Bridging pharmacotherapy and minimally invasive surgery in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome treatment.
Authors: Dellis AE, Papatsoris AG Abstract INTRODUCTION: Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a painful and debilitating clinical entity which is challenging to diagnose and even more difficult to treat. Unfortunately, none of the existing oral and intravesical medications have been established as effective and therefore relevant research is ongoing. Areas covered: In this review, the authors present established and emerging treatment options for IC/BPS in terms of medication and minimal invasive procedures. Both American and European Urological Association Guidelines recommend multimodal behavio...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - August 5, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for the treatment of bacterial peritonitis.
Authors: Maraolo AE, Gentile I, Pinchera B, Nappa S, Borgia G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the quintessential model of bacterial infection in cirrhotic patients. In these particularly frail subjects, infections clearly worsen prognosis increasing substantially mortality. Furthermore, treatment of SBP has become more challenging because of the growing impact of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Areas covered: This review addresses the reasons behind the change in therapeutic recommendations for SBP that have occurred in the past few years, by focusing on the following aspects: ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - August 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of hyponatremia.
Authors: Filippatos T, Elisaf M, Liamis G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hyponatremia is the most common electrolyte disorder with a prevalence of up to 30% in hospitalized patients. Furthermore, it is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: This review discusses the efficacy and side effects of the currently available treatment options for hyponatremia and the differences in the pharmacological approach between the European and USA guidelines. Additionally, the authors provide their expert perspectives on current treatment strategies and what they expect from this field in the future. Expert opin...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - August 4, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Are there advances in pharmacotherapy for panic disorder? A systematic review of the past five years.
Authors: Caldirola D, Alciati A, Riva A, Perna G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Several effective medications are available for treating panic disorder (PD). However, outcomes are unsatisfactory in a number of patients, suggesting the usefulness of expanding the array of antipanic drugs and improving the quality of response to current recommended treatments. Areas covered: The authors have performed an updated systematic review of pharmacological studies (phase III onwards) to examine whether advances have been made in the last five years. Only four studies were included. D-cycloserine no longer seemed promising as a cogni...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - August 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for generalized anxiety disorder in adult and pediatric patients: an evidence-based treatment review.
Authors: Strawn JR, Geracioti L, Rajdev N, Clemenza K, Levine A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) often begins during adolescence or early adulthood and persists throughout the lifespan. Randomized controlled trials support the efficacy of selective serotonin and selective serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs and SNRIs, respectively), as well as benzodiazepines, azapirones, anti-adrenergic medications, melatonin analogs, second-generation antipsychotics, kava, and lavender oil in GAD. However, psychopharmacologic treatment selection requires clinicians to consider multiple fac...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - August 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

A response to "Cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea: an underappreciated role for increased platelet activity?"
A response to "Cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnea: an underappreciated role for increased platelet activity?" Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018 Jul 30;: Authors: Wolf J, Narkiewicz K PMID: 30058432 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - August 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy and nutritional supplements for seasonal affective disorders: a systematic review.
Authors: Cools O, Hebbrecht K, Coppens V, Roosens L, De Witte A, Morrens M, Neels H, Sabbe B Abstract INTRODUCTION: A seasonal affective disorder (SAD) is a subtype of unipolar and bipolar major depressive disorders. It is characterized by its annual recurrence of depressive episodes at a particular season, mostly seen in winter and is responsible for 10-20% of the prevalence of major depressive disorders. Some pathophysiological hypotheses, such as the phase delay and the monoamine depletion hypotheses, have been postulated but the exact cause has not been fully unraveled yet. Studies on treatment for SAD in the l...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

New and emerging drug therapies for Cushing's disease.
Authors: Störmann S, Schopohl J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cushing's disease is a rare systemic and disabling disease due to oversecretion of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) resulting in excess cortisol levels. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult; despite the availability of various pharmaceutical treatment options, there is an ongoing, unmet need for even more effective treatment. Areas covered: The present review aims at providing an overview of available drugs and presenting new developments. Focusing on the pituitary as a target, the review covers compounds targeting pituitary cell signaling or cell cycl...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Drug therapies for polymyalgia rheumatica: a pharmacotherapeutic update.
