Why Not an Opioid Epidemic in Europe Like in the USA?
PMID: 31841497 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 18, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

HTLV-1 Associated Neurological Complex. What is Hidden below the Water?
Abstract The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infects 5-10 million people worldwide and causes fatal and disabling diseases in a significant proportion of them. A chronic myelitis named HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is the typical neurological manifestation of HTLV-1. However, other neurological syndromes can be either associated with HAM/TSP or occur in isolation in the HTLV-1 infected individual. Although this fact has been widely described over the years, it has been somewhat neglected by the mainstream literature, which has been largely focused on HAM/TSP. C...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Araujo AQC, Wedemann D Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hot News.
PMID: 31834318 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Mendoza C, Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

The Role of the Clinical Pharmacist in the Management of People Living with HIV in the Modern Antiretroviral Era.
This study summarizes the literature evaluating the impact of CPs in the management of PLWH in the era of modern ART. We conducted a literature search to identify studies that assessed the CP role in HIV clinical practice since 2006. The identified studies were grouped into two categories. The first was HIV related outcomes, including interventions on regimen selection, adherence, regimen optimization, and management of treatment failure. The second group of studies pertained to aging and vulnerable populations, including management of comorbidities, transitions of care, medication-assisted treatment, hepatitis C, and HIV ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hill LA, Ballard C, Cachay ER Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Designing Chimeric Virus-like Particle-based Vaccines for Human Papillomavirus and HIV: Lessons Learned.
Abstract Virus-like particles (VLPs) are a type of subunit vaccine which resembles viruses but do not contain any genetic material so that they are not infectious. VLPs maintain the same antigenic conformation to the original virus, and they could be a better vaccine candidate than live-attenuated and inactivated vaccines. In addition, compared to other subunit vaccines such as soluble protein, VLPs can stimulate both innate and adaptive immune responses effectively and safely against several pathogens by the closer morphology to its native virus. They have already been licensed as vaccines against Hepatitis B vir...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Eto Y, Saubi N, Ferrer P, Joseph J Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Evolution of Interdisciplinary Landscapes of HIV/AIDS Studies from 1983 to 2017: Results from the Global Analysis for Policy in Research (GAPRESEARCH).
Abstract In recent years, there have been numerous calls by researchers to adopt multi-disciplinary and international perspectives to address the HIV pandemic. Meaningful and prudent public health policy should be based on sound empirical data and research. Henceforth, our study aims to contribute to the current literature by conducting a comprehensive global mapping and determine the landscapes of HIV/AIDS research covering the years between 1983 and 2017. Bibliometric and content analysis was used to describe trends in research productivity, usages, research collaborations, and clusters of research topics. Explo...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tran BX, Wong FY, Huy-Pham KT, Latkin CA, Hai-Ha G, Thu-Vu G, Ho CSH, Ho RCM Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Quantification of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Is there a Role in HIV-Hepatitis B Virus Coinfection?
Abstract Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level plays an important role in conjunction with other markers such as hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid levels to predict disease activity in chronic Hepatitis B (CHB). Quantification of HBsAg is useful in differentiating carriers from active hepatitis in HBeAg negative patients, and current guidelines recommend monitoring of pegylated interferon alpha treatment in CHB infection. However, there are only few studies about the role of quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg) monitoring in HIV-HBV coinfected patients. Studies have ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jakharia N, Kottilil S, Chua JV Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Quantification of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen: Is there a Role in HIV-Hepatitis B Virus Coinfection?
Abstract Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level plays an important role in conjunction with other markers such as hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) deoxyribonucleic acid levels to predict disease activity in chronic Hepatitis B (CHB). Quantification of HBsAg is useful in differentiating carriers from active hepatitis in HBeAg negative patients, and current guidelines ecommend monitoring of pegylated interferon alpha treatment in CHB infection. However, there are only few studies about the role of quantitative HBsAg (qHBsAg) monitoring in HIV-HBV coinfected patients. Studies have s...
Source: AIDS Reviews - October 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jakharia N, Kottilil S, Chua JV Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

