Human antimicrobial peptides in autoimmunity.

Human antimicrobial peptides in autoimmunity. Autoimmunity. 2020 Jan 08;:1-11 Authors: Umnyakova ES, Zharkova MS, Berlov MN, Shamova OV, Kokryakov VN Abstract Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) were firstly discovered as cytotoxic substances that killed bacteria. Later they were described as biologically active peptides that are able not only to kill invaders but also to modulate host immunity. In particular, it is shown that human antimicrobial peptides are able to influence the activity of different innate and adaptive immunity components, thus, obviously, they also participate in autoimmune processes. In this review we discuss the nature of human AMPs and analyze their role in such autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, Crohn's disease and sarcoidosis. These peptides were shown to have a "double-sided" influence on the autoimmune disease pathogenesis. Thus, described facts should be taken into account for the development of new pharmaceutical agents to cure patients with autoimmune disorders. These agents could derive from natural antimicrobial peptides that in some cases modulate immune response. For example, it was shown that human AMPs are able to modulate complement system dysregulation of which is known to be one of the most dangerous pathogenic factors during autoimmune processes. PMID: 31914804 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Autoimmunity - Category: Allergy & Immunology Tags: Autoimmunity Source Type: research

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Publication date: March–April 2020Source: The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery, Volume 59, Issue 2Author(s): Kerry Tai, Christopher Vannabouathong, Sohail M. Mulla, Christina L. Goldstein, Christopher Smith, Brendan Sales, Darryl Yeardley, Mohit Bhandari, Bradley A. Petrisor
Source: The Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Source Type: research
Discussion, we continue to believe that this statistically significant finding has limited clinical significance, “as both groups demonstrated mean brake response times in excess of a recommended driving safety threshold of 0.700 seconds.” We are unaware of any investigation (including our own) that has measured the effect of acute blood glucose levels, hypoglycemic events, and/or specific pharmacologic age nts on brake response times, and agree that this might represent an interesting avenue for future investigations.
Source: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
This study investigated 43 ankles in 41 patients who underwent ankle arthrodesis at 1 of the 2 study institutions. There were 15 men and 26 women, and their mean age was 66.2 (range 49 to 87) years. The primary disease included osteoarthritis (OA) (79%), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (16.3%), and Charcot joint (4.7%).
Source: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
We present the results of our double fixation technique, combining both cross-screw fixation and Ilizarov external fixator frame via transmalleolar approach. We reviewed the files from 52 patients operated for ankle fusion in our center. In our technique, we use a transmalleolar approach, initial stabilization with 2 cannulated, half-threaded cross screws, and final stabilization with an Ilizarov external fixator frame.
Source: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
We report 3 cases of excision arthroplasty with interpositional Achilles tendon autograft for the treatment of end-stage talonavicular osteoarthritis in low-demand elderly patients.
Source: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
With promising technological advances, ankle arthroplasty has become an alternative to arthrodesis, traditionally the gold standard, for treating end-stage ankle arthritis. We collected knowledge and perceptions on both procedures to determine the need for a patient decision aid for these patients by administering a cross-sectional survey to 103 orthopaedic surgeons. Respondents were predominantly male and 41 to 50 years old. Half of those who stated that they do not perform arthroplasty said this was because they do not have adequate training.
Source: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Total ankle arthroplasty (TAA) use has increased during the past 20 years, whereas ankle arthrodesis (AAD) use has remained constant. The purpose of this study was to examine trends in TAA and AAD use in American Board of Orthopedic Surgery Part II candidates while considering the influence of fellowship training status on treatment of end-stage ankle arthritis. The American Board of Orthopedic Surgery Part II database was queried to identify all candidates who performed ≥1 TAA or AAD from examination years 2009 through 2018.
Source: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Although fractures of the ankle are common injuries treated by surgical podiatrists and orthopaedic surgeons specializing in foot and ankle surgery, postoperative complications can occur, often imposing an economic burden on the patient. As health care in the United States moves toward value-based care, cost reduction has primarily focused on reducing complications and unplanned episodes of care. We used a large modern database of insurance claims to examine patterns of complications after open reduction internal fixation of ankle fractures, identifying diabetes mellitus and history of myocardial infarction as risk factors...
Source: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery - Category: Orthopaedics Authors: Source Type: research
Conclusion: TNF-α is associated with concurrent obesity and T2DM and correlates with HbA1c. This suggests that TNF-α needs further investigation to explore if it has a role in monitoring the effectiveness of management in individuals with obesity and T2DM.α) is a cytokine that is released by adipocytes and inflammatory cells in response to chronic inflammation. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is believed to be associated with low-grade chronic inflammation. The current study aims to investigate the involvement of leptin and TNF-α) is a cytokine that is released by adipocytes and inflammatory cells i...
Source: Journal of Obesity - Category: Eating Disorders & Weight Management Tags: J Obes Source Type: research
Authors: Meng J, Huang S, Sun C, Zhang ZW, Mao R, Yang YH, Feng ST, Li ZP, Li X Abstract OBJECTIVE: To establish a novel standardized magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) parameter which considers the element of the normal bowel wall and to compare the efficacy of the MTR, normalized MTR, and standardized MTR in evaluating intestinal fibrosis in Crohn's disease (CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Abdominal magnetization transfer imaging from 20 consecutive CD patients were analyzed before performing elective operations. MTR parameters were calculated by delineating regions of interest in specified segments on MTR maps. ...
Source: Korean Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research
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