[HIV-1 and Compromised Adult Neurogenesis: Emerging Evidence for a New Paradigm of HAND Persistence].
Abstract The face of the HIV-1/AIDS pandemic has changed significantly thanks to the development of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Unfortunately, several HIV-associated comorbidities continuously occur in the clinical population, most notably HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While many molecular and cellular mechanisms have been characterized by describing HAND pathology (specifically neuroinflammatory insults and oxidative stress) in the ART era, compromised adult neurogenesis is emerging as a potential new mechanism. Neurogenesis is a dynamic process that generates new neurons and glial ce...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Putatunda R, Ho WZ, Hu W Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events with Dolutegravir and Other Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors].
Abstract Neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs) observed with the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) dolutegravir (DTG) are usually mild to moderate. The most prevalent symptoms are insomnia and sleep disorders, but the spectrum also includes dizziness, anxiety, depression, headache, paraesthesia, muscle-skeletal pain, poor concentration, and slow thinking. In recent cohort studies involving>6400 patients in different countries, discontinuation rates due to NPAEs were observed in around 3.5% (range, 1.4-7.2%) of subjects treated with DTG. These rates have been higher than those seen in randomized clin...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hoffmann C, Llibre JM Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[HIV Treatment Adherence - A Shared Burden for Patients, Health-Care Providers, and Other Stakeholders].
Abstract Successful HIV treatment is contingent on sustained high levels of treatment adherence. Several barriers to optimal adherence have been documented. In this article, we first review the global burden of non-adherence among HIV/AIDS positive individuals on a public health scale. Second, we synthesized available evidence from different study designs and stratified across the European, African, and Asian literature to determine the factors influencing adherence to scheduled clinic appointments and medication non-adherence. Third, we discuss common measurement techniques that quantify the magnitude of non-adhe...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdulrahman SA, Ganasegeran K, Rampal L, Martins OF Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Foreword].
PMID: 30899115 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Gene Editing for HIV Cure at the Edge].
PMID: 30899116 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[A Model for Potential B-cell Precursors of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies Selection and Antibody Affinity Maturation].
Abstract The goal of this report was to propose a model, wherein synergy between the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is involved in the selection of the B-cell precursors of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) with long heavy chain complementarity determining regions 3, from immature/transitional B cells. The model predicts the involvement of Ab/HIV-1 complexes in a way that Ab from the complex binds both BCRs and HIV-1, while on internalization of HIV-1 TLR ligands such as CpG motifs interacts with TLR9. The result of BCR and TLR9 orchestrated signaling is a formatio...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Metlas R, Srdic-Rajic T Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Sexually Transmitted Infections in Men having Sex with Men - Rising Numbers and Wider Etiologies].
PMID: 30899118 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Management of Polypharmacy and Drug-Drug Interactions in HIV Patients: A 2-year Experience of a Multidisciplinary Outpatient Clinic].
Abstract HIV-positive patients are treated with various antiretroviral-containing drug combinations to control their underlying disease, which may also be combined with drugs aimed to manage independent or secondary comorbidities. This can expose patients to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that may lead to suboptimal drug exposure, an increased risk of therapeutic failure or poor tolerability, and a need to adopt alternative therapeutic strategies. Although such undesired responses to pharmacological therapies can be appropriately managed in some situations, the fact that the available information is usually incompl...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gervasoni C, Formenti T, Cattaneo D Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Overcoming Obstacles in Lipid-lowering Therapy in Patients with HIV - A Systematic Review of Current Evidence.
Abstract Cardiovascular risk management in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is gaining increased attention due to the rising incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in this population. Despite the availability of efficacious treatment strategies, implementation of guideline advocated preventive therapy, such as lipid-lowering therapy with statins, is hampered by perceived, expected, and real side effects as well as by expected interactions with combination antiretroviral therapy. These obstacles to optimal treatment have resulted in a large gap between the number of patients in wh...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dekkers CC, Westerink J, Hoepelman AIM, Arends JE Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Economic Impact of HIV in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era - Reflections Looking Forward.
Abstract The main data on HIV in high-income countries from the standpoint of health economics are updated and discussed. Specifically, issues surrounding the economic impact of HIV are addressed for health care and occupational perspectives. We review the main epidemiological data on the prevalence of disease and foreseeable changes in patterns within the coming years. Recent research on health care costs of HIV/AIDS and the occupational situation of HIV+ people are discussed. In high-income countries, there is an incipient change in trends that indicate that an increasing percentage of the intermediate-age HIV+ ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oliva-Moreno J, Trapero-Bertran M Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Longer Life Expectancy but still Accelerating Aging in HIV Patients under Antiretroviral Therapy.
