Norovirus Changes Susceptibility to Type 1 Diabetes by Altering Intestinal Microbiota and Immune Cell Functions

Environmental factors contribute to Type 1 diabetes (T1D) susceptibility. The gut microbiome, which includes bacteria, viruses, and fungi, contributes to this environmental influence, and can induce immunological changes. The gut viral component of the microbiome, related to T1D has mostly focused on coxsackieviruses and rotavirus. The role of norovirus, another common enteric virus, in susceptibility to T1D was hitherto unknown. Norovirus is highly infectious and encountered by many children. We studied the mouse norovirus 4 (MNV4), related to human noroviruses, in the Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model, to determine its role in influencing susceptibility to T1D. We infected MNV-free NOD mice with MNV4 by exposing the mice to MNV4-positive bedding from an endemically-infected mouse colony to mimic a natural infection. Control MNV-free NOD mice were exposed to MNV-free bedding from the same colony. Interestingly, MNV4 infection protected NOD mice from the development of T1D and was associated with an expansion of Tregs and reduced proinflammatory T cells. We also found MNV4 significantly modified the gut commensal bacteria composition, promoting increased α-diversity and Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. To elucidate whether T1D protection was directly related to MNV4, or indirectly through modulating gut microbiota, we colonized germ-free (GF) NOD mice with the MNV4-containing or non-MNV4-containing viral filtrate, isolated from filtered fecal material. We found that M...
Source: Frontiers in Immunology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Source Type: research

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(Medical College of Georgia at Augusta University) Eight months of daily, afterschool physical activity in previously inactive 8- to 11-year-olds with obesity and overweight improved key measures of their cardiovascular health like good cholesterol levels, aerobic fitness and percent body fat, but didn't improve others like arterial stiffness, an early indicator of cardiovascular risk, Medical College of Georgia investigators report.
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news
Journal Name: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Issue: Ahead of print
Source: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Journal Name: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism Issue: Ahead of print
Source: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 7 December 2019Source: Trends in Endocrinology &MetabolismAuthor(s): Jennifer R. Snaith, Deborah J. Holmes-Walker, Jerry R. GreenfieldIndividuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) frequently fail to achieve glycemic goals and have excess cardiovascular risk and premature death. Adjunctive agents may play a role in reducing morbidity, mortality, and the adverse sequelae of insulin treatment. A surge in type 2 diabetes drug development has revealed agents with benefits beyond glucose lowering, including cardiovascular risk reduction. Could these benefits translate to T1D? Specific trials for T...
Source: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
Source: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy Source Type: research
This study assessed 1) fasting and postprandial insulin and glucose before and after 2 weeks of HIIT in healthy adolescent boys, and 2) the relationship between pre intervention health outcomes and the effects of the HIIT intervention.MethodsSeven healthy boys (age:14.3  ± 0.3 y, BMI: 21.6 ± 2.6, 3 participants classified as overweight) completed 6 sessions of HIIT over 2 weeks. Insulin resistance (IR) and blood glucose and insulin responses to a Mixed Meal Tolerance Test (MMTT) were assessed before (PRE), 20 h and 70 h after (POST) the final HIIT ses sion.ResultsTwo ...
Source: BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation - Category: Sports Medicine Source Type: research
AbstractThe age-performance relationship describes changes in the organism ’s structural and functional capabilities over the course of the lifespan. The typical, empirical pattern is an asymmetrical inverted-U shape association with peak capacity occurring early in life. This process is well described in the literature, with an increasing interest in features that chara cterize this pattern, such as the rate of growth, age of peak performance, and rate of decline with aging. This is usually examined in cohorts of individuals followed over time with repeat assessments of physical or cognitive abilities. This framewor...
Source: Archives of Public Health - Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: research
ConclusionIn this study, fewer than 20% of adolescents with severe obesity lost>  50% of their excess weight following LAGB. Nearly 50% of patients required additional surgery. With reports of success following sleeve gastrectomy and gastric bypass, we believe that LAGB is not a preferred choice to treat adolescents with obesity.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
ConclusionsThere were no significant differences between the BMI and the FMI for predicting the degree of obesity. Likewise, there were no significant differences between them for the prediction of metabolic alterations.
Source: Obesity Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
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