MRI Technique Predicts Future Alcohol Abuse in Teenagers

The objective of the technique is to establish a possible neural marker that could identify which teenagers would abuse alcohol when they entered adulthood and devise interventions that might delay alcohol use. The researchers used BOLD MRI on 29 participants who drank minimal alcohol between the ages of 12 and 14, and over the course of the study, 15 had evolved into binge drinkers. The BOLD inhibitory control test was used to determine blood flow changes that happened in tandem with neuron activation. In the group ’s initial imaging round at age 18, participants were asked to press a button when they saw any shape that wasn’t a small square on a screen. The researchers noted that the strength of the BOLD signal was an indicator as to when in life a teenager would start binge drinking. They found that the weaker the signal, the sooner they started on a path of alcohol abuse.
Source: radRounds - Category: Radiology Authors: Source Type: blogs

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ConclusionFor the first time, we could show that a larger oxytocin-induced attenuation of amygdala response to fearful faces is associated with lower subjective craving for alcohol and percentage of heavy drinking days in social drinkers. Modulation of amygdala activation, induced by emotional stimuli, might represent a neurobiological substrate of oxytocin ’s protective effects on drug seeking behavior.
Source: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
DiscussionThese findings are in line with previous automatically segmented MRI reports highlighting abnormalities in a key region involved in drug rewarding processes in BDs.
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conscious attempts to regulate alcohol and drug use are often undermined by automatic attention and arousal processes that are activated in the context of salient cues. Response to these cues involves body and brain signals that are linked via dynamic feedback loops, yet no studies have targeted the cardiovascular system as a potential conduit to alter automatic neural processes that maintain cue salience. This proof-of-concept study examined within-person changes in neural response to parallel, but unique sets of visual alcohol-related cues at two points in time: prior to versus following a brief behavioral intervention. ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. PMID: 31386215 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Alcohol Clin Exp Res Source Type: research
Conclusions: These preliminary findings highlighted altered striatal connectivity in chronic ketamine users, and the potential role of putamen OFC connectivity in supporting the correlation between impulsivity and duration of ketamine use. If replicated in a larger sample, these findings may represent neural markers of ketamine misuse. PMID: 31264888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: The American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse - Category: Addiction Authors: Tags: Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse Source Type: research
Abstract Impaired cognitive-motivational functioning is present in many psychiatric disorders, including alcohol use disorder. Emotion regulation is a key intermediate factor, relating to the (cognitive) regulation of emotional and motivational states, such as in regulation of craving or negative emotions that may lead to relapse in alcohol use. These cognitive-motivational functions, including emotion regulation, are a target in cognitive behavioral therapy and may possibly be improved by neurostimulation techniques. The present between subjects, single-blind study assess the effects of sham controlled high frequency neur...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Junjie Bu1,2, Ru Ma2, Chuan Fan3,4, Shinan Sun5, Yan Cheng3, Yi Piao3, Pengyu Zhang2, Chialun Liu2 and Xiaochu Zhang1,2,3,5*1Hefei Medical Research Center on Alcohol Addiction, Anhui Mental Health Center, Hefei, China2Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale and School of Life Sciences, University of Science &Technology of China, Hefei, China3School of Humanities &Social Science, University of Science &Technology of China, Hefei, China4Department of Medical Psychology, the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, Hefei, China5Academy of Psychology and Behavior, Tianjin Nor...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
This study aimed to investigate a potential correlation between NGF serum levels and brain structural differences in schizophrenia. Furthermore, a potential overlap between the results of a whole brain correlation analysis between GMV and NGF serum levels and the results of GMV reductions in schizophrenia patients were identified in a conjunction analysis.Materials and MethodsSubjectsEighteen schizophrenia patients from the Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany, and 19 gender- and age-matched healthy controls from the general population participated in ...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, our study demonstrates that TS patients manifest “trait” abnormalities in the timing of sequential motor tasks, which are in keeping with the continuation phase of time processing, likely controlled by the sensorimotor loop of the cortico-basal ganglia network. We also show that the abnormal lateralization of fine motor control, previously reported in the context of the structural sequencing of fine motor tasks, extends also to motor timing accuracy. Finally, we highlight SMA connectivity as a potentially pivotal neural substrate of adaptive compensation of motor timing deficits in fine manual ta...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
We examined the effects of the independent and combined effects of Zataria Multiflora supplementation and circuit resistance training (CRT) on selected adipokines among postmenopausal women. Forty-eight postmenopausal women were divided into four groups: Exercise (EG, n = 12), Zataria Multiflora (ZMG, n = 12), exercise and Zataria Multiflora (ZMEG, n = 12), and control (CG, n = 12). Participants in experimental groups either performed CRT (3 sessions per week with intensity at 55% of one-repetition maximum) or supplemented with Zataria Multiflora (500 mg every day after breakfast with 100 ml of water), or their combination...
Source: Frontiers in Physiology - Category: Physiology Source Type: research
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