PMID: 30548020 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V, Corral O Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Should HIV Patients be concerned about Occult Hepatitis B?
PMID: 30548021 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aguilera A, Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Toward the Cure of HIV-1 Infection: Lessons Learned and Yet to be Learned as New Strategies are Developed.
Abstract Here, we review the progress that has been made in achieving a cure of HIV-1 infection. To date, this has only occurred in one person after he received allogeneic stem cell transplants from a CCR5 ∆32 homozygous donor in addition to chemotherapy and radiation to treat his acute myelocytic leukemia. The general consensus is that achieving a sustained remission of infection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy will involve a combination of strategies that involve both the targeting of the latent proviral genome and the induction of more effective anti-HIV-1 immune responses. Efforts to reverse HIV-1 p...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jacobson JM, Khalili K Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Rebound in Sexually Transmitted Infections Following the Success of Antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS.
Abstract Nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of the four major curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs), namely trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Despite huge global incidence, STIs remain as neglected diseases. The success of antiretrovirals for halting progression to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and for stopping HIV transmission to uninfected contacts, either as pre- or post-exposure -prophylaxis, has to lead to increased risky sexual behaviors through risk compensation. Recent epidemics and outbreaks of STIs among men having sex with men reflect the global loss...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V, Romero JD Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

New Dual Combination of Dolutegravir-Rilpivirine for Switching to Maintenance Antiretroviral Therapy.
Abstract Advances in antiretroviral therapy have led to dramatic improvements in survival of HIV-infected persons. However, HIV cure remains elusive and lifelong treatment is needed. Attempts for reducing long-term drug exposure, toxicities, and cost, while maintaining viral suppression, have led to explore whether maintenance strategies with less than triple therapy could be feasible using the newest more potent antiretrovirals. While monotherapies have failed to do so with selection of drug resistance, some dual combinations have proven its efficacy when used sequentially in patients with viral suppression under...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ribera E Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hepatitis E Virus, the Uninvited Intruder in Western Kitchens.
PMID: 30548025 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barreiro P Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hepatitis Delta Could Be More Frequent than Previously Thought.
PMID: 30548026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fernandez-Montero JV, Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hot News
PMID: 30328844 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - October 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Chronic Lung Disease in HIV Patients].
Abstract This narrative review discusses literature on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in people living with HIV (PLWH). Existing data indicate that HIV itself, independent of smoking, constitutes a pathogenic agent implicated in this disease condition. COPD can be viewed not exclusively as a pulmonary disease but rather as a systemic syndrome sparked and fueled by a persistent low-grade HIV-attributable inflammatory state. We speculate that even in the absence of airflow obstruction on spirometry, HIV-related lung disease can manifest with respiratory symptoms and structural lung derangement. Althoug...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Neri S, Leung J, Besutti G, Santoro A, Fabbri LM, Guaraldi G Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Clinical Impact of Virological Failure and Resistance Analysis Definitions used in Pivotal Clinical Trials of Initial Antiretroviral Treatment: A Systematic Review].
qui M Abstract There are no standardized criteria to characterize confirmed protocol-defined virological failure (PDVF) nor the inclusion criteria for the resistance analysis population (RAP) in Phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed the clinical impact of mismatching between virological non-response (HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL), confirmed PDVF (48 weeks), and RAP definition in studies with the newest first-line ART. A systematic review of all Phase III RCTs was performed, including preferred once-daily ART (EACS European AIDS guidelines) or recently approv...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Llibre JM, Álvarez H, Yzusqui M Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Tolerability of Current Antiretroviral Single-Tablet Regimens].
Abstract The advent of protease inhibitors (PI) in the mid-nineties and its use as part of triple combinations revolutionized the management of HIV infection. Since then, progression to AIDS and AIDS-related deaths can be prevented. However, antiretroviral therapy based on PI has been discouraged for a while given its lower tolerability compared to alternative options; and only recent improvements in pharmacotherapy have renewed the interest for the newest agents within this class. First, the tolerability of the latest PI darunavir (DRV) and atazanavir is much better than for older PI, such as indinavir or lopinav...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Domingo P, Mateo MG, Gutierrez MDM, Vidal F Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Treatment as Prevention for HIV Infection: Current Data, Challenges, and Global Perspectives].
