Economic evaluations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease pharmacotherapy: how well are the real-world issues of medication adherence, comorbidities and adverse drug-reactions addressed?
Authors: Fens T, Zhou G, Postma MJ, van Puijenbroek EP, van Boven JFM Abstract INTRODUCTION: When estimating the cost-effectiveness or budget impact of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) medication, it is common practice to use trial data for clinical inputs. However, such inputs do not always reflect the real-world situation. Previous reviews recognized the need for taking real-world data (medication adherence, comorbidity and adverse drug reactions [ADRs]) into account. Whether recent cost-effectiveness analyses of COPD medication implemented those recommendations is unknown. AREAS COVERED: The auth...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 15, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Is pharmacotherapy useful for treating personality disorders?
Authors: Stoffers-Winterling J, Völlm B, Lieb K PMID: 33432834 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 14, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating bedaquiline as a treatment option for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
Authors: Martín-García M, Esteban J Abstract Introduction: Despite efforts to the contrary, tuberculosis remains one of the leading causes of death in the world. The appearance of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has increased the need for new therapeutic options against these strains. Areas covered: This review covers the in vitro susceptibility, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of bedaquiline, a new drug shown to be active against M. tuberculosis-resistant strains. The authors further review clinical data concerning its use ag...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 5, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for late-onset epilepsy.
Authors: Brigo F, Lattanzi S PMID: 33377404 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of cerebral ischemia in the elderly.
Authors: Kannan A, Delgardo M, Pennington-FitzGerald W, Jiang EX, Christophe BR, Connolly ES Abstract Introduction: For elderly adults in the United States, stroke is the fifth leading cause of death of which ischemic strokes comprise a vast majority. Optimal pharmacological management of elderly ischemic stroke patients involves both reperfusion and supportive care. Recent research into pharmacological management has focused on vascular, immunomodulatory, cytoprotective, and alternative agents, some of which have shown limited success in clinical trials. However, no treatments have been established as a reliable m...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Has the bloom gone out of lorcaserin following the CAMELLIA-TIMI61 trial?
Authors: Mathai ML PMID: 33382010 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - January 1, 2021 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Novel synthetic treatment options for migraine.
Authors: Negro A, Martelletti P Abstract Introduction: Migraine is one of the most common neurological disorders. Nowadays, the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists, namely triptans, are considered as the standard of care for migraine acute treatment. However, triptans have limitations in some patients, such as incomplete pain relief, headache recurrence, and cardiovascular contraindications. New 5-HT1F receptor agonists, namely ditans, and calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonists, namely gepants, have been developed as migraine-specific treatments. Areas covered: This paper reviews the available data from RCTs ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Perioperative Pharmacotherapy to Prevent Cardiac Complications in Patients Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery.
Authors: Bhatia K, Narasimhan B, Aggarwal G, Hajra A, Itagi S, Kumar S, Chakraborty S, Patel N, Jain V, Bandyopadhyay D, Aronow WS, Amgai B Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques, perioperative cardiovascular complications are a major cause of 30 day perioperative mortality. Major cardiovascular complications after noncardiac surgery include myocardial ischemia, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest. Along with surgical risk assessment, perioperative medical optimization can reduce the rates and clinical impact of these complications. AREAS COVERED: ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

The management of hematologic malignancies during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Authors: Hus I, Salomon-PerzyƄski A, Tomasiewicz K, Robak T Abstract Introduction: Patients with hematological malignancies have experienced a more severe clinical course of COVID-19 and higher mortality than those with solid tumors and those without cancer. The ongoing pandemic poses many challenges in assuring the correct and timely diagnosis of hemato-oncology patients as well as the optimal treatment. Areas covered: The present paper reviews current data on the incidence and clinical course of COVID-19 in patients with hematological malignancies. A literature review of the MEDLINE database for articles was con...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Emerging and state of the art hemagglutinin-targeted influenza virus inhibitors.