Authors: González-Gay MA, Pina T, Prieto-Peña D, Calderon-Goercke M, Blanco R, Castañeda S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR), a common disease in individuals older than 50 in the western world, is characterized by bilateral inflammatory pain involving the shoulder girdle and less commonly the neck and pelvic girdle. The main goals of the currently available treatment are to induce remission and prevent relapse. Areas covered: This review briefly presents the main epidemiological and clinical features of PMR and discusses in depth both its classical management as well as new th...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Topical drug therapeutics for neuropathic pain.
Authors: Coderre TJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Neuropathic pain (NP) is a particularly severe and intractable chronic condition that is not well treated by commonly recommended systemic pharmacological therapies, partly due to dose-limiting side effects or adverse events. The use of topical therapeutics for NP is growing and benefits from the reduced potential for adverse effects, as well as the ability to directly target peripheral pathological processes. Areas covered: The current review defines and describes the limitations of various commonly prescribed systemic pharmacological therapies for NP. It also provides a ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Drug treatment options for premature ejaculation.
Authors: Waldinger MD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Various drugs are available for lifelong and acquired premature ejaculation (PE), but only dapoxetine and FortacinTM have been officially registered. On the other hand, all sorts of pharmacologically not-investigated over-the-counter-products (OTCs) are used by men with complaints of PE with normal ejaculation time durations (subjective PE). There is a need to critically review the current state of registered and nonregistered drugs for PE. Areas covered: In this review, the authors use the guideline of the International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) for the treatme...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 23, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Febuxostat for the treatment of hyperuricaemia in gout.
Authors: Robinson PC, Dalbeth N Abstract INTRODUCTION: Febuxostat is a potent non-purine selective xanthine oxidase inhibitor approved by the FDA in 2009 for management of hyperuricemia in people with gout. Areas covered: The authors summarize the pre-clinical studies and pivotal randomized controlled trials of febuxostat when used as a treatment for hyperuricaemia in gout Expert opinion: Febuxostat has clinical efficacy in serum urate lowering, and long-term use leads to improved outcomes such as gout flare frequency and tophus burden. Recently published post-approval placebo-controlled trials have demonstrated ur...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 20, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for Alzheimer's Disease: A perspective on treatment strategies in Japan.
Authors: Nagata T, Nakajima S, Shinagawa S, Noda Y, Mimura M PMID: 30019969 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Can early intervention with pharmacotherapy reduce the morbidity and mortality of chronic lymphocytic leukemia?
Authors: Ma S, Platanias LC PMID: 30020813 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutic strategies for treating epilepsy in patients with Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Cretin B Abstract INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related epileptic comorbidity is now well documented and appears to have been previously underestimated. Prescribing antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in AD patients aims at preventing seizure-related morbi-mortality and the occurrence of deleterious status epilepticus. At the earlier stages of the disease, some clinicians even expect a disease-modifying effect. Areas covered: In this review, the author provides a brief overview of the epileptic comorbidity in AD, discusses the appropriate AEDs from a syndromic point of view, reviews the effectiveness and c...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

How to select the appropriate "neoadjuvant therapy" for hepatocellular carcinoma.
How to select the appropriate "neoadjuvant therapy" for hepatocellular carcinoma. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2018 Jul 16;:1-4 Authors: Liu K, McCaughan GW PMID: 30011239 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 18, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

A pharmacoeconomic evaluation of cholinesterase inhibitors and memantine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
Authors: Ebrahem AS, Oremus M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's Disease (AD) results in progressively worsening cognitive decline, leading to loss of functional ability, behaviour/mood disturbances, institutionalization, and death. Current pharmaceutical therapies only treat the symptoms of cognitive decline yet can be expensive for payers. Areas covered: The authors undertook a systematic review of economic evaluations of pharmaceutical therapies for AD. The literature search encompassed English-language studies indexed in PubMed (Medline), Cochrane Library Current, and Web of Science. The search included article...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Non-insulin pharmacological therapies for treating type 1 diabetes.
