Established and recent developments in the pharmacological management of urolithiasis: an overview of the current treatment armamentarium.

Established and recent developments in the pharmacological management of urolithiasis: an overview of the current treatment armamentarium. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019 Nov 12;:1-12 Authors: Abou Chakra M, Dellis AE, Papatsoris AG, Moussa M Abstract Introduction: Urolithiasis is a common, highly recurrent disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. There are many dietary and pharmacological measures to prevent kidney stones.Areas covered: Herein, the authors explore medical expulsive therapy as well as pharmacological therapies to prevent/treat urolithiasis.Expert opinion: All stone formers should be advised to increase their fluid intake sufficiently to achieve a urine volume of at least 2.5 L/day. In the case of hypercalciuria, a thiazide diuretic should be prescribed while in cases of hypocitraturia, potassium citrate should be given. In the case of hyperoxaluria, the treatment depends on the type of hyperoxaluria. Pyridoxine or calcium supplements with a meal can be offered. For uric acid stone formers, alkali therapy is the standard of care whereas allopurinol can be beneficial in hyperuricosuric stone formers. For cystine stone formers, increased fluid intake, restriction of sodium and animal protein ingestion, and urinary alkalinization are the standard therapies used. Cystine binding thiol drugs such as tiopronin and D-penicillamine are reserved for patients where a conservative approach fails. For struvite stone formers, optimal managemen...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

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Source: WBZ-TV - Breaking News, Weather and Sports for Boston, Worcester and New Hampshire - Category: Consumer Health News Authors: Tags: Health News CNN Google Source Type: news
ConclusionsFT is more effective than cefuroxime, which is commonly used during the perioperative period of urinary stones, and exerts a high antibacterial effect on these internal bacteria, and effectively reduces the probability of infection and sepsis after urinary stone surgery. FT can be used as an antibiotic during the perioperative period of urinary stones.
Source: International Urology and Nephrology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
The deficiency of vitamin D receptor (VDR) or its ligand, vitamin D3, is linked to the development of renal diseases. The TaqI (rs731236) and ApaI (rs7975232) polymorphisms of VDR gene are widely studied for t...
Source: BMC Medical Genetics - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Authors: Tags: Research article Source Type: research
AbstractTo compare outcomes of a single middle calyx access (MCA) with a single upper or lower calyceal access in mini-PCNL. From May 2015 through August 2018, patients ’ files who underwent a single renal access mini-PCNL were retrospectively reviewed. All patients underwent fluoroscopic-guided access (16–20 F) in the prone position. They were categorized into group 1 (MCA) and group 2 (either upper or lower calyceal access). Compared preoperative items includ ed stone location, size, number and complexity (according to Guy’s score). The compared outcome parameters were complication and stone-free rates....
Source: Urolithiasis - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
We report a large mobile bladder calculus with intense 99mTc-MDP uptake demonstrated on both whole-body bone scintigraphy and SPECT/CT images in a patient with complicated chronic history of urolithiasis and urinary tract infection. Bone tracer uptake in bladder calculus is a rare phenomenon and might be related to the composition and matrix of calculus, direct exposure to excreted radiotracer, and bacterial colonization on the surface of calculus.
Source: Clinical Nuclear Medicine - Category: Nuclear Medicine Tags: Interesting Images Source Type: research
We describe the phenotype of the Prodh2 knock out mouse model and show that the lack of HYPDH in PH mouse models results in lower levels of urinary oxalate excretion, consistent with our previous metabolic tracer and siRNA-based knockdown studies. The double knockout mouse, Grhpr KO (PH2 model) and Prodh2 KO, prevented calcium-oxalate crystal deposition in the kidney, when placed on a 1% Hyp diet. These observations support the use of the Grhpr KO mice to screen HYPDH inhibitors in vivo. Altogether these data support HYPDH as an attractive therapeutic target for PH2 and PH3 patients.Graphical abstract
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Basis of Disease - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 28 November 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yadong Liu, Song Chen, Jiannan Liu, Yinshan Jin, Shiliang Yu, Ruihua AnAbstractAimsTelmisartan (TLM), a highly selective angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) and partial PPAR-γ agonist, has versatile beneficial effects against oxidative stress, apoptosis, inflammatory responses and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, its underlying mechanism of inhibiting oxalate and calcium oxalate (CaOx) crystal-induced EMT by activating the PPAR-γ pathway remains unclear.Main methodsCCK-8 assays were used to evaluate the ...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn line with studies in hypercortisolic state, even moderately high cortisol levels in healthy children, still within the physiological range, may negatively impact on the kidney ’s citrate excretion. Besides, a higher 11β-HSD2 activity, favoring cortisol inactivation, is paralleled by an increased citrate excretion.
Source: Endocrine - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionOur analysis showed that both procedures are safe for treatment of 10 –20 mm lower pole renal stones with similar complication rates, operative times, fluoroscopy times and length of hospital stay, but mini-PCNL was significantly superior in effectiveness with a higher success rate. Based on these results, mini-PCNL may be included in the guidelines as a safe and e ffective alternative treatment for 10–20 mm lower pole stones.
Source: World Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
Source: World Journal of Urology - Category: Urology & Nephrology Source Type: research
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