A Global Bibliometric Analysis of Services for Children Affected by HIV/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Implications for Impact Mitigation Programs (GAPRESEARCH).
This study presents the global research trends and interests, points out research gaps of available publications and suggests several implications for services and intervention programs for children infected with HIV/AIDS. While preventions of mother-to-child transmission have been extensively studied, more efforts should be made to fulfill the lack of research on young people who are at risk of being infected or who are already infected with HIV. System thinking approach is needed in the design and implementation of future studies. PMID: 31588137 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - October 3, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tran BX, Nathan KI, Phan HT, Hall BJ, Vu GT, Vu LG, Pham HQ, Latkin CA, Ho CSH, Ho RCM Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

"Moving Fourth": A Vision Toward Achieving Healthy Living with HIV Beyond Viral Suppression.
"Moving Fourth": A Vision Toward Achieving Healthy Living with HIV Beyond Viral Suppression. AIDS Rev. 2019;21(3):135-142 Authors: Guaraldi G, Arends J, Buhk T, Cascio M, Curran A, Teofilo E, Berk GVD, Verger C Abstract Since HIV has evolved from being a fatal illness to a chronic condition, this brings new challenges relating to long-term health, as increasing numbers of people living with HIV (PLHIV) navigate their lives beyond viral suppression. This review presents the challenges facing patients and health-care providers managing HIV in Europe today. We highlight the challenges that the ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Guaraldi G, Arends J, Buhk T, Cascio M, Curran A, Teofilo E, Berk GVD, Verger C Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Beyond Pegylated Interferon-Alpha: New Treatments for Hepatitis Delta.
Abstract Persistent coinfection with the hepatitis B/D viruses (HDV) represents the most severe form of viral hepatitis. Hepatitis D often leads to liver cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The current treatment options are limited as only pegylated interferon-alpha (PEG-IFNa) has efficacy against HDV. However, treatment response is still unsatisfactory with 25-40% HDV RNA suppression after 1-2 years. In addition, late HDV RNA relapses have been described during long-term follow-up. Fortunately, new treatment options for patients with chronic hepatitis delta are now on the horizon. The...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Deterding K, Wedemeyer H Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Is Antiretroviral Two-Drug Regimen the New Standard for HIV Treatment in Naive Patients?
This article discusses recent data from dual therapy studies in naïve HIV-infected patients and the challenges behind this strategy. PMID: 31532398 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dupont E, Yombi JC Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Viral Inhibitory Activity of CD8+ T Cells in HIV Infection.
Abstract Cytotoxic T lymphocytes, or CD8+ T cells, play an important role in the control of replication of HIV. Inducing effective and durable HIV-specific CD8+ T cell responses are, therefore, a major objective in prophylactic and curative strategies for HIV infection. To evaluate such strategies, reliable immunological assays are needed that measure the capacity of CD8+ T cells to exert their effector functions and control viremia. Classical immunological assays such as interferon-γ (IFN-γ) enzyme-linked immunospot or intracellular cytokine staining measure the production of one or several effector m...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Pannus P, Vanham G Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

UNAIDS Update Global HIV Numbers
PMID: 31532400 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 19, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: de Mendoza C Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Rapid Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy after HIV Diagnosis.
oro M Abstract Roughly, 38 million people are living with HIV worldwide. Despite the success of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for suppressing virus replication and restore immunity in infected persons, the HIV epidemics are not controlled globally. Each year 1.8 million new HIV infections occur. This rate has declined only slightly during the past decade, despite huge efforts for expanding ART coverage, pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis, and stopping vertical transmission. To achieve the United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS goals of 95-95-95 by 2030, renewed efforts and innovative strategies must be undertaken. Th...
Source: AIDS Reviews - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: García-Deltoro M Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Malignant Melanoma in People Living with HIV/AIDS: Can We Know More, Can We Do Better?
Abstract Thanks to the advancement in understanding of molecular mechanisms driving immune surveillance, we have now approached a revolutionary era for the treatment of malignant melanoma (MM). Meanwhile, people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) are aging and non-AIDS-related cancers have become a leading cause of death. Both HIV infection and melanoma share common immune-pathological pathways: immune checkpoints are being targeted for melanoma immunotherapy and investigated as a "shock and kill" strategy for latency reversion among HIV-positive individuals. Nevertheless, a substantial lack of information exi...
Source: AIDS Reviews - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Trunfio M, Ribero S, Bonora S, Di Perri G, Quaglino P, Andrea C Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