Authors: Zhang Q, Liang T, Nandakumar KS, Liu S Abstract Introduction: Seasonal influenza vaccination, together with FDA-approved neuraminidase (NA) and polymerase acidic (PA) inhibitors, is the most effective way for prophylaxis and treatment of influenza infections. However, low efficacy of prevailing vaccines to newly emerging influenza strains and an increasing resistance to available drugs, drives intense research to explore more effective inhibitors. Hemagglutinin (HA), one of the major surface proteins of influenza strains, represents an attractive therapeutic target to develop such new inhibitors. Areas cov...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

New insights into the clinical management of advanced gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Authors: Italiano A Abstract INTRODUCTION: 90% of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) harbor an activating mutation in the KIT or PDGFRα oncogene, and these are known to confer imatinib sensitivity. AREAS COVERED: The author reviews the data regarding the current management of GIST, mechanisms of resistance to imatinib, and new drugs currently in clinical development and provides his unique perspectives on the subject matter. EXPERT OPINION: Several studies have shown that the response to imatinib in GIST patients mainly depends on the mutational status of KIT or PDGFRα. Moreover, most, if n...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 16, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

When is pharmacotherapy necessary for gestational diabetes?
Authors: Singh AK, Singh R PMID: 33300823 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 12, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Are thiazolidinediones a preferred drug treatment for type 2 diabetes?
Authors: Hurren KM, Dunham MW PMID: 33280446 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Are drug treatment strategies really effective against alopecia areata?
Authors: Rattananukrom T, Suchonwanit P PMID: 33280456 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

The pharmacological management of cardiovascular disease in people living with HIV (PLWH).
Authors: Corbacho N, Mur I, Molas ME, Vidal F, Domingo P Abstract Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) continues to be an essential cause of morbidity and mortality among people living with human immunodeficiency virus infection (PLWH). Since the bulk of cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors are shared between PLWH and the general population, prevention and treatment strategies are similar. However, there are CVR factors particular to PLWH, which need separate consideration. These factors are those HIV-dependent, those related to HIV-derived consequences, and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-dependent. A...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 9, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Considerations for Prescribing Pharmacotherapy for the Treatment of Erectile Dysfunction.
Authors: Bakr AM, El-Sakka AA, El-Sakka AI Abstract Introduction: The effectiveness of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) in treating erectile dysfunction (ED) creates a new field of both medical practice and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Both paved the way for emerging of minimally invasive therapies to restore male sexual function. However, what is the best drug to achieve the optimum outcome is still a challenging question to be answered. Areas covered: The general viewpoint of matching the pharmacotherapeutic characteristics with the patient's medical, social and psychological variables, in order to ba...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating calcipotriene 0.005% foam for the treatment of plaque psoriasis of the scalp and body in patients aged 12 years and older.
Authors: Gao JC, Emmerich VK, Feldman S, Strowd LC Abstract Introduction: Topical corticosteroids are the mainstay of treatment for mild-to-moderate psoriasis in adult and adolescent patients but there can be many adverse events associated with long-term corticosteroid use. Corticosteroid-sparing alternatives include Vitamin D3 analogs, such as calcipotriene (also known as calcipotriol), which have long been used as monotherapy or combination therapy with other topical agents to treat psoriasis. Calcipotriene's mechanism of action is not fully understood but it is believed to be effective due to its anti-proliferat...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 3, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Does antipsychotic combination therapy reduce the risk of hospitalization in schizophrenia?
Authors: Faden J, Kiryankova-Dalseth N, Barghini R, Citrome L Abstract INTRODUCTION: : Despite treatment with antipsychotic medication, approximately 1/3 of individuals with schizophrenia will fail to have an adequate response. To treat these patients, a commonly utilized approach is antipsychotic combination therapy. Antipsychotic combination therapy is controversial with mixed efficacy and tolerability results. It is also unclear if antipsychotic combination therapy reduces or increases the risk of psychiatric hospitalization. AREAS COVERED: : The authors review the prevalence, efficacy and tolerability conce...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - December 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An update on the efficacy and safety of novel anticoagulants for cancer associated thrombosis.
Authors: Cosmi B Abstract Introduction: Cancer-associated thrombosis (CAT) refers to the most common thromboembolic complication of cancer which is venous thromboembolism (VTE). CAT primary prophylaxis, treatment, and secondary prevention are challenging for the complexity of cancer patients, who exhibit hypercoagulability with concomitant-heightened bleeding risk. Areas covered: In this review, the author examines the role of low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), which have been the standard of care for CAT treatment for many years. Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACS) have practical advantages over subcutaneous LMW...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder during and after pregnancy.
