Current pharmacotherapies for sarcopenia.
Authors: Hardee JP, Lynch GS Abstract Introduction: Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is a global health problem that contributes to the development of physical disability, morbidity and mortality in the ageing population. Sarcopenia is now recognised in many countries as a muscle disease with an ICD-10-CM Diagnosis Code for billing care related to this condition, despite no FDA-approved treatments being currently available. Areas covered: This review highlights the current state of knowledge regarding the biological mechanisms contributing to the age-related loss of muscle mass...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Effects of the selective estrogen receptor modulators for the treatment of male infertility: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Conclusions: The results of this meta-analysis suggest that SERMs may be effective in the treatment of infertile patients with idiopathic infertility. However, the paucity of data does not allow to draw a definitive conclusion. PMID: 31120775 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Drug treatment strategies for depression in Parkinson disease.
This article covers the pharmacological treatment of depression in PD; this involves standard antidepressant treatment such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors. As with depression not associated with PD, most treatment is partially successful. Non-pharmacological approaches are also touched upon. Expert opinion: Most antidepressant therapy shows partial efficacy in patients with PD. However, there is a need for better study design as well as more comparative studies for the treatment of depression in PD. Bi...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

New anti-seizure medication for elderly epileptic patients.
Authors: Watkins L, O'Dwyer M, Shankar R Abstract INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy treatment in older people requires specific consideration owing to more physical co-morbidities, the risk of drug-to-drug interactions through polypharmacy, and differences in pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. There are many 'newer' antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) widely used for various seizure types and seizure disorders. However, there is limited specific evidence for the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of these treatments in the elderly population. Areas covered: This review summarises the current most robust evidence available for the ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current and emerging pharmacotherapy for the treatment of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
Authors: Perugi G, Pallucchini A, Rizzato S, Pinzone V, De Rossi P Abstract INTRODUCTION: ADHD is characterized by a developmentally inappropriate level of inattentiveness, impulsivity and/or hyperactivity. In adults, the disorder is frequently accompanied by Emotional Dysregulation (ED), associated to a variety of related psychiatric comorbidities, complicating its recognition and treatment management. Areas covered: This paper reviews randomized active comparator-controlled or placebo-controlled trials evaluating the use of pharmacotherapy in adults with ADHD and ED, other neurodevelopmental disorders, Bipolar Di...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 23, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Advances in small-molecule therapy for managing angina pectoris in the elderly.
Authors: Waheed N, Mahmoud A, Rambarat CA, Pepine CJ Abstract INTRODUCTION: As our population ages, the prevalence of angina is growing, leading to increased morbidity and decreased quality of life. The management of angina in the elderly is challenging due to drug intolerance and/or drug resistance as well as frailty. Over the past decades, many new therapeutic small molecules have been investigated for the management of angina. Although none of these studies have specifically focused on the therapies for the elderly, they offer promising new avenues for the treatment of angina in the elderly. Areas covered: Herei...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 21, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Moving beyond sodium valproate: choosing the right anti-epileptic drug in children.
Authors: Balagura G, Iapadre G, Verrotti A, Striano P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sodium valproate is a widely used anti-epileptic drug with a broad spectrum of activity and mechanism of action. It has consequently been the first-line drug for most seizure types in children for the past fifty years. A wide range of side effects come along with these exceptional properties, including teratogenicity and neuro-cognitive impairments in offspring. Therefore, epilepsy treatment in children and adolescents should be reassessed in light of newer antiepileptic drugs as well as a more targeted-approach with older drugs. Areas cov...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 19, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Synthetic pharmacotherapy for pulmonary sarcoidosis.
Authors: Llabres M, Brito-Zerón P, Ramos-Casals M, Sellares J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous systemic disease of unknown cause where the lungs are the most frequently affected. Therapeutic management of the disease is challenging as clinical presentation and prognosis are very heterogeneous. Areas covered: This review summarizes the current knowledge of synthetic therapies for pulmonary sarcoidosis. The most commonly used medication for the treatment of sarcoidosis with lung involvement are glucocorticoids. Nevertheless, not all patients reach an acceptable response or tolerate them an...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Response to the letter to the editor: anticoagulant activity of bivalirudin.
