Targeted synthetic pharmacotherapy for psoriatic arthritis: state of the art.
Authors: Caso F, Navarini L, Ruscitti P, Chimenti MS, Girolimetto N, Del Puente A, Giacomelli R, Scarpa R, Costa L Abstract Introduction: In recent years, different studies regarding psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have shown the pathogenetic role of dysfunction of signaling pathways involving the phosphodiesterase-4 enzyme and transcription factors or enzymes belonging to the kinase (JAK)-signal family pathway. These also represent the target of several drugs known as targeted synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (tsDMARDs).Areas covered: The authors performed a systematic literature search using th...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Treating short bowel syndrome with pharmacotherapy.
Authors: Hollanda Martins Da Rocha M, Lee ADW, Marin MLM, Faintuch S, Mishaly A, Faintuch J Abstract Introduction: Short bowel syndrome (SBS) has traditionally been regarded as a rapidly fatal medical catastrophe. The advent of pharmacological options directly targeting disease pathophysiology justified this review.Areas covered: Since the 1970s, home parenteral nutrition has reduced mortality, converting SBS into a chronic and disabling compensated and occasionally curable illness. Off-label antidiarrheal drugs and related products, though having minimal scientific evidence of efficacy, represent the standard-of-c...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Neoadjuvant therapy for triple-negative breast cancer: potential predictive biomarkers of activity and efficacy of platinum chemotherapy, PARP- and immune-checkpoint-inhibitors.
Authors: Garufi G, Palazzo A, Paris I, Orlandi A, Cassano A, Tortora G, Scambia G, Bria E, Carbognin L Abstract Introduction: Despite recent advances in the molecular characterization of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), the standard treatment for early-stage TNBC is represented by the historically used anthracycline and taxane-based chemotherapy. In this modern era of precision medicine, several new therapeutic strategies and novel agents have been investigated in the neoadjuvant setting of TNBC, in order to individualize treatment.Areas covered: This review provides a comprehensive overview of the currently a...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 15, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An overview of rosuvastatin/ezetimibe association for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia and mixed dyslipidemia.
Authors: Strilchuk L, Tocci G, Fogacci F, Cicero AFG Abstract Introduction: Although statin therapy is a powerful lipid-lowering strategy, only one-fifth of statin users currently reach their lipid goals. In addition, statin treatment alone has relatively low efficacy in reducing other lipid fractions than low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C). In such cases, most guidelines recommend adding the cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe.Areas covered: This paper summarizes the main pharmacological characteristics of rosuvastatin and ezetimibe (mechanism of action, metabolism), their lipid-lowering and pleiot...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of hydromethylthionine as a treatment option for Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Hashweh NN, Bartochowski Z, Khoury R, Grossberg GT Abstract Introduction: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a major cause of morbidity worldwide and its prevalence is expected to rise. Previous studies involving compounds that target the accumulation of amyloid β protein have been unsuccessful, renewing interest in therapies directed against intracellular deposits of tau proteins. Derived from methylene blue, hydromethylthionine is a tau aggregation inhibitor that recently emerged as a promising disease-modifying treatment for AD.Areas covered: Herein, the authors cover the chemistry, pharmacodynamics and p...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Perspectives on the management of hypertension in Japan.
Authors: Maruhashi T, Kihara Y, Higashi Y Abstract Introduction: Hypertension is the most prevalent disease in Japan. However, it is estimated that only 50% of hypertensive patients receiving antihypertensive drug treatment achieve blood pressure of less than 140/90 mmHg. Consequently, hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular death in Japan. Innovative high-risk strategies are necessary to reduce hypertension-related morbidity and mortality in Japan.Areas covered: This perspective summarizes the current prescription status of antihypertensive drug treatment, the clinical role of antihypertensive drug tre...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