Authors: Frandsen CS, Dejgaard TF, Madsbad S, Holst JJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite intensified insulin treatment, many persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D) do not achieve glycemic and metabolic targets. Consequently, non-insulin chemical therapies that improve glycemic control and metabolic parameters without increasing the risk of adverse events (including hypoglycemia) are of interest as adjunct therapies to insulin. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the efficacy and safety of non-insulin therapies, including pramlintide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 12, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Single inhaler triple therapy with extrafine beclomethasone, formoterol and glycopyrronium for the treatment of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.
Authors: Singh D Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) management focuses on the alleviation of symptoms and prevention of exacerbations. Inhaled long acting bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the main classes of treatment for COPD. Triple therapy with a long acting beta2-agonist (LABA), long acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) and ICS is commonly prescribed for symptomatic COPD patients experiencing regular exacerbations. Triple therapy is usually administered using separate inhalers; there is little clinical trial evidence of an effect on exacerbation prevention wi...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pro-netupitant/palonosetron (IV) for the treatment of radio-and-chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting.
This article summarizes the available evidence for the pharmacology, safety, and efficacy of the new intravenous formulation of NEPA (IV NEPA). The clinical role of NEPA and future perspectives for anti-emetic research are also discussed. Expert opinion: Each patient undergoing emetogenic anticancer treatments should receive guideline-consistent prophylaxis from the beginning of therapy. However, physicians may be nonadherent to guidelines in prescribing prophylaxis, while patients may be nonadherent in taking their medication as prescribed. Therefore, simplification of anti-emetic regimens with agents that are administere...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Linaclotide for the treatment of chronic constipation.
Authors: Bassotti G, Usai-Satta P, Bellini M Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic constipation (CC) is a common gastrointestinal disorder with limited treatment options. Linaclotide is a potent peptide agonist of the guanylate cyclase-C receptor. This action activates intracellular conversion of guanosine 5-triphosphate to cyclic guanosine monophosphate resulting in the stimulation of intestinal fluid secretion. Linaclotide is a promising new agent for refractory constipation. Areas covered: All published articles regarding the development, clinical efficacy, and safety of linaclotide in treating CC were reviewed. Pharma...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Sucroferric oxyhydroxide for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia.
Authors: Sprague SM, Floege J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sucroferric oxyhydroxide is a non-calcium, iron-based phosphate binder indicated for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease undergoing dialysis. Areas covered: Herein, the preclinical development and clinical data for sucroferric oxyhydroxide are reviewed, including the key data from the Phase III registration study and the latest evidence from the real-world clinical setting. Expert opinion: Sucroferric oxyhydroxide displays potent phosphate-binding capacity and clinical studies demonstrate its effectiveness for the long-term ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 11, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Methylnaltrexone bromide for the treatment of opioid-induced constipation.
Authors: Mozaffari S, Nikfar S, Abdollahi M Abstract INTRODUCTION: The extensive and alarming use of opioids for pain management in patients with chronic pain receiving palliative care is associated with non-tolerable gastrointestinal (GI) adverse effects. Opioid-induced constipation (OIC) is the most common adverse effect impairing patient quality of life (QOL). In addition, OIC is one of the treatment limiting consequences of opioid analgesics. Management of OIC is becoming a challenge since traditional laxatives have limited efficiency. Peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists (PAMORA) have been develo...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of the pharmacotherapy for interstitial cystitis.
This article also looks at emerging therapies of interest. Expert opinion: IC/BPS is a syndrome that requires a multimodal approach, including clinical phenotyping and directed therapy based on the patient's symptoms. The AUA and EAU provide guidelines for practitioners to follow, but adequate treatment requires the therapy to be targeted toward the patient's phenotypic domain. PMID: 29972328 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current and emerging treatment options for endometriosis.
