjects, but there are also significant inter-subject variations. It is thus reasonable to expect that in terms of brain function, such clinical beha...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Microstructural neuroimaging of white matter tracts in persistent post-concussion syndrome: A prospective controlled cohort study
ConclusionsOur findings provide evidence of microstructural injury following mTBI in children with ongoing post-concussive symptoms one month post injury. The changes were persistent 4–6 weeks later. Further longitudinal studies of white matter microstructure in PPCS will be helpful to clarify whether these white matter alterations resolve over time. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 7, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

White matter microstructural differences identified using multi-shell diffusion imaging in six-year-old children born very preterm
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Julia M. Young, Marlee M. Vandewouw, Sarah Mossad, Benjamin R. Morgan, Wayne Lee, Mary Lou Smith, John G. Sled, Margot J. TaylorAbstractIntroductionThe underlying microstructural properties of white matter differences in children born very preterm (
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Testing the expanded continuum hypothesis of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Neural and psychological evidence for shared and distinct mechanisms
Publication date: Available online 4 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Sara Sorella, Gaia Lapomarda, Irene Messina, Jon Julius Frederickson, Roma Siugzdaite, Remo Job, Alessandro GrecucciAbstractDespite the traditional view of Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar disorder (BD) as separate diagnostic categories, the validity of such a categorical approach is challenging. In recent years, the hypothesis of a continuum between Schizophrenia (SZ) and Bipolar disorder (BD), postulating a common pathophysiologic mechanism, has been proposed. Although appealing, this unifying hypothesis may be too simplistic when looking a...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Linked anatomical and functional brain alterations in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder
ConclusionsThrough a multimodal analysis approach we show that structural and functional alterations in brain regions known to be altered in subjects with ADHD from unimodal studies are linked across modalities. The brain alterations were related to clinical features of ADHD, including disorder status, age, and symptom severity. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hypo-activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex relates to increased reaction time variability in patients with schizophrenia
Publication date: Available online 3 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): G. Panagiotaropoulou, E. Thrapsanioti, E. Pappa, C. Grigoras, D. Mylonas, E. Karavasilis, G. Velonakis, N. Kelekis, N. SmyrnisAbstractIncreased reaction time intra-subject variability (RT-ISV) in fast decision tasks has been confirmed in patients with schizophrenia and has been hypothesized to result from a deficit in the control of attention. Here, an attentional task and functional brain imaging were used to probe the neural correlates of increased RT-ISV in schizophrenia.Thirty patients and 30 age and sex matched controls performed the E...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The impact of white matter hyperintensities on the structural connectome in late-life depression: Relationship to executive functions
ConclusionsIn LLD, WMH are associated with region-specific disruptions in cortical and subcortical gray matter areas involved in attentional aspects of cognitive control systems and sensorimotor processing, which in turn are associated with slower processing speed, and reduced attentional set-shifting.Clinical trials registrationhttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01728194 (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A comparison of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging to invasive electrocortical stimulation for sensorimotor mapping in pediatric patients
We report comparable functional localization by resting state fMRI compared to stimulation mapping. These results provide strong evidence for the utility of resting state functional imaging in the localization of sensorimotor cortex across a wide range of pediatric patients.Graphical abstract (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Semi-quantification and grading of amyloid PET: A project of the European Alzheimer's Disease Consortium (EADC)
ConclusionIt is possible to construct a map between different tracers and different quantification methods without resorting to ad-hoc acquired cases. We used a 5-level visual scale which, together with a mathematical model, delivered cut-offs and transition regions on tracers that are (largely) independent from the population. All fluorinated tracers appeared to have the same contrast and discrimination ability with respect to the negative-to-positive grading. We validated the integration of both visual reading and different quantifiers in a more robust framework thus bridging the gap between a binary and a user-independe...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 5, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Automated segmentation of changes in FLAIR-hyperintense white matter lesions in multiple sclerosis on serial magnetic resonance imaging