Abstract In 2008, the Swiss National AIDS Commission issued a statement about the safety of HIV treatment in terms of reduced transmission in serodiscordant couples to reduce transmission in serodiscordant couples. This was subjected to debate until 2011 when the HIV prevention trial network 052 published the first randomized study about HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples, where no transmission was observed when the infected person was under effective antiretroviral treatment (ART). Later, the Partners of People on ART-A New Evaluation of the Risks (PARTNER) and the opposites attract studies, which first i...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yombi JC, Mertes H Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with HIV Infection].
Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent in patients with HIV infection and appears to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected patients. Both metabolic (e.g., obesity and insulin resistance) and HIV-related factors (e.g., antiretroviral treatment and inflammation) play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in this population. Accordingly, all patients with HIV infection should be evaluated for the presence of NAFLD. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic procedure, but non-alcoholic steatohepatitis has to be diagnosed with liver biopsy. However, non-invasive methods, including serologica...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Papagianni M, Tziomalos K Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Hot News].
PMID: 30264829 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yendewa GA Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Development Agenda on Tenofovir Alafenamide in Clinical Practice.
Abstract The introduction of tenofovir (TFV) alafenamide (TAF) into clinical practice will be a further revolution in antiretroviral therapy. Currently available HIV-1 regimens are wide enough to allow diversified usage in different settings. Despite the fact that TAF is not capillary accessible, even in industrialized countries, ultimate International Guidelines have already included TAF in backbone or in single-tablet regimens. Due to a better safety profile, TAF will progressively replace TFV disoproxil fumarate, both in naïve and experienced patients. However, therapeutic innovations have to deal with bud...
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Di Biagio A, Riccardi N, Rusconi S, Guaraldi G, Borderi M, De Luca A, Gianotti N, Lo Caputo S, Maggi P, Maserati R, Maggiolo F Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Is UNAIDS 90-90-90 target a Dream or a Reality for Middle East and North Africa Region on Ending the AIDS Epidemic? A Review Study.
This study uses the UNAIDS 90-90-90 program to evaluate the HIV current situation in MENA countries, and understand the challenges that exist in the way of approaching the program goals. All articles and publications were searched based on the 90-90-90 program indexes among national and international data resources such as official national reports and online scientific databases such as PubMed, Medline, and Scopus up to December 2017. The data were categorized into four main stages: (1) estimated number of HIV-positive people (people living with HIV [PLWH]); (2) PLWH who know their status; (3) PLWH receiving antiretrovira...
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Joulaei H, Shooshtarian S, Dianatinasab M Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

The Role of HIV in the Progression through the Stages of the Human Papillomavirus to Cervical Cancer Pathway.
The objective of this review is to examine the relationship between HIV and progression from HPV to each stage of carcinogenesis related to cervical cancer. The findings of the review support the conclusion that HIV infection increases the likelihood of progression to each stage of the HPV to Cervical Cancer Pathway. PMID: 29938703 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Myers KO, Ahmed NU Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

HIV/AIDS in Sierra Leone: Characterizing the Hidden Epidemic.
ta RA Abstract Sierra Leone is a low-income West African country that has dealt with waves of economic, political, and public health challenges in its recent past, including a decade-long brutal civil war and the Ebola epidemic of 2014-2016. The HIV/AIDS epidemic, which has raged on in the country since 1987, has long been characterized as stable. The latest UNAIDS report estimates a countrywide HIV prevalence rate of 1.7% in 2016 among adults aged 15-49 years. However, there are indications that the epidemic may be in fact escalating and unless arrested urgently, has the potential to deteriorate into a major publ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yendewa GA, Poveda E, Yendewa SA, Sahr F, Quiñones-Mateu ME, Salata RA Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Prevalence of Tuberculosis in HIV-positive Prisoners: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of TB among HIV-positive prisoners is high worldwide. Screening of TB in this population is essential for the treatment of both diseases. Syndemics of TB and HIV in prisoners during the past three decades have created an alarming situation across the world. Hence, coordinated policies are essential for the early identification and effective treatment of this vulnerable population.of increased efforts toward ending the HIV epidemic, all strategies are needed to help in finally achieving this much-needed objective. PMID: 29938705 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dianatinasab M, Joulaei H, Ghorbani M, Zarei N, Rezaeian S, Fararouei M, Greeenwald ZR Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hot News: Hepatitis B Gene Therapy Coming to Age.