The Safety and Efficacy of Marijuana in Persons Living with HIV.
Abstract The prevalence of the use of marijuana throughout the world is substantial. In light of ongoing increases in accessibility to marijuana, safety and efficacy must be established to guide recommendations for safe use. Of particular interest is at-risk populations such as persons living with HIV (PLWH) in whom there are higher rates of marijuana use and inherent risks of comorbid conditions. Databases and reference lists were searched for relevant studies investigating marijuana or cannabinoid use, HIV, and/or pulmonary diseases. The effect of marijuana on the human body is complex and not yet fully understo...
Source: AIDS Reviews - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Charron CB, Leung JM Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Differential Contribution of HIV-1 Subtypes B and C to Neurological Disorders: Mechanisms and Possible Treatments.
Abstract With the introduction of combinatory antiretroviral therapy, patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can live much longer than before. However, the identification of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND), especially HIV-associated dementia in 15-20% of patients infected with HIV-1, indicates additional complexity. These disorders turn out to be subtype dependent. Recently, many studies are ongoing trying to understand how the virus induces neuronal injury which could lead to neurological dysfunction. Most of these studies are focusing on the HIV-1 release of proteins suc...
Source: AIDS Reviews - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Santerre M, Wang Y, Arjona S, Allen C, Sawaya BE Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Prospects of CRISPR/Cas9 for HIV Elimination
PMID: 31332399 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Seclen E Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

The Source of New HIV Infections are People not being Treated or Unaware of their Status
PMID: 31332400 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