Authors: Laine M, Paganelli F, Bonello L PMID: 31090465 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacoeconomics of synthetic therapies for multiple sclerosis.
Authors: D'Amico E, Chisari CG, Gitto L, Zanghì A, Toscano S, Patti F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Recently, the economic impact of multiple sclerosis (MS), which includes both direct and indirect costs, has been increasing. While direct costs comprise health-care costs, such as the cost of pharmaceuticals, additional treatments such as physiotherapy, and medical aids, indirect costs are triggered by the productivity loss of patients and caregivers. Although new drugs for MS have changed the therapeutic scenario, they have increased the direct costs of health-care services. Areas covered: This review describes the...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An update on medication management of women with schizophrenia in pregnancy.
Authors: Breadon C, Kulkarni J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Women with schizophrenia and their babies are at high risk of adverse outcomes in pregnancy and childbirth. A better understanding of the specific risks conferred by the illness itself and by the treatment provided will help guide more effective care of these women. Areas covered: Herein, the authors review genetic, demographic, socioeconomic, nutritional and lifestyle risks associated with schizophrenia in pregnancy. They also cover specific risks associated with typical antipsychotic medications, specific risks associated with atypical antipsychotic medication...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Bazedoxifene for the treatment of osteoporosis.
Authors: Yavropoulou MP, Makras P, Anastasilakis AD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bazedoxifene (BZD) is a third-generation selective estrogen receptor modulator approved for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis with additional favorable effects in lipids, uterine and breast tissue. Areas covered: In this review, the authors outline clinical data regarding the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of continuous BZD administration up to seven years in randomized, placebo-controlled, phase III clinical trials. Long-term treatment with BZD for postmenopausal osteoporosis is generally safe and well tolerated. BZD achieves...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Perspectives on synthetic pharmacotherapy for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia.
Authors: Motos A, Yang H, Yang M, Torres A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Nosocomial pneumonia is the second most common infection in hospital settings, resulting in substantial increases in morbidity, mortality, and length of hospital stay. The rapid increase in resistance of nosocomial pathogens to many antibiotics and the high dissemination of resistance genes highlight the need for innovative approaches to combat difficult-to-treat nosocomial respiratory infections. Areas covered: This review summarizes the synthetic antimicrobials that are currently in development for the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia, focusing on...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacological management of axial spondyloarthritis in adults.
Authors: Toussirot E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Spondyloarthritis (SpA) refers to a group of disorders sharing common clinical, genetic and imaging characteristics. Axial (ax) SpA corresponds to a subgroup that mainly affects the axial skeleton, leading to inflammatory back pain and progressive radiographic changes of the sacroiliac joints and the spine. axSpA are currently subdivided into two forms, namely the radiographic and nonradiographic form, and are associated with musculoskeletal pain, restriction of spinal mobility, specific extra-articular features and overall, altered quality of life. The therapeutic manage...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Drug strategies for bladder cancer in the elderly: is there promise for the future?
Authors: Soria F, Mosca A, Gontero P Abstract INTRODUCTION: Bladder cancer (BCa) is a disease that predominantly affects adult and elderly populations. As people live longer, it will become even more frequent and consequently represents a big health problem for health-care providers and is a challenging clinical dilemma. In the elderly, the treatment of BCa presents some peculiarities due to its more aggressive behavior and reduced patient reserves, impacting their response to medical and surgical therapies. Areas covered: The authors provide a non-systematic review of the literature using PubMed to obtain an overv...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutic management of HIV in transplant patients.
Authors: Spagnuolo V, Uberti-Foppa C, Castagna A Abstract INTRODUCTION: In the last two decades, an increasing number of people living with HIV (PLWH) have undergone solid-organ and hematopoietic cell transplantation as a treatment of end-stage organ and hematological diseases, respectively. Although transplant outcomes are more than satisfactory, transplantation in PLWH is still challenging for clinicians because of concerns regarding potentially higher rates of infective complications, higher risks of allograft rejection, and drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral drugs and immunosuppressive agents. Areas ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 14, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Is there an effective therapy of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome?