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Paul Schmidt, Viola Pongratz née Biberacher, Pascal Küster, Dominik Meier, Jens Wuerfel, Carsten Lukas, Barbara Bellenberg, Frauke Zipp, Sergiu Groppa, Philipp G. Sämann, Frank Weber, Christian Gaser, Thomas Franke, Matthias Bussas, Jan Kirschke, Claus Zimmer, Bernhard Hemmer, Mark MühlauAbstractLongitudinal analysis of white matter lesion changes on serial MRI has become an important parameter to study diseases with white-matter lesions. Here, we build on earlier work on cross-sectional lesion segmentation; we present...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Tau covariance patterns in Alzheimer's disease patients match intrinsic connectivity networks in the healthy brain
Publication date: Available online 2 May 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Rik Ossenkoppele, Leonardo Iaccarino, Daniel R. Schonhaut, Jesse A. Brown, Renaud La Joie, James P. O'Neil, Mustafa Janabi, Suzanne L. Baker, Joel H. Kramer, Maria-Luisa Gorno-Tempini, Bruce L. Miller, Howard J. Rosen, William W. Seeley, William J. Jagust, Gil D. RabinoviciAbstractAccording to the network model of neurodegeneration, the spread of pathogenic proteins occurs selectively along connected brain regions. We tested in vivo whether the distribution of filamentous tau (measured with [18F]flortaucipir-PET), fibrillar amyloid-β (...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 3, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Predicting conversion from mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer's disease using brain 1H-MRS and volumetric changes: A two- year retrospective follow-up study
This study investigated the ability of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) of posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and brain volumetry to predict the progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to Alzheimer's Disease (AD) on the basis of clinical classification at 2 years follow-up. Thirty-eight MCI patients, eighteen healthy older adults and twenty-three AD patients were included in this study. All participants underwent a brain-MR protocol (1.5 T GE scanner) including high-resolution T1-weighted volumetric sequence (isotropic 1mm3). Voxel-wise differences in brain volumetry were evaluated using FreeSurfer softw...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Effects of pseudoexperience on the understanding of hemiplegic movements in physical therapists: An fMRI study
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Rui Watanabe, Narumi Katsuyama, Nobuo Usui, Masato TairaAbstractPhysical therapists (PTs) are required to obtain an accurate understanding of the physical and mental states of their patients through observational assessment. To perform comprehensive observational assessments of patients' movements, PTs likely need to engage their own neural systems involved in action understanding and theory of mind, such as the action observation network (AON) and the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). Both systems are modulated by the observer's ac...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A systematic review of cross-sectional differences and longitudinal changes to the morphometry of the brain following paediatric traumatic brain injury
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): D.J. King, K.R. Ellis, S. Seri, A.G. WoodAbstractPaediatric traumatic brain injury (pTBI) is a leading cause of disability for children and young adults. Children are a uniquely vulnerable group with the disease process that occurs following a pTBI interacting with the trajectory of normal brain development. Quantitative MRI post-injury has suggested a long-term, neurodegenerative effect of TBI on the morphometry of the brain, in both adult and childhood TBI. Changes to the brain beyond that of anticipated, age-dependant differences may ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 2, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Decreased integration of EEG source-space networks in disorders of consciousness
Publication date: Available online 29 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Jennifer Rizkallah, Jitka Annen, Julien Modolo, Olivia Gosseries, Pascal Benquet, Sepehr Mortaheb, Hassan Amoud, Helena Cassol, Ahmad Mheich, Aurore Thibaut, Camille Chatelle, Mahmoud Hassan, Rajanikant Panda, Fabrice Wendling, Steven LaureysAbstractIncreasing evidence links disorders of consciousness (DOC) with disruptions in functional connectivity between distant brain areas. However, to which extent the balance of brain network segregation and integration is modified in DOC patients remains unclear. Using high-density electroencephal...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Prediction of Alzheimer's disease dementia with MRI beyond the short-term: Implications for the design of predictive models
Publication date: Available online 30 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Alexis Moscoso, Jesús Silva-Rodríguez, Jose Manuel Aldrey, Julia Cortés, Anxo Fernández-Ferreiro, Noemí Gómez-Lado, Álvaro Ruibal, Pablo Aguiar, for the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging InitiativeAbstractMagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) volumetric measures have become a standard tool for the detection of incipient Alzheimer's Disease (AD) dementia in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Focused on providing an earlier and more accurate diagnosis, sophisticated MRI machine learning algorithms h...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - May 1, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to ‘Amyloid pathology fingerprint differentiates post-traumatic stress disorder and traumatic brain injury’ NeuroImage: CLINICAL. 19 (2018) 716–726