Authors: Ferrero S, Evangelisti G, Barra F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pharmacotherapy has a pivotal role in the management of endometriosis with long-term treatments balancing clinical efficacy (control of pain symptoms and prevention of recurrence of the disease after surgery) with an acceptable safety profile. Treatment choice is based on several factors including age and patient preference, reproductive plans, intensity of pain, severity of disease and incidence of adverse effects. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide the reader with a complete overview of drugs that are currently available or are und...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 6, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Antithrombotic therapy for venous thromboembolism in patients with cancer: expert guidance.
Authors: Imberti D, Cimminiello C, di Nisio M, Marietta M, Polo Friz H, Ageno W Abstract INTRODUCTION: Most of the current clinical guidelines recommend the use of Low Molecular Weight Heparins (LMWHs) for cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT). The Hokusai VTE-cancer trial reported the first results of a direct comparison between a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC), edoxaban, and LMWH in this setting. Areas covered: This review aims to critically appraise the currently available evidence on the efficacy and safety of anticoagulant agents for the long-term treatment of CAT and to provide an expert opinion and guidance i...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 3, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Understanding the impact of commonly utilized, non-insulin, glucose-lowering drugs on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes.
Authors: Hurren KM, Dunham MW Abstract INTRODUCTION: The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes also have obesity. Obesity increases the risk of developing diabetes and is associated with worsened glycemic control and increased morbidity and mortality in individuals with diabetes. Sustained weight loss is associated with improved glycemic control, potential for diabetes remission, and decreased medical expenditures. Areas covered: Herein, the impact of commonly utilized, non-insulin, glucose-lowering drugs on body weight in patients with type 2 diabetes are discussed. The weight change magnitudes, mechanisms, an...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - July 1, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Cardiovascular disease and obstructive sleep apnoea: an underappreciated role for increased platelet activity?
Authors: Steiropoulos P, Voulgaris A, Papanas N PMID: 29924660 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

How to select the appropriate pharmacotherapy for absence seizures in children.
Authors: Mazzocchetti C, Striano P, Verrotti A PMID: 29924667 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current treatment options for vulvovaginal candidiasis caused by azole-resistant Candida species.
Authors: Sobel JD, Sobel R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Clinicians are increasingly challenged by patients with refractory vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) caused by azole-resistant Candida species. Fluconazole resistant C.albicans is a growing and perplexing problem following years of indiscriminate drug prescription and unnecessary drug exposure and for which there are few therapeutic alternatives. Regrettably, although the azole class of drugs has expanded, new classes of antifungal drugs have not been forthcoming, limiting effective treatment options in patients with azole resistant Candida vaginitis. Areas covered: Th...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacological interventions for anxiety in Parkinson's disease sufferers.
Authors: Sawada H, Umemura A, Kohsaka M, Tomita S, Park K, Oeda T, Yamamoto K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Anxiety disorders are a common non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) with a reported prevalence ranging from 20% to 50%. Although anxiety is associated with Parkinson's disease, anxiety disorders can begin before the onset of motor symptoms, and have been linked to a possible abnormality of dopaminergic, serotonergic, and adrenergic neurons that precedes motor disturbance. Area covered: Several studies have reported the pharmacological treatment of depression in PD, but none have been randomized clinical tri...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 28, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

A noninterventional study evaluating the effectiveness of rotigotine and levodopa combination therapy in younger versus older patients with Parkinson's disease.
Authors: Woitalla D, Dunac A, Safavi A, Ceravolo MG, Gomez Esteban JC, Pavese N, Asgharnejad M, Joeres L, Schuller JC, Chaudhuri KR Abstract BACKGROUND: PD0013 was a 6-month noninterventional study in clinical practice comparing effectiveness/tolerability of rotigotine+levodopa in younger (
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 21, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 29912586 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Long-term management of Parkinson's disease using levodopa combinations.