The Use of Health Behavioral Theories in HIV/AIDS Research: A Bibliometric Analysis (Gap Research).
This study aims at exploring the global and historical evolution of literature and suggesting the most frequent research topics and research gaps in relation to the use of HBT in HIV/AIDS. A cross-sectional analysis of global HIV/AIDS bibliography was conducted through Web of Science (WoS) up to December 31, 2017. We utilized exploratory factor analysis to test the likelihood of research domains and landscape from the abstracts. A total of 29,997 papers in 153 HIV-related research areas were retrieved from the WoS database. This study suggests that HIV/AIDS research based on HBTs is increasing, and mainly focuses on elucid...
Source: AIDS Reviews - July 25, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tran BX, Do HP, Hall B, Latkin CA, Nguyen TQ, Nguyen CT, Ho CSH, Ho RCM Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[HIV-1 and Compromised Adult Neurogenesis: Emerging Evidence for a New Paradigm of HAND Persistence].
Abstract The face of the HIV-1/AIDS pandemic has changed significantly thanks to the development of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Unfortunately, several HIV-associated comorbidities continuously occur in the clinical population, most notably HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). While many molecular and cellular mechanisms have been characterized by describing HAND pathology (specifically neuroinflammatory insults and oxidative stress) in the ART era, compromised adult neurogenesis is emerging as a potential new mechanism. Neurogenesis is a dynamic process that generates new neurons and glial ce...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Putatunda R, Ho WZ, Hu W Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Neuropsychiatric Adverse Events with Dolutegravir and Other Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitors].
Abstract Neuropsychiatric adverse events (NPAEs) observed with the integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) dolutegravir (DTG) are usually mild to moderate. The most prevalent symptoms are insomnia and sleep disorders, but the spectrum also includes dizziness, anxiety, depression, headache, paraesthesia, muscle-skeletal pain, poor concentration, and slow thinking. In recent cohort studies involving>6400 patients in different countries, discontinuation rates due to NPAEs were observed in around 3.5% (range, 1.4-7.2%) of subjects treated with DTG. These rates have been higher than those seen in randomized clin...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Hoffmann C, Llibre JM Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[HIV Treatment Adherence - A Shared Burden for Patients, Health-Care Providers, and Other Stakeholders].
Abstract Successful HIV treatment is contingent on sustained high levels of treatment adherence. Several barriers to optimal adherence have been documented. In this article, we first review the global burden of non-adherence among HIV/AIDS positive individuals on a public health scale. Second, we synthesized available evidence from different study designs and stratified across the European, African, and Asian literature to determine the factors influencing adherence to scheduled clinic appointments and medication non-adherence. Third, we discuss common measurement techniques that quantify the magnitude of non-adhe...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Abdulrahman SA, Ganasegeran K, Rampal L, Martins OF Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Foreword].
PMID: 30899115 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Gene Editing for HIV Cure at the Edge].
PMID: 30899116 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[A Model for Potential B-cell Precursors of Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibodies Selection and Antibody Affinity Maturation].
Abstract The goal of this report was to propose a model, wherein synergy between the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) and toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling is involved in the selection of the B-cell precursors of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) with long heavy chain complementarity determining regions 3, from immature/transitional B cells. The model predicts the involvement of Ab/HIV-1 complexes in a way that Ab from the complex binds both BCRs and HIV-1, while on internalization of HIV-1 TLR ligands such as CpG motifs interacts with TLR9. The result of BCR and TLR9 orchestrated signaling is a formatio...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Metlas R, Srdic-Rajic T Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Sexually Transmitted Infections in Men having Sex with Men - Rising Numbers and Wider Etiologies].
PMID: 30899118 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Management of Polypharmacy and Drug-Drug Interactions in HIV Patients: A 2-year Experience of a Multidisciplinary Outpatient Clinic].
Abstract HIV-positive patients are treated with various antiretroviral-containing drug combinations to control their underlying disease, which may also be combined with drugs aimed to manage independent or secondary comorbidities. This can expose patients to drug-drug interactions (DDIs) that may lead to suboptimal drug exposure, an increased risk of therapeutic failure or poor tolerability, and a need to adopt alternative therapeutic strategies. Although such undesired responses to pharmacological therapies can be appropriately managed in some situations, the fact that the available information is usually incompl...
Source: AIDS Reviews - March 23, 2019 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Gervasoni C, Formenti T, Cattaneo D Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Overcoming Obstacles in Lipid-lowering Therapy in Patients with HIV - A Systematic Review of Current Evidence.
Abstract Cardiovascular risk management in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals is gaining increased attention due to the rising incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease in this population. Despite the availability of efficacious treatment strategies, implementation of guideline advocated preventive therapy, such as lipid-lowering therapy with statins, is hampered by perceived, expected, and real side effects as well as by expected interactions with combination antiretroviral therapy. These obstacles to optimal treatment have resulted in a large gap between the number of patients in wh...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dekkers CC, Westerink J, Hoepelman AIM, Arends JE Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Economic Impact of HIV in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era - Reflections Looking Forward.
Abstract The main data on HIV in high-income countries from the standpoint of health economics are updated and discussed. Specifically, issues surrounding the economic impact of HIV are addressed for health care and occupational perspectives. We review the main epidemiological data on the prevalence of disease and foreseeable changes in patterns within the coming years. Recent research on health care costs of HIV/AIDS and the occupational situation of HIV+ people are discussed. In high-income countries, there is an incipient change in trends that indicate that an increasing percentage of the intermediate-age HIV+ ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Oliva-Moreno J, Trapero-Bertran M Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Longer Life Expectancy but still Accelerating Aging in HIV Patients under Antiretroviral Therapy.
PMID: 30548020 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V, Corral O Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Should HIV Patients be concerned about Occult Hepatitis B?
PMID: 30548021 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Aguilera A, Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Toward the Cure of HIV-1 Infection: Lessons Learned and Yet to be Learned as New Strategies are Developed.
Abstract Here, we review the progress that has been made in achieving a cure of HIV-1 infection. To date, this has only occurred in one person after he received allogeneic stem cell transplants from a CCR5 ∆32 homozygous donor in addition to chemotherapy and radiation to treat his acute myelocytic leukemia. The general consensus is that achieving a sustained remission of infection in the absence of antiretroviral therapy will involve a combination of strategies that involve both the targeting of the latent proviral genome and the induction of more effective anti-HIV-1 immune responses. Efforts to reverse HIV-1 p...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Jacobson JM, Khalili K Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Rebound in Sexually Transmitted Infections Following the Success of Antiretrovirals for HIV/AIDS.
Abstract Nearly 1 million people become infected every day with any of the four major curable sexually transmitted infections (STIs), namely trichomoniasis, chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis. Despite huge global incidence, STIs remain as neglected diseases. The success of antiretrovirals for halting progression to AIDS in HIV-infected individuals and for stopping HIV transmission to uninfected contacts, either as pre- or post-exposure -prophylaxis, has to lead to increased risky sexual behaviors through risk compensation. Recent epidemics and outbreaks of STIs among men having sex with men reflect the global loss...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V, Romero JD Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