Publication date: Available online 27 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Abdalla Z. Mohamed, Paul Cumming, Hussein Srour, Tamara Gunasena, Aya Uchida, Courtney Nicole Haller, Fatima Nasrallah, for the Department of Defense Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 28, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Thumbs up: Imagined hand movements counteract the adverse effects of post-surgical hand immobilization. Clinical, behavioral, and fMRI longitudinal observations
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Martina Gandola, Laura Zapparoli, Gianluca Saetta, Antonio De Santis, Alberto Zerbi, Giuseppe Banfi, Valerio Sansone, Maurilio Bruno, Eraldo PaulesuAbstractMotor imagery (M.I.) training has been widely used to enhance motor behavior. To characterize the neural foundations of its rehabilitative effects in a pathological population we studied twenty-two patients with rhizarthrosis, a chronic degenerative articular disease in which thumb-to-fingers opposition becomes difficult due to increasing pain while the brain is typically intact. Befo...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative histomorphometry of capillary microstructure in deep white matter
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Meghdoot Mozumder, Jose M. Pozo, Santiago Coelho, Marina Constantini, Julie Simpson, J. Robin Highley, Paul G. Ince, Alejandro F. FrangiAbstractWhite matter lesions represent a major risk factor for dementia in elderly people. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated cerebral blood flow reduction in age-related white matter lesions, indicating that vascular alterations are involved in developing white matter lesions. Hypoperfusion and changes in capillary morphology are generally linked to dementia. However, a quantitat...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dissociating frontal and temporal correlates of phonological and semantic fluency in a large sample of left hemisphere stroke patients
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Charlotte S.M. Schmidt, Kai Nitschke, Tobias Bormann, Pia Römer, Dorothee Kümmerer, Markus Martin, Roza M. Umarova, Rainer Leonhart, Karl Egger, Andrea Dressing, Mariachristina Musso, Klaus Willmes, Cornelius Weiller, Christoph P. KallerAbstractPrevious lesion studies suggest that semantic and phonological fluency are differentially subserved by distinct brain regions in the left temporal and the left frontal cortex, respectively. However, as of yet, this often implied double dissociation has not been explicitly investigated du...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 26, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Antisocial behavior with callous-unemotional traits is associated with widespread disruptions to white matter structural connectivity among low-income, urban males
Publication date: Available online 25 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Hailey L. Dotterer, Rebecca Waller, Daniel S. Shaw, John Plass, David Brang, Erika E. Forbes, Luke W. HydeAbstractAntisocial behavior (AB), including violence, criminality, and substance abuse, is often linked to deficits in emotion processing, reward-related learning, and inhibitory control, as well as their associated neural networks. To better understand these deficits, the structural connections between brain regions implicated in AB can be examined using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which assesses white matter microstructure. Pri...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 25, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diffusion tensor tractography in children with sensory processing disorder: Potentials for devising machine learning classifiers
In this study, we determined the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) microstructural and connectivity correlates of SPD, and apply machine learning algorithms for identification of children with SPD based on DTI/tractography metrics. A total of 44 children with SPD and 41 typically developing children (TDC) were prospectively recruited and scanned. In addition to fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD), we applied probabilistic tractography to generate edge density (ED) and track density (TD) from DTI maps. For identification of children with SPD, accurate classification rates from a combi...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 25, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

A quantitative SVM approach potentially improves the accuracy of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the preoperative evaluation of the grades of diffuse gliomas
Conclusions1H-MRS metabolic features could help in predicting the grade of gliomas. The machine-learning model achieved a better prediction performance in grading gliomas than individual features, indicating that it could complement the traditionally used metabolic features. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Mind-body exercise improves cognitive function in patients with mild cognitive impairment and centrally modulates the hippocampus/ACC: A multi-modal MRI study
This study aims to investigate the modulation effect of Baduanjin (a popular mind-body exercise) on MCI. 69 patients were randomized to Baduanjin, brisk walking, or an education control group for 24 weeks. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans were applied at baseline and at the end of the experiment. Compared to the brisk walking and control groups, the Baduanjin group experienced significantly increased MoCA scores. Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) analysis showed significantly decreased ALFF values in the right hippocampus (0.01–0.08 Hz) and increased value...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