Authors: Thomson M, Sharma V Abstract INTRODUCTION: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affects 3-4 percent of the pregnant and postpartum population. Despite its high prevalence, there has been very little research on how the disorder should be managed in this population. This is of importance as untreated PTSD has been associated with adverse outcomes both in pregnancy and in child development. AREAS COVERED: In this article, the authors discuss the existing literature on the pharmacological treatment of PTSD. As guidelines and clinical trials in the treatment of perinatal PTSD are non-existent, they extrapo...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

The clinical evidence of second-generation H1-antihistamines in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and urticaria in children over 2 years with a special focus on rupatadine.
Authors: Nieto A, Nieto M, Mazón Á Abstract INTRODUCTION: Many obstacles limit the development of pharmacologic studies in children, in particular ethical and practical issues. Therefore, although second-generation H1-antihistamines (sgAH) are recommended by international guidelines as first-line therapy in childhood allergies, most data on the efficacy of antihistamines in children has been extrapolated from studies in adult patients. AREAS COVERED: The current review focuses on rupatadine, a well-studied modern sgAH that has dual affinity for histamine H1-receptors and PAF receptors. In recent y...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of palbociclib as a breast cancer treatment option: a current update.
Authors: Gallanis GT, Pericas RI, Riegel AT, Pohlmann PR Abstract INTRODUCTION: Patients with hormone receptor-positive/HER2-negative (HR+/HER2-) metastatic breast cancer have benefitted from treatment with palbociclib, a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4/6 inhibitor capable of selectively targeting mechanisms of cell cycle progression that contribute to tumor cell proliferation. Palbociclib use in this setting demonstrates improved progression-free survival when given in combination with aromatase inhibitors or fulvestrant. AREAS COVERED: The authors describe the current state of research surrounding palbociclib...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An update on the impact of depression on the treatment of psoriasis.
Authors: Bell K, Balogh EA, Feldman SR Abstract Introduction: Estimates of the prevalence of comorbid depression vary, ranging from 9 and 62%. Deterioration of mental health may emerge as a result of psoriasis; however, it is theorized that depression alone may independently predispose patients to new-onset psoriasis. Areas covered: The aim of this brief review is to explore the impact of depression on psoriasis treatment. Expert opinion: The two studies that directly assess the role of depression in psoriasis treatment outcomes are important, as unaddressed depression can undermine the success of a given treatment...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 19, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of difelikefalin as a treatment option for moderate-to-severe pruritus in end stage renal disease.
Authors: Lipman ZM, Yosipovitch G Abstract Introduction: Chronic kidney disease-associated pruritus (CKD-aP), or uremic pruritus, is a severely distressing condition that occurs in greater than 60% of patients undergoing dialysis. However, there are currently no FDA approved treatments for CKD-aP in the United States or Europe. Difelikefalin (DFK) is a kappa opioid receptor agonist with limited central nervous system (CNS) penetration that aims to fill this void by effectively and safely reducing itch in these patients. Areas Covered: Through a review of the current literature (using PubMed and Google Scholar keywo...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 18, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 33148058 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 6, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

SGLT2 inhibitors for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction: a real EMPEROR?
Authors: Raschi E, Fadini GP, Diemberger I, Poluzzi E, De Ponti F Abstract Introduction: In individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors reduce the risk of hospitalization for heart failure and serious adverse renal events, both in randomized controlled trials and observational studies. Areas covered: In this paper, the authors critically discuss the rationale, results and implications of the recent placebo-controlled EMPEROR-Reduced trial [NCT03057977], which evaluated empagliflozin in subjects with chronic heart failure and a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF), with ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 5, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An update on current and advancing pharmacotherapy options for the treatment H. pylori infection.
Authors: Georgopoulos SD, Papastergiou V Abstract Introduction: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) becomes more challenging due to increasing antimicrobial resistance. Consequently, the performance of clarithromycin-containing triple therapies is now declining to unacceptable levels and should be abandoned unless a prior susceptibility test precludes clarithromycin resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes updated evidence concerning new and advancing pharmacotherapy options for H. pylori eradication. Expert opinion: Due to the declining efficacy of legacy triple therapies, most guidelines recom...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Efficacy and safety of triple combination therapy for treating chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an expert review.