The pharmacological management of constipation in patients with Parkinson's disease: a much-needed relief.
Authors: Mozaffari S, Nikfar S, Daniali M, Abdollahi M Abstract Introduction: Constipation is common in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Due to the considerable negative outcomes of constipation, significant efforts have been made to prevent and manage chronic constipation in these patients.Areas covered: Herein, the authors review some of the known pathophysiological causes for slow gastrointestinal (GI) transit in PD patients and the different pharmacological options. All relevant clinical and experimental data found through online databases were included. Bulking agents, osmotic and stimulant laxatives, c...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating FMX-101 as a promising therapeutic for the treatment of acne.
Authors: Valente Duarte de Sousa IC Abstract Introduction: Oral minocycline is a mainstay of therapy for moderate-to-severe acne; however, systemic side effects which include hepatotoxicity, lupus-like syndrome, drug hypersensitivity syndrome, autoimmune hepatitis, polyarteritis nodosa, gastrointestinal side effects and skin hyperpigmentation are of concern. Topical antibiotics commonly used in acne, such as erythromycin and clindamycin, present high P. acnes resistance rates which has opened the market for new topical antibiotics. FMX-101 is a novel topical minocycline foam that has shown promising results in phas...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Advances in paclitaxel combinations for treating cervical cancer.
This article is based on literature searches up until April 2019, with current trial registers also analyzed. All data available on this topic has been summarized in this narrative review.Expert opinion: In recent years, it has been demonstrated that cisplatin-based doublets, and in particular, cisplatin plus paclitaxel, are superior to cisplatin as a monotherapy in terms of response rate and progression-free survival of patients with advanced cervical cancer. This double regime combined with bevacizumab is also considered the first-line option for metastatic or recurrent disease. Dose-dense paclitaxel in neo-adjuvant chem...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Treating mild hypertension in young adults: is pharmacotherapy necessary?
Authors: Pawliczak F, Bielecka-DÄ…browa A, Maciejewski M, Banach M PMID: 32027193 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of glasdegib for the treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia.
Authors: Thomas X, Heiblig M Abstract Introduction: Despite recent advances in the treatment of adult acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), the overall outcome remains dismal especially in high-risk AML patients, including the elderly and the relapsed/refractory populations. In this setting, various clinical trials have recently explored novel therapeutic agents either used alone or in combination with intensive chemotherapy or low-intensity treatments.Areas covered: The current paper reviews the clinical development of glasdegib, a selective inhibitor of the Hedgehog signaling pathway through binding to its target SMO...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