Authors: Dellis AE, Kostakopoulos N, Papatsoris AG PMID: 31070933 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutic management of epilepsy in MERRF syndrome.
Authors: Finsterer J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a prominent feature of myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fibers (MERRF)-syndrome. The most frequent seizure type is myoclonic seizures, of which the treatment is challenging and empiric. Areas covered: Herein, the author summarises and discusses previous and recent findings of antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in MERRF-syndrome. Expert opinion: MERRF-syndrome is a predominantly maternally inherited, multisystem mitochondrial disorder caused by pathogenic variants predominantly of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Canonical clinical features of MERRF include myo...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current and emerging medications for the treatment of leishmaniasis.
Authors: Chakravarty J, Sundar S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne neglected tropical disease which manifests as visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL). The current drugs are toxic, duration of treatment is long, there is regional variation in efficacy, and emergence of resistance is common. Areas covered: This manuscript is based on literature derived from PubMed and reviews the current and emerging medications for the treatment of leishmaniasis. A single dose of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) and multidrug therapy are the best option...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapeutic options for complex regional pain syndrome.
Authors: Iolascon G, Moretti A Abstract INTRODUCTION: Complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) are rare painful conditions characterized by considerable variability in possible triggering factors, usually traumatic, and in the clinical scenario. The limited knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms has led to countless treatment attempts with multiple conservative and surgical options that act by different mechanisms of action. Areas covered: In this narrative review, the authors discuss key points about CRPS definitions, diagnostic criteria and pitfalls, pathophysiological hypotheses, and treatment strategies w...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 9, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Bivalirudin infusion in patients with acute coronary syndrome after stenting.
Authors: Li W, Mai L, Cai X, Li M, Huang Y PMID: 31056962 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Can pharmacotherapy play a role in treating internet addiction disorder?
Authors: Ɓukawski K, Rusek M, Czuczwar SJ PMID: 31058549 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating ADS5102 (amantadine) for the treatment of Parkinson's disease patients with dyskinesia.
Authors: Müller T, Kuhn W, Möhr JD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Amantadine is an old, antiviral compound that moderately ameliorates impaired motor behaviour in Parkinson's disease. Its current resurgence results from the novel retarded release amantadine hydrochloride formulation, ADS5102, which has also received approval for the treatment of levodopa-related involuntary movements known as dyskinesia. Areas covered: This non-systematic, narrative drug evaluation discusses the value of ADS5102 for patients with Parkinson's disease. ADS5102 is orally applied once daily in the evening. This capsule provides highe...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current pharmacotherapeutic options for primary dyslipidemia in adults.
Authors: Cicero AFG, Landolfo M, Ventura F, Borghi C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) and its clinical manifestations, remain a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. One of the major risk factors of ASCVD is dyslipidemia and all the available guidelines suggest the importance of strategies for lipid control in a remarkable proportion of the general population. Areas covered: This review focuses on the therapeutic options available for the management of lipid disorders in adults. Expert opinion: A large body of evidence supports that statins are still the first-line op...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacological treatment for insomnia in patients with major depressive disorder.
PHARMACOLOGICAL TREATMENT FOR INSOMNIA IN PATIENTS WITH MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2019 May 02;: Authors: Brietzke E, Vazquez GH, Kang MJY, Soares CN Abstract INTRODUCTION: Insomnia in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is highly prevalent and associated with increased suffering and functional impairment. Effective, evidence-based treatments for insomnia in MDD are an unmet need in clinical practice. Areas covered: Herein, the authors provide a review of the clinical correlates, putative neurobiological mechanisms and treatment options for the management of insomnia in individual...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Efficacy of istradefylline for gait disorders with freezing of gait in Parkinson's disease: A single-arm, open-label, prospective, multicenter study.
CONCLUSIONS: Istradefylline improved gait disorders in Parkinson's disease patients complicated with freezing of gait, improving their quality of life. No unexpected adverse drug reactions were identified. TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN-CTR (UMIN000020288). PMID: 31039621 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Clinical trials of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) prescription products for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.