Authors: Ritondo BL, Puxeddu E, Calzetta L, Cazzola M, Rogliani P Abstract Introduction: The current recommendations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) suggest to escalating from inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonist (ICS/LABA) treatment to triple therapy in patients experiencing persistent breathlessness, exercise limitation, or exacerbation. The addition of an ICS to LABA/long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) combination is recommended for frequently exacerbating patients with high levels of blood eosinophils. Nowadays, three triple therapies have been approved as fixed-d...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Perspectives on the Current Pharmacotherapeutic Strategies for Management of Functional Neuroendocrine Tumor Syndromes.
Authors: Ito T, Jensen RT Abstract Introduction: In the past, controlling the hormone-excess-state was the main determinant of survival in Functional-Neuroendocrine-Neoplasm-syndromes (F-NENs). This was difficult because the pharmacological-armamentarium available was limited. More recently, therapeutic strategies available have increased but it also generated controversies/uncertainties. Areas covered: Herein, the authors briefly review: current established/proposed F-NENs; the rationale for treatments; the recommended initial-pharmacotheraputic-approach to controlling F-NENs hormone-excess-state; the secondary-ap...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An up-to-date evaluation of darolutamide for the treatment of prostate cancer.
Authors: Moussa M, Lazarou L, Dellis A, Abou Chakra M, Papatsoris A Abstract Introduction: Currently, in prostate cancer, an increasing number of novel drugs are being used to delay its advancement to metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Apalutamide, enzalutamide, and most recently, darolutamide (novel androgen receptor antagonists) have been approved for nonmetastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (nmCRPC). Areas covered: The authors have evaluated darolutamide, covering all aspects of the clinical development, competence, and safety profile of the drug. Expert opinion: The unique struct...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Recent advances in the opioid mu receptor based pharmacotherapy for rheumatoid arthritis.
Authors: Pelechas E, Voulgari PV, Drosos AA Abstract Introduction Opioids are used for severe forms of acute and cancer pain. Over the last years, their potential use in patients with noncancer pain such as those with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been postulated. A recent population-based comparative study showed that chronic opioid use was 12% vs. 4% among RA and non-RA patients, respectively. Another study showed an increase from 7.4% to 16.9% (2002 to 2015). In general, there has been an increasing tendency to use opioids in recent years. Areas covered The authors have performed an extensive literature search u...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 4, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Cariprazine as a therapeutic option for schizophrenia: a drug evaluation.
Authors: Mucci F, Della Vecchia A, Baroni S, Marazziti D Abstract Introduction : Schizophrenia is a very disabling condition that may result in a significant impairment of individual, professional and social adjustments. Antipsychotics (APs), the first-line treatment for schizophrenia, in many cases modify the course of the disease, by reducing the institutionalization risk, at the price of severe and invalidating side effects. Cariprazine is one of the latest second-generation APs (SGAs) acting as a partial agonist of type 2 and 3 dopamine receptors, which was recently approved for the treatment of adult schizophr...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 2, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of buparlisib for the treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Authors: Lenze N, Chera B, Sheth S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Five-year overall survival for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is relatively poor at around 50-66%, and there has been little improvement over the past several decades. PIK3CA alterations are common in HNSCC and offer a promising therapeutic target. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss the PIK3 pathway and the use of PIK3 inhibitors in cancer, with a particular focus on HNSCC. A summary of the safety and efficacy of buparlisib, a class I pan-PI3K inhibitor, from several phase I and phase II HNSCC trials is provided. EXPERT OPINION: With a...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - November 1, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

New anti-seizure medication for elderly epilepsy patients - a critical narrative review.
Authors: Rohracher A, Kalss G, Kuchukhidze G, Neuray C, Leitinger M, Höfler J, Kreidenhuber R, Rossini F, Volna K, Mauritz M, Poppert N, Lattanzi S, Brigo F, Trinka E Abstract INTRODUCTION: The number of elderly patients with epilepsy is growing in resource rich countries due to demographic changes and increased longevity. Management in these patients is challenging as underlying aetiology, co-morbidities, polypharmacy, age-related pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic changes need to be considered. Areas Covered: Lacosamide, eslicarbazepine acetate, brivaracetam, and perampanel have been approved in the USA and...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of cabotegravir for HIV treatment and prevention.