The pharmacological management of dental pain.
Authors: Pergolizzi JV, Magnusson P, LeQuang JA, Gharibo C, Varrassi G Abstract Introduction: Dental pain is primarily treated by dentists and emergency medicine clinicians and may occur because of insult to the tooth or oral surgery. The dental impaction pain model (DIPM) has been widely used in clinical studies of analgesic agents and is generalizable to many other forms of pain.Areas Covered: The authors discuss the DIPM, which has allowed for important head-to-head studies of analgesic agents, such as acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), opioids, and combinations. Postsurgical dental pa...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 8, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation in schizophrenia: a systematic review.
Authors: Kozak K, George TP Abstract Introduction: Rates of tobacco smoking are high in people with schizophrenia with greater difficulty of quitting smoking compared to the general population, which also relate to the increased cardiovascular and cancer risks in this co-occurring disorder. Therefore, effective smoking cessation pharmacotherapies addressing tobacco co-morbidity are imperative.Areas covered: In this review, the authors performed an extensive systematic electronic literature review examining the efficacy and safety of first-line pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation, including varenicline, sustaine...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current and emerging treatments for neonatal sepsis.
Authors: Carbone F, Montecucco F, Sahebkar A Abstract Introduction: Mortality due to sepsis is still prevalent, peaking at extreme ages of life including infancy. Despite many efforts, the peculiarity of the infant immune system has limited further advances in its treatment. Indeed, neonates experience a dramatic physiological transition from immune tolerance to the maternal antigens to functional maturity. Such a transition is extremely dynamic, as is the pathophysiology of infant sepsis, which is dependent on many infant, maternal, and environmental factors.Areas covered: In this review, the authors critically up...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Ubrogepant for the treatment of migraine.
Authors: Curto M, Capi M, Cipolla F, Cisale GY, Martelletti P, Lionetto L Abstract Introduction: Migraine is a neurovascular disorder involving neurogenic inflammation and transmission of trigeminovascular nociceptive pathways mediated by Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide (CGRP). Several small molecules antagonizing the CGRP receptor have been developed as migraine-specific acute medications. The CGRP receptor antagonist ubrogepant, also known as MK-1602, has been recently evaluated in phase III clinical trials for clinical efficacy and long-term safety as an abortive migraine treatment.Areas covered: This paper disc...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutic considerations and options for the management of osteoarthritis in women.
Authors: Trivedi S, Fang W, Ayyalasomayajula I, Vangsness CT Abstract Introduction: Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease that leads to the destruction of articular cartilage and joints. As the most common joint disorder, osteoarthritis poses a great burden to the healthcare system. Most importantly, osteoarthritis is a heterogeneous disease characterized by a wide range of clinical features, phenotypes, and treatments. The burden of osteoarthritis is not equally distributed between men and women. Women have an increased risk of developing osteoarthritis, with worse symptoms, and poorer outcomes.Areas covered: In thi...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of levofloxacin as a treatment for complicated urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis.
Authors: Bientinesi R, Murri R, Sacco E Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common causes of sepsis presenting to hospitals. Treating complicated UTIs is extremely important due to their potential mortality. Levofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial that has become one of the cornerstones of antibiotic therapy of complicated UTIs and pyelonephritis since its introduction in the 1990s because of its exceptional pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profile. However, the emergence of widespread fluoroquinolone resistance over the past decade has prompted investigato...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Treatment options for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.
Authors: Chiodini I, Merlotti D, Falchetti A, Gennari L Abstract Introduction: Glucocorticoid (GC) induced osteoporosis (GIOP) is the most common form of secondary osteoporosis. It develops in a dose and time dependent manner, due to a rapid and transient increase in bone resorption, followed by the inhibition of bone formation.Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the pathophysiology of GIOP and give discussion to the clinical management of patients taking GCs, focusing on the currently available drugs that have antiresorptive or anabolic activity on bone.Expert opinion: Despite the widespread use o...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - February 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of rectal artesunate for the pre-hospital management of severe malaria.
Authors: Angus BJ Abstract Introduction: Severe falciparum malaria stills accounts for around half a million childhood deaths per year in sub-Saharan Africa. Prompt treatment of sick children close to home starting with artesunate given rectally by appropriately trained people can be lifesaving.Areas covered: Rectal artesunate (RAS) has been developed for use in the WHO approved strategy of pre-referral intervention. This review covers the formulation, pharmacokinetics, safety, efficacy, and implementation of this drug. There is little RCT evidence and the only RCT has been controversial. It is unlikely that there ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

What can be done pharmacologically for a subject with severe refractory constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome?
Authors: Bassotti G PMID: 31990590 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Combination and sequential treatment in women with postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Authors: Anastasilakis AD, Polyzos SA, Yavropoulou MP, Makras P Abstract Introduction: Since postmenopausal osteoporosis is a chronic, potentially disabling condition requiring long-term treatment, the physician is expected to decide the optimal treatment strategy, e.g. how to use the available osteoanabolic and antiresorptive agents, sequentially or in combination, in the most effective and safe way, based on personalized patient care.Areas covered: Herein, the authors outline clinical data regarding the efficacy and safety of various sequential treatment strategies. More specifically, they compare the efficacy of...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An update on pharmacotherapies in active development for the management of cancer regimen-associated oral mucositis.
Authors: Villa A, Sonis ST Abstract Introduction: Oral mucositis (OM) is a common toxicity of cytotoxic cancer regimens and remains one of the most painful, injurious, and treatment-disrupting side effects of radiation and ablative therapy. Despite its frequency and impact, approved definitive preventive or therapeutic options remain limited.Areas covered: This review focuses on mechanistically active small molecules and biologicals that are under clinical development for the prevention of oral mucositis. The authors have excluded those compounds and devices for which their indication is limited to symptoms managem...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacological strategies for the management of comorbid depression and schizophrenia.
Authors: Ceskova E Abstract Introduction: Depressive symptoms may occur in any phase of schizophrenia and can have far-reaching consequences.Areas covered: The author focuses on recent reviews and meta-analyses dealing with the prevalence, importance, etiopathogenesis, and pharmacotherapy of comorbid depression and schizophrenia. Depressive symptoms in acute episodes may improve in parallel with psychosis due to antipsychotic treatment. Therefore, the first step is to evaluate the current antipsychotic treatment of psychotic symptoms and consider changing the dosage. A second step is switching antipsychotic medicat...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