New Dual Combination of Dolutegravir-Rilpivirine for Switching to Maintenance Antiretroviral Therapy.
Abstract Advances in antiretroviral therapy have led to dramatic improvements in survival of HIV-infected persons. However, HIV cure remains elusive and lifelong treatment is needed. Attempts for reducing long-term drug exposure, toxicities, and cost, while maintaining viral suppression, have led to explore whether maintenance strategies with less than triple therapy could be feasible using the newest more potent antiretrovirals. While monotherapies have failed to do so with selection of drug resistance, some dual combinations have proven its efficacy when used sequentially in patients with viral suppression under...
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Ribera E Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hepatitis E Virus, the Uninvited Intruder in Western Kitchens.
PMID: 30548025 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Barreiro P Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hepatitis Delta Could Be More Frequent than Previously Thought.
PMID: 30548026 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - December 15, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Fernandez-Montero JV, Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Hot News
PMID: 30328844 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - October 19, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Soriano V Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Chronic Lung Disease in HIV Patients].
Abstract This narrative review discusses literature on chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in people living with HIV (PLWH). Existing data indicate that HIV itself, independent of smoking, constitutes a pathogenic agent implicated in this disease condition. COPD can be viewed not exclusively as a pulmonary disease but rather as a systemic syndrome sparked and fueled by a persistent low-grade HIV-attributable inflammatory state. We speculate that even in the absence of airflow obstruction on spirometry, HIV-related lung disease can manifest with respiratory symptoms and structural lung derangement. Althoug...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Neri S, Leung J, Besutti G, Santoro A, Fabbri LM, Guaraldi G Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Clinical Impact of Virological Failure and Resistance Analysis Definitions used in Pivotal Clinical Trials of Initial Antiretroviral Treatment: A Systematic Review].
qui M Abstract There are no standardized criteria to characterize confirmed protocol-defined virological failure (PDVF) nor the inclusion criteria for the resistance analysis population (RAP) in Phase III randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of initial antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed the clinical impact of mismatching between virological non-response (HIV-1 RNA ≥50 copies/mL), confirmed PDVF (48 weeks), and RAP definition in studies with the newest first-line ART. A systematic review of all Phase III RCTs was performed, including preferred once-daily ART (EACS European AIDS guidelines) or recently approv...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Llibre JM, Álvarez H, Yzusqui M Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Tolerability of Current Antiretroviral Single-Tablet Regimens].
Abstract The advent of protease inhibitors (PI) in the mid-nineties and its use as part of triple combinations revolutionized the management of HIV infection. Since then, progression to AIDS and AIDS-related deaths can be prevented. However, antiretroviral therapy based on PI has been discouraged for a while given its lower tolerability compared to alternative options; and only recent improvements in pharmacotherapy have renewed the interest for the newest agents within this class. First, the tolerability of the latest PI darunavir (DRV) and atazanavir is much better than for older PI, such as indinavir or lopinav...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Domingo P, Mateo MG, Gutierrez MDM, Vidal F Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Treatment as Prevention for HIV Infection: Current Data, Challenges, and Global Perspectives].
Abstract In 2008, the Swiss National AIDS Commission issued a statement about the safety of HIV treatment in terms of reduced transmission in serodiscordant couples to reduce transmission in serodiscordant couples. This was subjected to debate until 2011 when the HIV prevention trial network 052 published the first randomized study about HIV transmission in serodiscordant couples, where no transmission was observed when the infected person was under effective antiretroviral treatment (ART). Later, the Partners of People on ART-A New Evaluation of the Risks (PARTNER) and the opposites attract studies, which first i...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yombi JC, Mertes H Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Patients with HIV Infection].
Abstract Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is highly prevalent in patients with HIV infection and appears to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected patients. Both metabolic (e.g., obesity and insulin resistance) and HIV-related factors (e.g., antiretroviral treatment and inflammation) play a role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD in this population. Accordingly, all patients with HIV infection should be evaluated for the presence of NAFLD. Ultrasound is the first-line diagnostic procedure, but non-alcoholic steatohepatitis has to be diagnosed with liver biopsy. However, non-invasive methods, including serologica...
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Papagianni M, Tziomalos K Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