Authors: Canetti D, Spagnuolo V Abstract Introduction Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) represent the cornerstones of HIV infection prevention and treatment. However, despite their high efficacy, the need to take daily oral pill(s) negatively impacts long-term patient adherence. In some cases, it can also be associated with drug-drug interactions and adverse gastrointestinal effects, as well as being a constant reminder to individuals of their HIV status. The availability of long-acting non-orally administered antiretroviral drugs could, therefore, be extremely useful. Cabotegrav...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 30, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An up-to-date evaluation of sotagliflozin for the treatment of type 1 diabetes.
Authors: Chatzopoulos G, Tziomalos K Abstract INTRODUCTION: The majority of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) do not achieve glycemic targets. In addition, treatment with insulin is associated with increased risk for hypoglycemia and weight gain. Accordingly, there is an unmet need for new safe and effective glucose-lowering agents in this population. Sotagliflozin, a dual inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-transporters 1 and 2, has been recently approved for use in patients with T1DM. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the major trials that have evaluated the safety and efficacy of sotagliflozin and pro...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 29, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of olaparib for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.
Authors: Vaishampayan UN Abstract INTRODUCTION: Advanced pancreatic cancer remains a lethal, incurable malignancy. Chemotherapy is the mainstay of systemic therapy consideration in metastatic pancreas cancer. Homologous recombinant DNA repair mutations are reported in about 7% of pancreas cancer cases and have rapidly emerged as actionable mutations. AREAS COVERED: A review was conducted of publications of PARP inhibitors in pancreatic malignancies with a focus on clinical trials with olaparib. This included a review of the phase II and phase III clinical trials of olaparib in pancreatic cancer. EXPERT OPIN...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of avatrombopag for the treatment of thrombocytopenia.
Authors: Virk ZM, Kuter DJ, Al-Samkari H Abstract INTRODUCTION: The thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) are a class of drugs that have been FDA-approved for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP), periprocedural thrombocytopenia in patients with chronic liver disease (CLD), aplastic anemia, and thrombocytopenia associated with antiviral treatment of hepatitis C. Avatrombopag is a TPO-RA that is currently FDA-approved for ITP and periprocedural thrombocytopenia in patients with CLD and is currently undergoing evaluation for chemotherapy-induced thrombocytopenia (CIT) in an international phase III clinical trial. A...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 25, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of meropenem + vaborbactam for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia.
Authors: Groft LM, Claeys KC, Heil EL Abstract Introduction Nosocomial pneumonias are the second most common healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), often associated with the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter species, and Enterobacter species. Increasing use of carbapenems has led to an increase in the prevalence of carbapenem-resistant gram-negative organisms, such as carbapenem-resistant Enterobacterales (CRE), P. aeruginosa (CRPA), and Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), limiting treatment options for patients at high-risk of multi-drug resistant (MDR) gram-...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy options for managing hepatitis B in children.
Authors: Komatsu H, Inui A, Yoshio S, Fujisawa T Abstract INTRODUCTION: To eliminate viral hepatitis by 2030, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the first global health sector strategy on viral hepatitis, with particular focus given to hepatitis B and C in 2016. To achieve the reduction of mortality in children, it is indispensable to know which children should be treated and how to treat them. AREA COVERED: ; In this article, the authors review the antiviral treatment of children with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection including antivirals available for children with chronic HBV infection. ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 23, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of portal hypertension and its complications in children: lessons from adults and opportunities for the future.
Authors: Henkel S, Vetterly C, Squires R, Squires J, McKiernan P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Portal hypertension (PHT) and its complications in children are thought to be distinct from adult PHT in several areas, including the underlying bio-physiology of a child in which PHT develops, but also because of the pediatric-specific etiologies that drive disease progression. And yet pharmacologic approaches to PHT in children are mainly based on adult data, modified for pediatric practice. This reality has been driven by a lack of data specific to children. AREAS COVERED: The authors discuss current therapeutic approache...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Correction.
Authors: PMID: 33074034 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 22, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutic considerations for the management of diabetes mellitus among hospitalized COVID-19 patients.
Authors: Hasan SS, Kow CS, Bain A, Kavanagh S, Merchant HA, Hadi MA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Diabetes mellitus is one of the most prevalent comorbidities identified in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Since diabetes is a significant risk factor associated with poor prognosis among COVID-19 patients, this article aims to discuss the pharmacotherapeutic considerations for the management of diabetes in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. AREAS COVERED: This paper presents a critical and comprehensive review of existing literature to present various aspects of diabetes management in hospitalized pa...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 20, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Advances in pharmacotherapy for cardiac amyloidosis.