New treatments in spinal muscular atrophy: an overview of currently available data.
This article covers the publically available data on therapeutic strategies that address the underlying cause of SMA and clinical data available on approved treatments and drugs in the pipeline.Expert opinion: The newer therapeutic options in SMA have a good safety profile and deliver a therapeutic benefit in most patients. It is essential that the recommended standards of care are delivered along with the drugs for the best outcomes. No biomarkers to distinguish responders from non-responders are available; it is important that biomarkers be identified. Early treatment is essential for the maximum efficacy of the newly av...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 26, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

What are the challenges in choosing pharmacotherapy for rhinosinusitis?
Authors: Psaltis AJ, Vyskocil E Abstract Introduction: Rhinosinusitis is an extremely prevalent condition with significant health-care expenditure and socio-economic burden. Although symptomatically patients with acute and chronic rhinosinusitis present similarly, the underlying pathogenesis of these conditions is different.Areas covered: This perspective discusses the various treatment options for both acute and chronic rhinosinusitis and examines some of the challenges in choosing appropriate pharmacotherapy. It examines the evidence supporting the commonly used agents including saline irrigations, topical and or...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluation of the current data on guanfacine extended release for the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents.
Authors: Childress A, Hoo-Cardiel A, Lang P Abstract Introduction: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) commonly occurs in children, adolescents, and adults. Although symptoms of ADHD often respond robustly to treatment with stimulants (amphetamine or methylphenidate), not all patients are appropriate candidates for treatment with these drugs. Guanfacine extended-release (GXR) is a non-stimulant alternative drug approved for the treatment of ADHD in the United States (U.S.), Canada, and Europe.Areas covered: The chemistry, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action and dosage of GXR are presented. Efficacy an...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An overview of intravenous amisulpride as a new therapeutic option for the prophylaxis and treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
Authors: Smyla N, Koch T, Eberhart LH, Gehling M Abstract Introduction: Current therapies of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) are based on a combination of antiemetics from different pharmacological classes. Dopamine receptor antagonists are one of the cornerstones of such multimodal antiemetic approach, with droperidol being the best studied representative of this group. Droperidol's use has significantly declined after the FDA's black-box warning in 2001 due to its QT-prolonging properties. Amisulpride is a promising antiemetic agent which could fill this gap.Areas covered: In this review, the authors dis...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 24, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

The pharmacological management of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS).
Authors: Albertson TE, Chenoweth JA, Pearson SJ, Murin S Abstract Introduction: Asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease overlap syndrome (ACOS) is a disease phenotype that shares T helper lymphocyte cell Th1/neutrophilic/non-Type-2 Inflammation pathways thought to be key in COPD and Th2/eosinophilic/Type-2 inflammatory pathways of asthma. The pharmacology of treating ACOS is challenging in severe circumstances.Areas covered: This review evaluates the stepwise treatment of ACOS using pharmacological treatments used in both COPD and asthma. The most common medications involve the same inhalers used to treat COPD...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current concepts of pharmacotherapy of diabetic macular edema.
Authors: Haritoglou C, Maier M, Neubauer AS, Augustin AJ Abstract Introduction: Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a sight threatening disease and a major cause for blindness for people in working age. The pathogenesis is multifactorial and complex. The pharmacotherapy of DME addresses both the inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by the intravitreal injection of VEGF inhibitors and inflammatory processes by the intravitreal application of steroids. Several trials have been published reporting on the efficacy and safety of these treatments.Areas covered: This review discusses original research artic...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating lurasidone as a treatment option for bipolar disorder.
Authors: Ali Z, Tegin C, El-Mallakh RS Abstract Introduction: Lurasidone has been approved in the United States as a monotherapy and adjunct for acute bipolar I depression, as well as an antipsychotic for patients with schizophrenia.Areas covered: Herein, the authors review the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of lurasidone as well and the major randomized clinical trials. The authors also provide their expert opinion.Expert opinion: Lurasidone has not been studied in patients with mania or bipolar psychosis. It has been studied, both as a monotherapy and adjunctive treatment to lithium or valproate, in acute ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors for the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Authors: Spagnuolo A, Palazzolo G, Sementa C, Gridelli C Abstract Introduction: Angiogenesis is the process by which the tumor develops its potential for growth and distant metastasis. The main proangiogenic switch is vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which, along with its receptor VEGFR, is a target for biological drugs such as multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors used for many neoplasms, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).Areas covered: The fact that angiokinase inhibitors act on several signaling molecules simultaneously means that the use of alternative transmission pathways, which nulli...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Selinexor for the treatment of multiple myeloma.
This article summarizes our up-to-date knowledge on the pathophysiologic role of XPO-1 in MM. Furthermore, it reviews the most recent clinical data on selinexor in combination with dexamethasone and other anti-MM agents; and discusses its safety profile, management strategies; and potential future developments.Expert opinion: Selinexor represents a next-generation-novel agent with an innovative mechanism of action that marks a significant advance in the treatment of heavily pretreated MM patients. Ongoing studies investigate its therapeutic potential also in earlier lines of therapy. Additional data is needed to confirm th...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