Authors: Doggrell SA Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hypertriglyceridemia is common and increases cardiovascular risk. Fish oil decreases triglyceride levels, but also increases low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, which may negate any cardiovascular benefits. EPA, a component of fish oil, reduces triglyceride levels without increasing LDL cholesterol. Areas covered: Two forms of purified EPA ethyl ester are available on prescription. This review considers the clinical trials of these purified esters to treat hypertriglyceridemia and shows that the EPA ethyl esters reduce triglyceride levels and reduce cardiovascular ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy in body dysmorphic disorder: relapse prevention and novel treatments.
Authors: Dong N, Nezgovorova V, Hong K, Hollander E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Body dysmorphic disorder is a debilitating disorder that often presents with significant delusionality, low insight, and both medical and psychiatric comorbidities, presenting a challenge for treatment and long-term management. Its typically chronic course requires that therapy be continued indefinitely, but only a few studies of long-term pharmacotherapeutic management exist. Areas covered: The authors discuss the current understanding of body dysmorphic disorder, focusing specifically on: epidemiology, clinical presentation, challenges in ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - May 1, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Advances in pharmacotherapy of vestibular and ocular motor disorders.
Authors: Zwergal A, Strupp M, Brandt T Abstract INTRODUCTION: Vertigo and dizziness are common chief complaints of vestibular and ocular motor disorders (lifetime prevalence 30%). Treatment relies on physical, pharmacological, psychological and rarely surgical approaches. Eight groups of drugs are currently used in vestibular and ocular motor disorders, namely anti-vertiginous, anti-inflammatory, anti-menière's, anti-migrainous medications, anti-depressants, anti-convulsants, aminopyridines and agents that enhance vestibular plasticity. Areas covered: The purpose of this review is to summarize the pharmacolo...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Treatment of classical Hodgkin's lymphoma in children and adolescents.
Authors: Gómez-Almaguer D, González-Llano O, Jiménez-Antolinez V, Gómez-De León A Abstract INTRODUCTION: The treatment of classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) in children is a story of success. Nowadays, more than 90% of patients are cured and overall survival is nearly 100% at 5 years. Efforts have been made to avoid related effects of therapies; therefore, children are treated using different chemotherapy schemes in comparison with adults. Areas covered: This review includes a view of the clinical classification and risk assessment in children suffering from HL. The chemotherap...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current and emerging systemic therapies for cutaneous metastatic melanoma.
Authors: Mason R, Au L, Ingles Garces A, Larkin J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Melanoma therapies have evolved rapidly, and initial successes have translated into survival gains for patients with advanced melanoma. Both targeted and immune-therapy now have evidence in earlier stage disease. There are many new agents and combinations of treatments in development as potential future treatment options. This highlights the need for a reflection on current treatment practice trends that are guiding the development of potential new therapies. Areas covered: In this review, the authors discuss the evidence for currently approve...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Promising therapies for the treatment of frontotemporal dementia clinical phenotypes: from symptomatic to disease-modifying drugs.
This article reviews the principal pharmacological intervention studies for FTD. These are predominantly randomized clinical trials and include symptomatic treatments and potential disease-modifying drugs. Expert opinion: There is insufficient evidence on effective treatments for FTD and studies with better methodological backgrounds are needed. Most studies reporting therapeutic benefits were conducted with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, while anti-dementia drugs have been ineffective in FTD. Since the underlying pathology of FTD mostly consists of abnormal tau protein or TDP-43 aggregates, treatments are being ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating crisaborole as a treatment option for atopic dermatitis.
Authors: Ramachandran V, Cline A, Feldman SR, Strowd LC Abstract INTRODUCTION: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic and recurrent disease presenting with eczematous lesions and pruritus. It impacts patient and family quality of life, increases morbidity, and accounts for large health-care expenditures. Although nonpharmacologic, topical, and systemic treatments exist, management of AD remains challenging due to limited treatment options. Crisaborole is a topical small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4), recently approved for the treatment of AD in the United States. Areas covered: The authors review cr...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Can we better strategize our choice of pharmacotherapy for patients with co-morbid psoriasis and obesity?