Authors: Spoladore R, Falasconi G, Marcatti M, Di Maio S, Fiore G, Slavich M, Margonato A, Turco A, Fragasso G Abstract INTRODUCTION: Amyloidosis is a group of progressive and devastating disorders resulting from extracellular deposition of misfolded proteins into tissues. When deposition of fibrils occurs in cardiac tissues, this systemic disease can lead to a very poor prognosis. Systemic amyloidosis can be acquired [light chain (AL) amyloidosis; AA amyloidosis], or hereditary [transthyretin (ATTR) amyloidosis]. Cardiac disease in amyloidosis is usually secondary to a systemic disease. The diagnosis of cardiac in...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 14, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Late phase completed clinical trials investigating bromocriptine mesylate quick release as treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Authors: Siamashvili M, Davis S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bromocriptine mesylate quick release (QR) is a dopamine D2 receptor agonist and is the only oral, primarily centrally acting drug that can be used for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes. AREAS COVERED: The authors describe current recommendations on the use of bromocriptine mesylate QR. Major efficacy and safety parameters of the late phase trials, including The Cycloset Safety Trial, have been identified and presented. EXPERT OPINION: Efficacy of bromocriptine mesylate QR monotherapy appears to be low but is compensated by favorable safety pr...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Advances in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors for the treatment of melanoma.
This article summarizes the rationale for, and development of CDK inhibitors in melanoma, with their evolution from pan-CDK inhibitors to highly specific agents, throughout clinical trials and finally their potential future use. EXPERT OPINION: Whilst CDK inhibitors have been practice changing in breast cancer management, their efficacy is yet to be proven in melanoma. Combination with BRAF/MEK inhibitors has been hindered by dose-limiting toxicities, but their role may yet to be found within the spectrum of biomarker-derived personalized melanoma management. The effect that CDK inhibitors can have as an adjunct to imm...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Advances in the pharmacotherapeutic management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Authors: Peng C, Cohen DJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: Esophageal squamous cancer remains an important cause of mortality worldwide with two new immunotherapy drugs recently approved for metastatic disease. AREAS COVERED: The authors review the epidemiology and genomics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. They also examine prior trials involving targeted agents under investigation as well immunotherapies that have been approved and novel combinations. EXPERT OPINION: Great advances have been made in characterizing the molecular changes in esophageal carcinoma. However, relatively few drugs have shown benefit i...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 10, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Real-World Evidence for Long-Term Safety and Effectiveness of Ipragliflozin in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: final Results of a 3-Year Post-Marketing Surveillance Study (STELLA-LONG TERM).
Authors: Nakamura I, Maegawa H, Tobe K, Uno S Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term safety and effectiveness of ipragliflozin in real-world clinical practice in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This post-marketing surveillance study (STELLA-LONG TERM) included Japanese patients newly initiated on ipragliflozin between 17 July 2014 and 16 October 2015 (data lock: 30 September 2019). Survey items included demographics, treatments, adverse drug reactions (ADRs), vital signs, and laboratory variables. RESULTS: Of 11,424 registered patients, safety and ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

How should a physician approach the pharmacological management of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension?
Authors: Tian Z, Jiang X, Jing ZC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is characterized by the presence of organized thromboembolic material and proliferative fibrous intima occluding varying degrees of the pulmonary arteries, and is also accompanied by small vessel vasculopathy in occluded and non-occluded pulmonary vasculature. The similarity in hemodynamics and pathophysiology between CTEPH and group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension provides the rationale for clinical use of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)-specific therapy. AREAS COVERED: The authors present the...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Advances with lipid-lowering drugs for pediatric patients with familial hypercholesterolemia.
Authors: Ferrari F, Martins VM, Rocha VZ, Santos RD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a frequent genetic disorder characterized by elevated LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and early onset of atherosclerosis. AREAS COVERED: The authors provide an overview of the pediatric FH scenario, with emphasis on the role of statins as the preferred pharmacological therapy, discussing their potential benefits, as well as adverse effects, and the remaining uncertainties about their use in this population. They also comment on other lipid lowering therapies. EXPERT OPINION: Statin therapy is recommended...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - October 7, 2020 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research