State-of-the-art pharmacotherapy for autonomic dysfunction in Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Quarracino C, Otero-Losada M, Capani F, Pérez-Lloret S Abstract Introduction: Autonomic dysfunction is one of the most frequent and disabling non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It includes, among others, orthostatic hypotension (OH), sialorrhea, constipation, erectile dysfunction (ED), urinary dysfunction, and diaphoresis. They are usually under-recognized and suboptimally managed.Areas covered: Recommended treatments for dysautonomias are summarized with a description of the mechanism of action and observed results. The pathophysiology of each disorder is reviewed to pinpoint possible ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Drug treatment of chronic subdural hematoma.
Authors: Huang J, Gao C, Dong J, Zhang J, Jiang R Abstract Introduction: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical disease, whose incidence has been steadily increasing with our aging population. While not common, CSDH can also occur in children. CSDH is often associated with traumatic head injury, but its underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. The first line treatment for CSDH is surgery. However, surgery is contraindicated in some patients and has a high rate of recurrence. Effective non-surgical treatment is therefore highly desirable.Areas covered: This review discusses the pathogenesi...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating emtricitabine + rilpivirine + tenofovir alafenamide in combination for the treatment of HIV-infection.
Authors: Mu Y, Pham M, Podany AT, Cory TJ Abstract Introduction: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is recommended for all people who are living with HIV to suppress viral load and to stop the progression and transmission of HIV-1. Fixed-dose combinations of antiretrovirals largely reduce pill burden.Areas covered: The authors first provide an overview of the use of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) based therapy in HIV care. They then summarize the properties of each drug in the fixed-dose combination of tenofovir alafenamide/emtricitabine/rilpivirine/(TAF/FTC/RPV). The efficacy and safety of each c...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Choosing appropriate chemotherapy for diffusely infiltrating WHO grade II gliomas in adults.
Authors: Pellerino A, Bertero L, Rudà R, Soffietti R PMID: 31957509 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An overview of lefamulin for the treatment of community acquired bacterial pneumonia.
This article reviews the spectrum of activity, the main pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics of lefamulin as well as its clinical efficacy and safety in the treatment of CAP in adult patients.Expert opinion: The clinical efficacy of lefamulin in patients with non severe CAP has been demonstrated in 2 randomized clinical trials. Precisely one of the limitations of the phase 3 trials is that the proportion of severe CAP cases is very low. Its particular mechanism of action, affecting ribosomal protein synthesis, provides a low probability of cross-resistance to other commonly used antibiotics in CAP. These fin...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

How can we best care for people with dementia with Lewy bodies pharmacologically?
Authors: Jellinger KA PMID: 31935124 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

How has ziconotide impacted non-cancer pain management?
Authors: Deer T, Hagedorn JM PMID: 31935126 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