The relationship between deep medullary veins score and the severity and distribution of intracranial microbleeds
ConclusionDMVs disruption might be involved in the development of extensive microbleeds, especially non-strict lobar cerebral microbleeds. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

White matter microstructure and cognitive outcomes in relation to neonatal inflammation in 6-year-old children born preterm
Publication date: Available online 22 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Sarah E. Dubner, Cory K. Dodson, Virginia A. Marchman, Michal Ben-Shachar, Heidi M. Feldman, Katherine E. TravisAbstractBackgroundCognitive outcomes in preterm (PT) children have been associated with microstructural properties of white matter. PT children who experienced neonatal inflammatory conditions have poorer cognitive outcomes than those who did not. The goal of this study was to contrast white matter microstructure and cognitive outcomes after preterm birth in relation to the presence or absence of severe inflammatory conditions ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Quantitative CEST imaging of amide proton transfer in acute ischaemic stroke
ConclusionThe multi-pool measures performed best across the analyses of repeatability, spatial variability, contrast-to-noise ratio, and grey matter-white matter contrast, and might therefore be more suitable for use in clinical imaging of acute stroke. Addition of a fourth pool that separates NOEs and semisolid effects appeared to be more biophysically accurate and provided better separation of the APT signal compared to the 3-pool equivalent, but this improvement appeared be accompanied by reduced contrast between infarct growth tissue and normal tissue. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 23, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Hippocampal CA1 subfield predicts episodic memory impairment in Parkinson's disease
In this study, we used ultra-high field 7-Tesla to measure hippocampal subfields in vivo and determine if these measures predict episodic memory impairment in PD during life.MethodsWe studied 29 participants with PD (age 65.5 ± 7.8 years; disease duration 4.5 ± 3.0 years) and 8 matched-healthy controls (age 67.9 ± 6.8 years), who completed comprehensive neuropsychological testing and MRI. With 7-Tesla MRI, we used validated segmentation techniques to estimate CA1 stratum pyramidale (CA1-SP) and stratum radiatum lacunosum moleculare (CA1-SRLM) thickness, dentate gyrus/CA3 (DG/CA3) area...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 19, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Gray matter structural covariance networks changes along the Alzheimer's disease continuum
In conclusion, this study found the dynamic trajectory of SCNs changes along the AD continuum and support the network disconnection hypothesis underlying AD neuropathological progression. Further, SCN may potentially serve as an effective AD biomarker. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 17, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Diffusivity and quantitative T1 profile of human visual white matter tracts after retinal ganglion cell damage
This study aims to improve our understanding of microstructural changes in visual white matter tracts following retinal ganglion cell damage in Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) patients by combining DTI and qT1 measurements. We collected these measurements from seven LHON patients and twenty age-matched control subjects. For all individuals, we identified the optic tract and the optic radiation using probabilistic tractography, and evaluated diffusivity and qT1 profiles along them. Both diffusivity and qT1 measurements in the optic tract differed significantly between LHON patients and controls. In the optic radi...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Exploration of gray matter correlates of cognitive training benefit in adolescents with chronic traumatic brain injury
This study investigated gray matter plasticity following 2 months of cognitive training in young patients with TBI. Sixteen adolescents in the chronic stage of moderate-severe-TBI (9 male, mean age = 15y8m ± 1y7m) were enrolled in a cognitive computerized training program for 8 weeks (5 times/week, 40 min/session). Pre-and post-intervention, and 6 months after completion of the training, participants underwent a comprehensive neurocognitive test-battery and anatomical Magnetic Resonance Imaging scans. We selected 9 cortical-subcortical Regions-Of-Interest associated with Executive Functioning (EF-ROI...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 16, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Previous glucocorticoid treatment in childhood and adolescence is associated with long-term differences in subcortical grey matter volume and microstructure
ConclusionThe results suggest that extra-cerebral diseases during childhood treated with glucocorticoids may be associated with reduced subcortical grey matter volumes and lower right hippocampal mean diffusivity later in life. Our findings warrant replication and elaboration in larger, preferably prospective and longitudinal studies. Such studies may also allow disentangling disease-specific effects from possible glucocorticoid treatment effects. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 12, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4) polymorphisms with reduced functional potency intensify atrophy in syndrome-specific sites of frontotemporal dementia