Authors: Müller T, Möhr JD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Parkinson's disease is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease. Its symptoms and course are heterogeneous. After several years of investigative drug studies, levodopa remains the most efficacious drug despite its long-term limitations. Consequently, research into new drug delivery modes is ongoing. Areas covered: This review summarizes past and current advances of levodopa therapy with a focus on long-term patient management. Current research aims to increase drug bioavailability and to deliver it to the brain continuously. Reduced fluctuations improve drug e...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Darunavir for the treatment of HIV infection.
Authors: Spagnuolo V, Castagna A, Lazzarin A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Darunavir (DRV) was the last approved protease inhibitor (PI) and has been extensively used for the treatment of HIV in both naïve and experienced subjects due to its high genetic barrier and efficacy. The introduction in clinical practice of integrase strand transfer inhibitors limited its role in the management of naïve subjects and in antiretroviral treatment simplification strategies. However, recent data from trials that have investigated the new DRV/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir alafenamide (D/C/F/TAF) combination showed an exc...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Oral chemotherapy for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Authors: Yamamoto S, Kondo S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Many clinical trials have been conducted with chemotherapies in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, few agents have shown efficacy. It is thought that the efficacy of some agents might have resulted from the heterogeneity of tumors, insufficient dosages due to liver cirrhosis, and post-therapy effects. In recent years, immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising clinical activity and safety in patients with advanced HCC. Areas covered: The authors provide an overview of chemotherapies used for the treatment of HCC, including ongoi...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Ticagrelor for the prevention of ischemic events in patients with prior myocardial infarction and peripheral artery disease.
Authors: Nicolau JC, Baracioli LM, Giugliano RP Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of death in the world. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common form of CVD presentation, but the prevalence of peripheral artery disease (PAD) is increasing. Patients with polyvascular disease comprise a very high-risk population that has been infrequently studied. Areas covered: The authors review the current evidence of the efficacy and safety of ticagrelor in the setting of acute coronary syndrome and stable patients post-MI with and without PAD and summarize its pharmacokinetics, pharma...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 13, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Combatting resistant enterococcal infections: a pharmacotherapy review.
Authors: Mercuro NJ, Davis SL, Zervos MJ, Herc ES Abstract INTRODUCTION: The role of enterococci in infectious diseases has evolved from a gut and urinary commensal to a major pathogen of concern. Few options exist for resistant enterococci, and appropriate use of the available agents is crucial. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss antibiotics with clinically useful activity against Enterococcus faecalis and E. faecium. The article specifically discusses: antibiotics active against enterococci and their mechanism of resistance, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles, in vitro combinations, and clinic...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 9, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Characteristics and outcomes of patients with EGFR-mutation positive non-small-cell lung cancer receiving gefitinib beyond radiological progression.
CONCLUSIONS: Some patients may benefit from continuation of gefitinib beyond PD. PMID: 29871540 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 8, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating the novel application of cyclosporine 0.1% in ocular surface disease.
Authors: Boboridis KG, Konstas AGP Abstract INTRODUCTION: Ocular surface disease (OSD) is a highly prevalent symptomatic condition caused by dry eye disease (DED), intrinsic, environmental, or iatrogenic causes. It affects patient's visual function and quality of life. Its pathophysiology is centered on tear hyperosmolarity, inflammation, and epithelial damage. Current management is suboptimal and includes artificial tear supplementation and short-term use of topical steroids in severe cases. The recent approval of cyclosporine 0.1% has transformed management strategies of severe DED and moderate-to-severe OSD. Are...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Tivozanib for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.
Authors: Santoni M, Massari F, Piva F, Carrozza F, Di Nunno V, Cimadamore A, Martignetti A, Montironi R, Battelli N Abstract INTRODUCTION: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) represents a heterogeneous group of cancers with distinct histological features, molecular alterations, prognosis, and response to therapy. Target agents directed against vascular endothelial growth factor and its receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors have completely changed the landscape of RCC. However, the rate of complete response is still low, thus supporting the research of novel therapeutic agents. Area covered: The author...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - June 2, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Canagliflozin for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a comparison between Japanese and non-Japanese patients.