[Hot News].
PMID: 30264829 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - September 29, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yendewa GA Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

A Comprehensive Development Agenda on Tenofovir Alafenamide in Clinical Practice.
Abstract The introduction of tenofovir (TFV) alafenamide (TAF) into clinical practice will be a further revolution in antiretroviral therapy. Currently available HIV-1 regimens are wide enough to allow diversified usage in different settings. Despite the fact that TAF is not capillary accessible, even in industrialized countries, ultimate International Guidelines have already included TAF in backbone or in single-tablet regimens. Due to a better safety profile, TAF will progressively replace TFV disoproxil fumarate, both in naïve and experienced patients. However, therapeutic innovations have to deal with bud...
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Di Biagio A, Riccardi N, Rusconi S, Guaraldi G, Borderi M, De Luca A, Gianotti N, Lo Caputo S, Maggi P, Maserati R, Maggiolo F Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Is UNAIDS 90-90-90 target a Dream or a Reality for Middle East and North Africa Region on Ending the AIDS Epidemic? A Review Study.
This study uses the UNAIDS 90-90-90 program to evaluate the HIV current situation in MENA countries, and understand the challenges that exist in the way of approaching the program goals. All articles and publications were searched based on the 90-90-90 program indexes among national and international data resources such as official national reports and online scientific databases such as PubMed, Medline, and Scopus up to December 2017. The data were categorized into four main stages: (1) estimated number of HIV-positive people (people living with HIV [PLWH]); (2) PLWH who know their status; (3) PLWH receiving antiretrovira...
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Joulaei H, Shooshtarian S, Dianatinasab M Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

The Role of HIV in the Progression through the Stages of the Human Papillomavirus to Cervical Cancer Pathway.
The objective of this review is to examine the relationship between HIV and progression from HPV to each stage of carcinogenesis related to cervical cancer. The findings of the review support the conclusion that HIV infection increases the likelihood of progression to each stage of the HPV to Cervical Cancer Pathway. PMID: 29938703 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Myers KO, Ahmed NU Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

HIV/AIDS in Sierra Leone: Characterizing the Hidden Epidemic.
ta RA Abstract Sierra Leone is a low-income West African country that has dealt with waves of economic, political, and public health challenges in its recent past, including a decade-long brutal civil war and the Ebola epidemic of 2014-2016. The HIV/AIDS epidemic, which has raged on in the country since 1987, has long been characterized as stable. The latest UNAIDS report estimates a countrywide HIV prevalence rate of 1.7% in 2016 among adults aged 15-49 years. However, there are indications that the epidemic may be in fact escalating and unless arrested urgently, has the potential to deteriorate into a major publ...
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Yendewa GA, Poveda E, Yendewa SA, Sahr F, Quiñones-Mateu ME, Salata RA Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research

Prevalence of Tuberculosis in HIV-positive Prisoners: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of TB among HIV-positive prisoners is high worldwide. Screening of TB in this population is essential for the treatment of both diseases. Syndemics of TB and HIV in prisoners during the past three decades have created an alarming situation across the world. Hence, coordinated policies are essential for the early identification and effective treatment of this vulnerable population.of increased efforts toward ending the HIV epidemic, all strategies are needed to help in finally achieving this much-needed objective. PMID: 29938705 [PubMed - in process] (Source: AIDS Reviews)
Source: AIDS Reviews - April 1, 2018 Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Dianatinasab M, Joulaei H, Ghorbani M, Zarei N, Rezaeian S, Fararouei M, Greeenwald ZR Tags: AIDS Rev Source Type: research