Designing Chimeric Virus-like Particle-based Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus and HIV: Lessons Learned.

Designing Chimeric Virus-like Particle-based Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus and HIV: Lessons Learned. AIDS Rev. 2019;21(4):218-232 Authors: Eto Y, Saubi N, Ferrer P, Joseph J Abstract Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a type of subunit vaccine which resembles viruses but do not contain any genetic material so that they are not infectious. VLPs maintain the same antigenic conformation to the original virus, and they could be a better vaccine candidate than live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines. In addition, compared to other subunit vaccines such as soluble protein, VLPs can stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses effectively and safely against several pathogens by the closer morphology to its native virus. They have already been licensed as vaccines against Hepatitis B virus, human papillomavirus (HPV), and several veterinary diseases. Moreover, it has been investigated to prevent other viral infections including HIV. While HIV VLP-based vaccines have been studied over 35 years, none of them has been successful enough to reach even Phase III clinical trials. In this review, we summarize: (i) general features of VLPs; (ii) epidemiological data and current status of vaccine research and development on HPV and HIV; and (iii) previous studies held on HPV VLPs, HIV VLPs, and chimeric HPV/HIV VLPs including production methods and different animal immunization assays. Furthermore, we review present state of human clinical trials with VLPs and co...
Source: AIDS Reviews - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

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CONCLUSIONS: A tailored practice improvement plan can be envisioned to achieve an optimally functioning STI care continuum. PMID: 31468743 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Journal of the International AIDS Society - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: J Int AIDS Soc Source Type: research
Roche has expanded the Global Access Program, originally established to increase availability of HIV diagnostics in underserved countries, to include diagnostic tests for tuberculosis, hepatitis, and human papillomavirus (HPV). Increased access to reliable diagnostics will allow early, possibly life-saving, detection and decrease the spread of these diseases. Roche launched the program in 2014 and began offering the added tests in July. The molecular diagnostics available include tests for determination of HIV-1 viral load, early diagnosis of HIV-1 and -2 in young infants, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampin/ison...
Source: MDDI - Category: Medical Devices Authors: Tags: IVD Source Type: news
Conclusions Apart West Nile virus (78), thousands of congenital microcephaly cases, fetal brain tissue damage and neurological syndromes have been associated with ZIKV infection. Unfortunately, the epidemics of this mosquito born, and a relative stable virus is on a rise. Although congenital microcephaly is a rare disorder however, due to lack of standardized diagnostic test facilities, the incidence in the geographically widespread ZIKV epidemic regions is higher. Animals studies showed that ZIKV is a neurotropic virus. It directly targets the developing embryonic brain cells by inducing apoptosis, cell-cycle arrest, and...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Objective(s): HIV-positive individuals have elevated rates of anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), and sexually transmitted infections with its causative agent, high-risk human papillomavirus, and other oncoviruses including hepatitis B virus (HBV). HBV infection can cause liver cancer, and has been associated with increased risk of some extra-hepatic cancers including biliary tract cancer, pancreatic cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Whether HBV is associated with anal SCC risk is unknown. Design: Prospective study of anal SCC risk in HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study from 1984 to ...
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: EPIDEMIOLOGY AND SOCIAL: CONCISE COMMUNICATIONS Source Type: research
AbstractImmunological parameters that influence susceptibility to virus-associated cancers in HIV-seronegative individuals are unclear. We conducted a case –control cohort study of immunological parameters associated with development of incident virus-associated cancers among 532 HIV-seronegative men who have sex with men (MSM) enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) with median (IQR) 21 (8–26) years of follow-up. Thirty-two incident v irus-associated cancers (anal cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, liver cancer, other cancers with etiologies linked to human papillomavirus, Epstein–Barr virus, hep...
Source: Cancer Causes and Control - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Abstract Cancer is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate prevalence of cancer risk factors among Chinese PLWHA based on 102 articles. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the summary prevalence estimate (sPrev) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each cancer risk factor by demographic group. Overall, the sPrev for each risk factor among Chinese PLWHA was: 41.1% (95% CI: 35.3-46.9%) for current smoking; 30.3% (95% CI: 23.3-37.4%) for current alcohol consumption; 24.4% (95% CI: 14.7-30.2%) for overweight and o...
Source: Anal Sci - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Sci Rep Source Type: research
Conclusions: Long-term heavy popper use is associated with elevated risk of some virus-associated cancers with causes related to human papillomavirus, HHV-8, and Epstein–Barr virus infections in older HIV-uninfected MSM independent of sexual behavior and immunological parameters.
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research
Conclusions The high rate of detectable HPV DNA by oncogenic types suggests that periodic cytological screening and clinical evaluation may be necessary since transsexuals are at high risk of anogenital cancer. Also promoting HPV vaccination in younger subjects may be advisable.
Source: Sexually Transmitted Infections - Category: Sexual Medicine Authors: Tags: Liver disease, Drugs: infectious diseases, Hepatitis and other GI infections, HIV/AIDS, Vaccination / immunisation, Screening (oncology), Sexual and gender disorders, Hepatitis (sexual health), HIV / AIDS, Sexual and gender disorders, Syphilis, HIV infect Source Type: research
Conclusion: Prevalence of smoking and oncogenic virus infections continues to be extraordinarily high among PLWHA, indicating a vital need for risk factor reduction efforts.
Source: AIDS - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Epidemiology and Social Source Type: research
Authors: Catherine de Martel1, Jérôme Vignat1, Delphine Maucort-Boulch2,3,4, Eric Engels5, Meredith Shiels5, Edgar Simard6, H Irene Hall7, Silvia Franceschi1, Martyn Plummer11IARC, Lyon, France, 2Department of Biostatistics, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France 3CNRS, Laboratoire Biostatistique Sante, UMR 5558, Pierre Benite, France 4Faculte de Medecine Lyon-Sud, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Villeurbanne, France 5 National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD, USA 6 American Cancer Society, Atlanta, GA, USA 7Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA Eleven infectious agents have been classi...
Source: Cancer Research - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
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