Authors: Inagaki N, Harashima SI, Iijima H Abstract INTRODUCTION: Canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitor, improves various cardiometabolic parameters. Although canagliflozin was originally discovered in Japan, no comprehensive summary of its effects in Japanese patients has been reported. As differences exist in the pathologic features of diabetes between Japanese and non-Japanese populations, it is important to consolidate Japanese data for canagliflozin. Areas covered: The authors summarize Japanese clinical trial and post-marketing surveillance data for canagliflozin, and make compari...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Comparing the efficacy of benzodiazepines and serotonergic anti-depressants for adults with generalized anxiety disorder: a meta-analytic review.
This study provides a meta-analytic review of the efficacy of these medications in the treatment of adults with GAD. A comprehensive literature search yielded 54 articles reporting 56 unique studies with 12,655 participants treated with either pill placebo (6,191 participants), SSRIs (16 trials, 2,712 participants), SNRIs (17 trials, 2,603 participants), or BZs (23 trials, 1,149 participants). The overall combined effect size was modest to moderate (Hedges' g = 0.37, p 
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 30, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Managing comorbid cardiovascular disease and sleep apnea with pharmacotherapy.
Authors: Wolf J, Narkiewicz K Abstract INTRODUCTION: Highly prevalent sleep disordered breathing (SDB) has been recognized as an independent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Although these two entities often coexist, there is a shortage of sufficiently-powered studies testing the interplay between the course of sleep apnea and CVD pharmacotherapy. The mutual relationship between treated/untreated obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) with ongoing cardiovascular pharmacotherapies is an evident gap in clinical expertise. Areas covered: In this article, the authors review the available evidence and outline future res...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 26, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Corrigendum.
Authors: PMID: 29788773 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Are SGLT2 inhibitors or GLP-1 receptor agonists more appropriate as a second-line therapy in type 2 diabetes?
Authors: Munir KM, Davis SN PMID: 29788782 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 24, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Expression of Concern.
Authors: PMID: 29771171 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 19, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Efficacy of single-tablet darunavir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in the treatment of HIV-1.
Authors: Negredo E, Clotet B Abstract INTRODUCTION: HIV eradication is not feasible and lifelong treatment is warranted to manage HIV infection. In this scenario, the advent of single-tablet, once-daily, fixed-dose co-formulations is important for reducing pill burden and maximize long-term drug adherence. Cobicistat-boosted darunavir along with emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide co-formulation (DRV/c/FTC/TAF or the trade name Symtuza®) is the first marketed protease inhibitor-based fixed-dose combination regimen for the treatment of HIV infection. It was approved in late 2017 by the European Medical Agenc...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 17, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Everolimus in treatment of neuroendocrine tumors: efficacy, side-effects, resistance and factors affecting its place in the treatment sequence.
Authors: Lee L, Ito T, Jensen RT Abstract INTRODUCTION: Since the initial approval of everolimus in 2011, there have been a number of important changes in therapeutic/diagnostic modalities as well as classification/staging systems of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), which can significantly impact the use of everolimus in patients with advanced NETs. Areas covered: The efficacy of everolimus monotherapy and combination therapy demonstrated in clinical studies involving patients with advanced NETs are reviewed. Several factors affecting everolimus' use are described including: the development and routine use of NET clas...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 16, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Treating brain metastases in non-small cell lung cancer patients: what have we learnt from pharmaceutical recent clinical trials?
Authors: Liao BC, Lin CC, Yang JC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Brain metastases (BMs) develop in up to 40% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In many recent practice-changing clinical trials, patients with BM were included; however, only few trials reported intracranial efficacies in either post hoc or pre-planned analysis. Clinically meaningful intracranial efficacy data of novel agents have not been completely disclosed. Areas covered: The authors performed a systemic review of recent pharmaceutical clinical trials, mainly pivotal or practice-changing trials. Some of the prospective clinical trials fo...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 7, 2018 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research