ConclusionsWe conclude that DRD4 polymorphisms with reduced functional potency exacerbate neuronal injury in sites of higher receptor density, which intersect with syndrome-specific regions undergoing neurodegeneration in FTD. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Longitudinal tau-PET uptake and atrophy in atypical Alzheimer's disease
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Irene Sintini, Peter R. Martin, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Matthew L. Senjem, Christopher G. Schwarz, Mary M. Machulda, Anthony J. Spychalla, Daniel A. Drubach, David S. Knopman, Ronald C. Petersen, Val J. Lowe, Clifford R. Jack, Keith A. Josephs, Jennifer L. WhitwellAbstractThe aims of this study were: to examine regional rates of change in tau-PET uptake and grey matter volume in atypical Alzheimer's disease (AD); to investigate the role of age in such changes; to describe multimodal regional relationships between tau accumulation and atr...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Fixel-based analysis of the preterm brain: Disentangling bundle-specific white matter microstructural and macrostructural changes in relation to clinical risk factors
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Diliana Pecheva, J-Donald Tournier, Maximilian Pietsch, Daan Christiaens, Dafnis Batalle, Daniel C. Alexander, Joseph V. Hajnal, A. David Edwards, Hui Zhang, Serena J. CounsellAbstractDiffusion MRI (dMRI) studies using the tensor model have identified abnormal white matter development associated with perinatal risk factors in preterm infants studied at term equivalent age (TEA). However, this model is an oversimplification of the underlying neuroanatomy. Fixel-based analysis (FBA) is a novel quantitative framework, which identifies micro...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Multivariate prediction of functional outcome using lesion topography characterized by acute diffusion tensor imaging
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Eric Moulton, Romain Valabregue, Stephane Lehéricy, Yves Samson, Charlotte RossoAbstractThe relationship between stroke topography and functional outcome has largely been studied with binary manual lesion segmentations. However, stroke topography may be better characterized by continuous variables capable of reflecting the severity of ischemia, which may be more pertinent for long-term outcome. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) constitutes a powerful means of quantifying the degree of acute ischemia and its potential relation to func...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 11, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

APOE-ε4 risk variant for Alzheimer's disease modifies the association between cognitive performance and cerebral morphology in healthy middle-aged individuals
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Raffaele Cacciaglia, José Luis Molinuevo, Carles Falcón, Gonzalo Sánchez-Benavides, Nina Gramunt, Anna Brugulat-Serrat, Manel Esteller, Sebastián Morán, Karine Fauria, Juan Domingo Gispert, for the ALFA studyAbstractThe APOE-ε4 genotype is the highest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In cognitively unimpaired individuals, it has been related to altered brain morphology, function and earlier amyloid beta accumulation. However, its impact on cognitive performance is less evident. H...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Impaired learning from punishment of errors in smokers: Differences in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and sensorimotor cortex blood-oxygen-level dependent responses
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Leonie Duehlmeyer, Robert HesterAbstractCigarette smokers have shown hypersensitivity to reward and hyposensitivity to punishment, along with impairments in learning from errors. The underlying neural mechanism for this failure to adapt performance following an error, particularly when receiving negative feedback, are unclear. Smokers were hypothesized to have poorer error-learning following monetary punishment, associated with hypoactivation in the insula, dorsal anterior cingulate, and hippocampal cortical regions. Twenty-three smokers ...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Neural correlates of cognitive dysfunction in fibromyalgia patients: Reduced brain electrical activity during the execution of a cognitive control task
ConclusionsThe findings suggest a reduction in frontal brain activity during performance of an interference task, which was associated with the patients' cognitive complaints. Findings on P3 suggest altered modulation of attention according to the task demands in FM patients. Deficits in flexibility in the allocation of attentional resources and cognitive control during complex tasks may explain the dyscognition reported by chronic pain patients. (Source: NeuroImage: Clinical)
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 9, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research

Electroconvulsive therapy “corrects” the neural architecture of visuospatial memory: Implications for typical cognitive-affective functioning
Publication date: Available online 5 April 2019Source: NeuroImage: ClinicalAuthor(s): Raluca Petrican, Hedvig Söderlund, Namita Kumar, Zafiris J. Daskalakis, Alastair Flint, Brian LevineAbstractAlthough electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a widely used and effective treatment for refractory depression, the neural underpinnings of its therapeutic effects remain poorly understood. To address this issue, here, we focused on a core cognitive deficit associated with depression, which tends to be reliably ameliorated through ECT, specifically, the ability to learn visuospatial information. Thus, we pursued three goals. First...
Source: NeuroImage: Clinical - April 6, 2019 Category: Radiology Source Type: research