The use of cilostazol for secondary stroke prevention: isn't time to be evaluated in Western countries?
Authors: Di Napoli M, Singh P, Lattanzi S, Divani AD PMID: 31935129 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current pharmacotherapeutic strategies for cardiac arrhythmias in heart failure.
Authors: Correa A, Rochlani Y, Aronow WS Abstract Introduction: Heart failure (HF) affects over 6 million Americans and is the most common cause of hospital readmissions in the United States. Cardiac arrhythmias are common comorbidities seen in patients with HF and are associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Pharmacotherapeutic agents along with device and ablation therapies are the mainstays of treatment for cardiac arrhythmias in HF.Areas covered: An extensive literature review of articles and clinical trials on PUBMED on the topic of pharmacotherapy for cardiac arrhythmias in heart failure was co...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An overview of dehydroepiandrosterone (EM-760) as a treatment option for genitourinary syndrome of menopause.
Authors: Holton M, Thorne C, Goldstein AT Abstract Introduction: Dyspareunia caused by vulvovaginal atrophy is a primary symptom of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM), a chronic, progressive medical condition that results from estrogen and androgen deficiency at menopause. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, prasterone) is an endogenous precursor steroid hormone that is metabolized into both androgens and estrogens that has been recently been approved by the FDA for the treatment of moderate to severe dyspareunia caused by vulvovaginal atrophy secondary to menopause.Areas covered: This is a comprehensive drug eval...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current pharmacotherapy for gambling disorder: a systematic review.
Authors: Kraus SW, Etuk R, Potenza MN Abstract Introduction: Gambling disorder is classified as an addictive disorder and is associated with significant distress and impairment in personal, social, occupational or other important areas of functioning. Although no pharmacotherapy has a formal indication for gambling disorder, data suggest potential benefits of specific medications.Area covered: This systematic review evaluated findings from 19 randomized controlled trials testing pharmacotherapies for the treatment of gambling disorder.Expert opinion: Few randomized controlled trials have studied pharmacotherapies f...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of ionizing radiation injuries: current and prospective agents and targeted organ systems.
Authors: Singh VK, Seed TM Abstract Introduction: There is a limited array of currently available medicinals that are useful for either the prevention, mitigation or treatment of bodily injuries arising from ionizing radiation exposure.Area covered: In this brief article, the authors review those pharmacologic agents that either are currently being used to counter the injurious effects of radiation exposure, or those that show promise and are currently under development.Expert opinion: Although significant, but limited progress has been made in the development and fielding of safe and effective pharmacotherapeutics...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of a fixed dose combination tablet of asunaprevir + beclabuvir + daclatasvir for the treatment of Hepatitis C.
Authors: Zappulo E, Scotto R, Buonomo AR, Maraolo AE, Pinchera B, Gentile I Abstract Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is estimated to infect approximately 70 million people worldwide. If left untreated, chronic infection can progress to cirrhosis, liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. The advent of new direct-acting antivirals (DAA) has revolutionized patients' chances of treatment and viral elimination. Currently, several DAA options are available on the market.Areas covered: This review focuses on the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, tolerability and safety profile of DCV-TRIO, a twice-daily fixed-dose combi...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacological prophylaxis of infection in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients.
Authors: Arad-Cohen N, Rowe JM, Shachor-Meyouhas Y Abstract Introduction: Pediatric patients treated for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are at high risk of developing severe infectious complications. The choice of an optimum supportive treatment should be based on local epidemiology, as well as intensity and toxicity of the anti-leukemic therapy applied.Areas covered: This review presents an overview of recently published studies focusing on the prevention of infection in pediatric AML patients. PubMed has been systematically searched for clinical trials, reviews, and meta-analyses published in the last 10 years. The...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current and emerging therapeutic options for the management of functional dyspepsia.
Authors: Vandenberghe A, Schol J, Van den Houte K, Masuy I, Carbone F, Tack J Abstract Introduction: Functional Dyspepsia (FD), defined as chronic symptoms originating from the gastroduodenal region in absence of readily identifiable organic disease, is one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders. FD is divided into two subgroups: Post-Prandial Distress Syndrome (PDS) or meal-related FD, characterized by postprandial fullness and early satiation, and Epigastric Pain Syndrome (EPS) or meal-unrelated FD, characterized by epigastric pain and burning.Areas covered: This review summarizes the existing and off-labe...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

How does epilepsy impact the pharmacotherapeutic management of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies?
Authors: Cretin B, Blanc F PMID: 31899987 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

What is the impact of the latest ACC/AHA and ESC/ESH guidelines on the management of hypertension in the UK?
Authors: Akhmimi A, Lip GYH, Shantsila A PMID: 31899988 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

How do we choose the appropriate chemotherapeutic agents for biliary tract cancer?
Authors: Neureiter D, Mayr C, Kiesslich T PMID: 31899989 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research