Abstract The major pandemics caused by chronic viral infections is produced by HIV, hepatitis C virus (HCV), and hepatitis B virus (HBV), with estimates of 38, 70, and 250 million people worldwide, respectively (Fig. 1). During the last couple of years, the advent of direct oral antivirals has allowed pursuing global HCV eradication. In an unprecedented manner, these drugs cure more than 95% of hepatitis C patients when given for only 2-3 months. The enthusiasm on HCV has renewed the interest for curative strategies for both HIV and HBV. However, important biological differences between all three viruses may precl...
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hot News: Dr. Robert Redfield Appointed as New CDC Director.
Abstract Well-known AIDS researcher Robert Redfield picked to lead the CDC on March 2018. He is one of the HIV/AIDS pioneers in the United States. During two decades at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, in Bethesda, MD, he made pivotal contributions, highlighting the importance of heterosexual HIV transmission, developing the Walter Reed staging system for HIV infection, and demonstrating that active HIV replication takes place during all stages of HIV disease. In 1996, he was one of the cofounders of the Institute of Human Virology in Baltimore, MD. Nowadays, he was running a treatment network for HIV a...
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barreiro P Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Report from the International Conference on Viral Hepatitis - 2017.
Abstract The International Conference on Viral Hepatitis 2017 brought exciting news on the treatment of viral hepatitis. The most recent estimates of the burden for hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections were presented. The current gaps and prospects for regional and global eradication of viral hepatitis were discussed on the light of the WHO roadmap until 2030. Debates focused on hepatitis C and expectations using the new approved HCV pan-genotypic, once daily, oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), glecaprevir-pibrentasvir, and sofosbuvir-velpatasvir-voxilaprevir. The management of difficult-to-...
Source: AIDS Reviews - January 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V, Young B, Reau N Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Antiretroviral Therapy in Advanced HIV Disease: Which is the Best Regimen?
te; V Abstract Advanced HIV disease, defined as a CD4 cell count below 200 cells/μl or the presence of an AIDS-defining illness, remains common among HIV-infected individuals who first present for medical care. In developed countries, nearly 30% of new HIV diagnoses occurred at advanced stages of the disease, and it is important because advanced HIV disease has been associated with worse clinical outcomes, including lower rates of virological response, higher morbidity, and higher mortality. However, there are scarce data regarding which is the best antiretroviral regimen in these patients. Nowadays, integrase ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - January 25, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Burgos J, Ribera E, Falcó V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hot News: Exosomes as New Players in HIV Pathogenesis - New Data from the IAS 2017.
Abstract Exosomes are nanovesicles that can be released into the extracellular medium by different cell types and are considered an important system of intercellular communication. In some instances, on secretion, exosomes break down and release their content into the extracellular space. Alternatively, intact exosomes can interact with other cells and discharge their content directly into the target cell cytoplasm. Exosomes are rich in endosome-associated proteins (i.e., the tetraspanin family) but also carry different molecules in their lumen including proteins, RNAs (i.e., microRNAs), and pathogenderived cargo....
Source: AIDS Reviews - October 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Poveda E, Freeman ML Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hot News: Gene Therapy with CRISPR/Cas9 Coming to Age for HIV Cure.
Abstract The huge success of current antiretroviral therapy is mediated by a triple effect: (i) Halting progression to AIDS in infected persons; (ii) reducing the risk of transmission to contacts (treatment as prevention); and (iii) minimizing the risk of HIV acquisition treating uninfected persons at risk (pre-exposure prophylaxis). However, UNAIDS has estimated that only 70% of infected people globally are diagnosed, only 53% are treated, and overall 44% have undetectable viral load, which is the necessary request for ensuring any antiretroviral benefit. Thus, with 37 million people currently living with HIV wor...
Source: AIDS Reviews - October 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hot News: Ready for HIV Dual Therapy? - New Data from International HIV/AIDS Society 2017.
Abstract The introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) in the 1990s has fundamentally transformed the landscape of HIV medicine, greatly improved disease morbidity and mortality, and reduced transmission rates across all demographic groups. Central to this success was the idea that to achieve best disease outcomes and minimize the development of drug resistance, at least three antiretroviral agents should be used for HIV treatment. This therapeutic strategy is a core tenet of HIV medicine, backed by incontrovertible scientific evidence, and made easy to deploy by the high compliance levels with once...
