Bacterial Reservoirs in the Middle Ear of Otitis-prone Children Are Associated With Repeat Ventilation Tube Insertion

Conclusions: Presence of bacterial otopathogen, specifically nontypeable H. influenzae, in the middle ear during VTI was a predictor of children at-risk of repeat VTI. Here, we identify a modifiable microbiologic factor for repeat VTI that can be targeted to improve clinical management of rAOM.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research

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Conclusions: The PHiD-CV vaccination program in Brazil has resulted in important reductions of pneumococcal disease and substantial cost savings. Instead of switching PCVs, expanding vaccine coverage or investing in other health care interventions would be a more efficient use of resources to improve the health of the population in Brazil.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
Acute otitis media is one of the most common childhood infections worldwide. Currently licensed vaccines against the common otopathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae target the bacterial capsular polysaccharide and confer no protection against nonencapsulated strains or capsular types outside vaccine coverage. Mucosal infections such as acute otitis media remain prevalent, even those caused by vaccine-covered serotypes. Here, we report that a protein-based vaccine, a fusion construct of epitopes of CbpA to pneumolysin toxoid, confers effective protection against pneumococcal acute otitis media for non-PCV-13 serotypes and enhan...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
Vaccinations with the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PHiD-CV) started in Iceland in 2011. Protein D (PD) from H. influenzae, which is coded for by the hpd gene, is used as a conjugate in the vaccine and may provide protection against PD-positive H. influenzae. We aimed to evaluate the effect of PHiD-CV vaccination on H. influenzae in children, both in carriage and in acute otitis media (AOM). H. influenzae was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs collected from healthy children attending 15 day care centers in 2009 and from 2012 to 2017 and from middle ear (ME) samples from children with AOM collected from 2012 t...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Administration of the licenced CRM197-PCV7 and PHiD-CV10 during early infancy is associated with large relative risk reductions in pneumococcal AOM. However, the effects of these vaccines on all-cause AOM is far more uncertain. We found no evidence of a beneficial effect on all-cause AOM of administering PCVs in high-risk infants, after early infancy (i.e. in children one year and above), and in older children with a history of respiratory illness. Compared to control vaccines, PCVs were associated with an increase in mild local reactions (redness, swelling), fever, and pain and/or tenderness. We found no evid...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Discussion This case demonstrates successful cure of pre-B-ALL complicating XLA by alloSCT with restoration of B-cell development and functional antibody response. We are aware of only one previous case of pre-B-ALL in an XLA patient (21), which suggests that human BTK deficiency in itself does not predispose to pre-B-ALL. However, there are data to suggest that BTK may act as a tumor suppressor, and BTK deficiency may predispose to tumor development following a “second hit.” Mice with a genetic deficiency in Slp65, a gene encoding an adaptor protein that functions together with BTK, have a block in progenito...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research
ConclusionsAny difference in price between PHiD-CV and PCV13 is expected to be the key driver of vaccine choice for preventing childhood pneumococcal disease in Turkey. At price parity, PHiD-CV use is likely to be a dominant strategy over the use of PCV13.
Source: Value in Health Regional Issues - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
Publication date: February 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, Volume 52, Issue 1Author(s): Ying-Chun Cho, Nan-Chang Chiu, Fu-Yuan Huang, Daniel Tsung-Ning Huang, Lung Chang, Ching-Ying Huang, Yen-Hsin Kung, Kuo-Sheng Lee, Hsin ChiAbstractBackgroundConcerns about non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) in otitis media (OM) have grown after the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV). We aim to better understand the clinical role of NTHi in pediatric OM.MethodsMiddle ear fluid samples from children
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that the introduction of the PCV7 vaccination did not lead to changes in the probability of success of the current empiric treatments of the AOM. Integrated PK/PD analysis has demonstrated to be a useful tool to identify changes in antimicrobial activity after the implantation of a vaccination program, providing complementary information to the simple assessment of MIC values. PMID: 30727714 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Espanola de Quimioterapia - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Rev Esp Quimioter Source Type: research
CONCLUSION: The results from this study suggest that our NTHi AOM coinfection model is useful for assessing protein vaccines. PMID: 30136923 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Journal of Medical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: J Med Microbiol Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines have potential to prevent significant proportion of childhood pneumonia. Finnish Invasive Pneumococcal disease vaccine trial was designed to assess the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of the 10-valent pneumococcal Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV10) against several outcomes. We now report results for pneumonia. METHODS: In this nationwide, cluster-randomised, double-blind trial, children younger than 19 months received PHiD-CV10 in 52 clusters or hepatitis vaccines as control in 26 clusters. Infants younger than 7 months at the fir...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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