Authors: Dalamaga M, Papadavid E PMID: 31002541 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 20, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating fluticasone furoate + vilanterol for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Authors: Lal C, Strange C Abstract INTRODUCTION: Inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-2 agonists (ICS/LABA) combination inhalers have been a lifeline for a generation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma patients. Fluticasone furoate and Vilanterol (FF/VI) as a once-daily ICS/LABA combination have an extensive clinical trial and real-world data to support its use in COPD patients. Areas covered: The authors provide pharmacological profiles of fluticasone furoate, vilanterol and the FF/VI fixed dose combination. Salient clinical trials evaluating efficacy and safety of the FF/VI combinatio...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy options and drug development in managing periprosthetic joint infections in the elderly.
Authors: Macias-Valcayo A, Pfang BG, Auñón A, Esteban J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Prosthetic joint infections are an increasingly important problem among patients undergoing arthroplasty procedures, and are associated with significant morbidity, reduced quality of life, substantial healthcare costs, and even mortality. Arthroplasties are performed with increasing frequency in elderly patients, who present specific problems. Areas covered: Surgical therapy is clearly influenced by the clinical status of the patient, which in some case can contraindicate surgery. Antibiotic selection is also affected by co...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Tasimelteon for treating non-24-h sleep-wake rhythm disorder.
Authors: Nishimon S, Nishimon M, Nishino S Abstract INTRODUCTION: Non-24-h sleep-wake rhythm disorder (non-24) is observed in approximately half of totally blind individuals, a condition caused by their circadian pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus not being entrained to 24 h due to a lack of light perceptions. These subjects have a progressively delayed circadian cycle each day, non-24 periodically inducing nighttime insomnia and daytime sleepiness. Tasimelteon is a dual melatonin receptor agonist with high affinity for the melatonin 2 receptor, and it entrains endogenous melatonin rhythms and sleep-wake cycl...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 17, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current and emerging osteoporosis pharmacotherapy for women: state of the art therapies for preventing bone loss.
Authors: Fontalis A, Kenanidis E, Kotronias RA, Papachristou A, Anagnostis P, Potoupnis M, Tsiridis E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological options to address the imbalance between bone resorption and accrual in osteoporosis include anti-resorptive and osteoanabolic agents. Unique biologic pathways such as the Wnt/β-catenin pathway have been targeted in the quest for new emerging therapeutic strategies. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of existing pharmacotherapy for osteoporosis in women and explore state-of-the-art and emerging therapies to prevent bone loss, with an emphasis on the mechanism...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Advancing pharmacotherapy for diabetic foot ulcers.
Authors: Eleftheriadou I, Tentolouris A, Tentolouris N, Papanas N Abstract INTRODUCTION: Standard treatment for diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) includes off-loading, debridement, moisture balance, management of infection and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) as well as adequate glycemic control. The outcomes so far are unsatisfactory. Areas covered: Herein, the authors provide an outline of newer pharmacological agents for the management of DFUs and give their expert perspectives on future treatment strategies. Expert opinion: Evidence-based healthcare calls for high quality evidence from large RCTs before the implemen...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 10, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

What is the best pharmacotherapeutic strategy for treating chronic myeloid leukemia in the elderly?
Authors: Shallis RM, Podoltsev N PMID: 30951394 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 7, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Pharmacotherapy for hypertension in pregnant patients: special considerations.
Authors: Tamargo J, Caballero R, Delpón E Abstract INTRODUCTION: Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) represent a major cause of maternal, fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality and identifies women at risk for cardiovascular and other chronic diseases later in life. When antihypertensive drugs are used during pregnancy, their benefit and harm to both mother and fetus should be evaluated. Areas covered: This review summarizes the pharmacological characteristics of the recommended antihypertensive drugs and their impact on mother and fetus when administered during pregnancy and/or post-partum. Drugs ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 4, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Current and Promising Therapy for Primary Biliary Cholangitis.