Source: AIDS Reviews - October 11, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yendewa GA, Salata RA Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Novelties in Evaluation and Monitoring of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Infection: Is Standard Virological Suppression Enough for Measuring Antiretroviral Treatment Success?
Abstract The high potency and tolerability of the currently available antiretroviral drugs has modified HIV-1 infection from a life-threatening disease to a chronic illness. Nevertheless, some issues still remain open to optimize the management of HIV-1 infected patients in term of maintenance of virological suppression over time, identifying patients that could benefit from simplification therapy, and reducing co-mordibities driven by chronic inflammation. The availability of robust and affordable virological and immunological markers can help in solving these issues by providing information on the burden of HIV-...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Svicher V, Marchetti G, Ammassari A, Ceccherini-Silberstein F, Sarmati L, Impact Study Group Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

HIV and HCV in U.S. Prisons and Jails: The Correctional Facility as a Bellwether Over Time for the Community's Infections.
Abstract Screening and treating correctional populations for HIV and HCV infections is essential to successfully addressing both epidemics in the USA. The prevalence of HIV and HCV infection is high in prisons and jails due to increased rates of incarceration among disproportionately affected groups such as injection drug users. Through a search of the published and grey literature and surveying persons overseeing health programs in prisons, we collected data on efforts to determine prevalence first for HIV and then for HCV. Prevalence of both infections varies geographically and temporally, reflecting epidemics i...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Spaulding AC, Anderson EJ, Khan MA, Taborda-Vidarte CA, Phillips JA Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Mechanisms of accelerated liver fibrosis in HIV-HCV coinfection.
Abstract Although there is evidence that HCV progresses rapidly in HIV/HCV coinfected patients in comparison with HCV monoinfected, the HIV-, HCV- and host/genetic-related factors, as well as the exact mechanisms implicated in this process are not fully elucidated. Furthermore, cure of HCV in those coinfected seems possible with the new antiviral drugs, but high cost as well as insufficient identification, linkage with care and treatment hamper the achievement of this goal. Research on the subject, could reveal an important prognostic marker for the effectiveness of persuasion of patients with HIV/HCV coinfection ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Chrysanthidis T, Loli G, Metallidis S, Germanidis G Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Generics for the Treatment of Hepatitis C in Monoinfected and HIV-coinfected Patients: Pros and Cons.
Abstract The treatment of hepatitis C virus in monoinfected and HIV-coinfected patients has greatly changed over recent years as a result of the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs), which have revolutionized clinical outcomes and led to sustained virological response rates above 90-95%. The discovery of new molecules and the subsequent competition between pharmaceutical companies, together with the negotiated price policies pursued by many national health systems, have led to a gradual reduction in the cost of DAAs, and expand their use to an increasing number of patients, including those with mi...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 19, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Cattaneo D, Fossati A, Resnati C, Galli M, Gervasoni C Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Darunavir Stands Up as Preferred HIV Protease Inhibitor.
Abstract Current antiretroviral therapy reaches and maintains viral suppression over the years in more than 90% of treated HIV-infected individuals. Although integrase inhibitors are the preferred third agent in antiretroviral therapy in the current guidelines, rilpivirine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcrip- tase inhibitor, and darunavir (DRV), a second-generation protease inhibitor, are the preferred third companion to be used along with a backbone of two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors as first-line triple HIV combination treatment. However, rilpivirine is not recommended in patients with plasma ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - June 30, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Mallolas J Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Obituary: HIV/AIDS researcher Mark Wainberg passed away.
PMID: 28664943 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - June 30, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Halfon P, Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Modeling Combination HCV Prevention among HIV-infected Men Who Have Sex With Men and People Who Inject Drugs.
Abstract People who inject drugs (PWID) and HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are key risk groups for HCV transmission. Mathematical modeling studies can help elucidate what level and combination of prevention intervention scale-up is required to control or eliminate epidemics among these key populations. We discuss the evidence surrounding HCV prevention interventions and provide an overview of the mathematical modeling literature projecting the impact of scaled-up HCV prevention among PWID and HIV-infected MSM. Harm reduction interventions, such as opiate substitution therapy and needle and syringe pr...
Source: AIDS Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Martin NK, Skaathun B, Vickerman P, Stuart D Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

A New HIV Paradigm: Dual Antiretroviral Regimens as Maintenance Therapy.
;a JM Abstract Since the advent of triple combination antiretroviral therapy in 1996, the prognosis of HIV-infected persons has improved drastically. The clinical benefits of HAART derive from producing sustained viral load suppression and CD4 gains. The major drawbacks of the first HAART regimens were common adverse events and high pill burden, which resulted in difficult drug adherence and led to frequent discontinuations and selection of drug resistance. PMID: 28534886 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V, Peña JM Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

When is Early Antiretroviral Therapy Early Enough for HIV Remission?
Abstract Several strategies to reduce and control the HIV reservoir are being evaluating to achieve the great challenge of HIV remission or functional cure. Some of these are based on immune and gene therapy, or in the use of agents with latency reversing properties. Moreover, acute HIV infection and the impact of early antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation is another key issue of current research. It has been demonstrated that ART initiation during acute HIV infection minimizes the establishment of the latent HIV reservoir. Therefore, early ART initiation might delay viral rebound following treatment interrup...
Source: AIDS Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Poveda E, Cresp M Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hepatitis A Outbreaks in European Homosexual Men.
Abstract Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a small RNA, non-enveloped agent predominantly transmitted via the fecal/oral route through person-to-person contact or contaminated food and water. The mean incubation period is 28 days (range: 15-50). Acute hepatitis A is always self-limited and very rarely fatal. Moreover, it never progresses to chronicity. Acutely infected persons are most likely to transmit HAV before the onset of jaundice, when viral particle concentration in stool is highest. PMID: 28534888 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barreiro P, Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

HIV-1 Infection in Persons Homozygous for CCR5- Δ32 Allele: The Next Case and the Review.
HIV-1 Infection in Persons Homozygous for CCR5-Δ32 Allele: The Next Case and the Review. AIDS Rev. 2017 May 23;19(2) Authors: Smoleń-Dzirba J, Rosińska M, Janiec J, Beniowski M, Cycoń M, Bratosiewicz-Wąsik J, Wąsik TJ Abstract CC-chemokine receptor 5 serves as the coreceptor for the HIV-1 R5 strains, which are responsible for the majority of HIV transmissions. A deletion of 32 nucleotides in the gene encoding this receptor (termed CCR5-Δ32) leads to the suppression of CC-chemokine receptor 5 presentation at the cell surface, thus impeding process of HIV entry into the cell. Individual...
Source: AIDS Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Smoleń-Dzirba J, Rosińska M, Janiec J, Beniowski M, Cycoń M, Bratosiewicz-Wąsik J, Wąsik TJ Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hypertension in HIV: Management and Treatment.
Abstract Hypertension is among the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease and accounts for 6% of adult deaths worldwide. It is estimated that in 2013, hypertension was responsible for at least 45% of deaths due to heart disease and 51% of deaths due to stroke. Accordingly, management of hypertension and its long-term complications in HIV-infected subjects is a significant component of routine care. The choice of an effective anti-hypertensive therapy in HIV-infected patients is important and must be made carefully in order to prevent cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in these patients. PMID: 285...
Source: AIDS Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ucciferri C, Falasca K, Vecchiet J Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Treatment as Prevention: Should Hepatitis C Learn the Lessons from HIV?
Abstract Long-term experience in the treatment of HIV-infected individuals has shown indirect benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy, particularly in preventing HIV transmission. With the advent of direct-acting antivirals for the treatment of hepatitis C, the strategy of treatment-as-prevention has become feasible. However, economic, clinical, ethical, and public health issues arise from the concept of using therapeutic interventions only as prevention strategies. PMID: 28534891 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fernandez-Montero JV, Aspinall EJ, Burns JE Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Minimizing Next-Generation Sequencing Errors for HIV Drug Resistance Testing.
ía F Abstract Next-generation sequencing prototypes for the routine diagnosis of resistance to antiretrovirals approved for the treatment of HIV infection are now being used in many clinical diagnostic laboratories. As some of the next-generation sequencing platforms may be a source of errors, it is necessary to improve the currently available protocols and implement bioinformatic tools that may help to correctly identify the presence of resistance mutations with clinical impact. Several studies have addressed these issues in recent years. Some of them are mainly focused on improving protocols for decreasin...
Source: AIDS Reviews - May 23, 2017 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fernández-Caballero JA, Chueca N, Poveda E, García F Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research