Authors: Gossard AA, Lindor KD Abstract INTRODUCTION: Primary biliary cholangitis is a chronic, cholestatic liver disease that may progress to cirrhosis with complications of end-stage liver disease. Approved treatment options include ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and obeticholic acid (OCA) but novel therapies are being investigated. Areas covered: In this review, the authors describe the current pharmacotherapy for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) and for management of side effects such as pruritus and fatigue based on the currently available literature. Expert opinion: Patients diagnosed with PBC ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

What special considerations must be made for the pharmacotherapeutic management of heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia?
Authors: Polychronopoulos G, Tziomalos K PMID: 30933542 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - April 3, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Advances in pharmacological treatment of type 1 diabetes during pregnancy.
Authors: Patti AM, Giglio RV, Pafili K, Rizzo M, Papanas N Abstract INTRODUCTION: In women with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), pregnancy is associated with a potential risk of maternal, foetal and neonatal outcomes. Stringent metabolic control is required to improve these outcomes. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarise the current evidence from studies on the pharmacological therapy and on monitoring of T1DM during pregnancy. The authors also discuss the use of new technologies to improve therapeutic management and patient compliance. Expert opinion: Pre-conception counselling is essential in T1DM ...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - March 31, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

When is pharmacotherapy required for children suffering from Generalized Anxiety Disorder?
Authors: Buoli M, Caldiroli A PMID: 30920850 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - March 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Dapagliflozin and cardiovascular outcomes: anything else to DECLARE?
Authors: Raschi E, Poluzzi E, Marchesini G, De Ponti F Abstract INTRODUCTION: Individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have increased cardiovascular risk with regulatory agencies requiring cardiovascular outcome trials (CVOTs) for the approval of new antidiabetic drugs. Areas covered: In this paper, the authors critically discuss the background, trial design, results and implications of a recent CVOT [NCT01730534; DECLARE-TIMI 58 study], which demonstrated that dapagliflozin was non-inferior to placebo in terms of major adverse cardiovascular events, and superior for the occurrence of hospitalization for he...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - March 30, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Evaluating the efficacy and safety of atorvastatin + ezetimibe in a fixed-dose combination for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.
Authors: Ma YB, Chan P, Zhang Y, Tomlinson B, Liu Z Abstract INTRODUCTION: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world and hypercholesterolemia is one of the key risk factors. Statins are the first line treatment to reduce atherogenic lipids and there is substantial and robust evidence with atorvastatin for reduction of cardiovascular events and mortality. Ezetimibe can be combined with any dose of atorvastatin for incremental lipid-lowering effects. Areas covered: In this review, the authors summarize the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and clinical efficacy of the co...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - March 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

An evaluation of zonisamide, including its long-term efficacy, for the treatment of focal epilepsy.
Authors: Reimers A, Ljung H Abstract INTRODUCTION: About 70 million people worldwide are estimated to suffer from epilepsy. Despite a large variety of old and new antiepileptic drugs on the market, about 30% of people with epilepsy do not become seizure-free with medical treatment. This is a major individual and public health burden. Most of these difficult-to-treat patients are having focal seizures. Zonisamide is effective against focal seizures in adults and children and, thus, a therapeutic option for such patients. Its safety profile needs special attention. Areas covered: Herein, the authors discuss the pharm...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - March 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Clinical considerations for oral beta-lactams as step-down therapy for Enterobacteriaceae bloodstream infections.
Authors: Mogle BT, Beccari MV, Steele JM, Fazili T, Kufel WD PMID: 30908107 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher] (Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy)
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - March 27, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research

Tadalafil for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
This article reviews the major preclinical and clinical data on PDE5 inhibitors with a specific focus on tadalafil. It includes details of the role of the nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) - PDE5 pathway in the LUT organs (bladder and prostate) in addition to the available data on tadalafil in patients with LUTS secondary to BPH with or without erectile dysfunction (ED). Expert opinion: Preclinical and clinical data have clearly demonstrated that PDE5 inhibitors induce bladder and prostate relaxation, which contributes to the improvement seen in storage symptoms in both animal models of bladder and pr...
Source: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy - March 24, 2019 Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Tags: Expert Opin Pharmacother Source Type: research