Germline mutations in cancer-predisposition genes in patients with biliary tract cancer.

Germline mutations in cancer-predisposition genes in patients with biliary tract cancer. Oncotarget. 2019 Oct 15;10(57):5949-5957 Authors: Terashima T, Umemoto K, Takahashi H, Hosoi H, Takai E, Kondo S, Sakamoto Y, Mitsunaga S, Ohno I, Hashimoto Y, Sasaki M, Ikeda M, Shimada K, Kaneko S, Yachida S, Sugano K, Okusaka T, Morizane C Abstract The prevalence of germline mutations in patients with biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) remains unclear. Here, we investigated the prevalence and types of germline mutations in patients with BTC. We reviewed 269 patients with pathologically proven BTC and collected clinical characteristics, including medical and family histories. Additionally, we evaluated germline variants in 21 genes associated with hereditary predisposition for cancer by targeted sequencing in patients meeting ≥1 of the following criteria: 1) hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC) testing criteria modified for BTC, 2) Revised Bethesda Guidelines (RBGs) modified for BTC (modified RBG), 3) familial BTC criteria, or 4) young BTC criteria. Among the 269 patients, 80 met at least one criterion. Three pathogenic mutations in three patients were identified: two in BRCA2 and one in BRCA1. Among the 16 patients meeting modified HBOC testing criteria, 2 harbored germline BRCA2 mutations, and 1 harbored a germline BRCA1 mutation. However, no mutation in mismatch-repair genes were detected, despite 63 patients meeting modified RBG screening criteria and 18...
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research

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ikova Vodicka There is ample evidence for the essential involvement of DNA repair and DNA damage response in the onset of solid malignancies, including ovarian cancer. Indeed, highpenetrance germline mutations in DNA repair genes are important players in familial cancers: BRCA1, BRCA2 mutations or mismatch repair, and polymerase deficiency in colorectal, breast, and ovarian cancers. Recently, some molecular hallmarks (e.g., TP53, KRAS, BRAF, RAD51C/D or PTEN mutations) of ovarian carcinomas were identified. The manuscript overviews the role of DNA repair machinery in ovarian cancer, its risk, prognosis, and therapy ...
Source: Cancers - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Review Source Type: research
Conclusion: CHEK2 variants may predispose to a range of endocrine glands tumors, including those identified in our patient. Multiple endocrine glands tumors, as in the presented patient, are a serious problem of public health, due to numerous hospitalizations and necessary repeated surgical treatments. Moreover, the association between CHEK2 and ovarian cancer can be a serious problem with reproductive health.
Source: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health - Category: Environmental Health Authors: Tags: Case Report Source Type: research
AbstractSome hereditary ovarian cancer cases can be associated with a mutation of a gene involved in the DNA double-strand break repair system other than BRCA, such as BRIP1. This mutation is an emerging indication for prophylactic risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy (RRSO): however, anomalous tubal pathologic lesions have not yet been reported during RRSO performed for this specific indication (BRIP1), as largely reported for BRCA mutation carriers. An asymptomatic 64-year-old woman with a family history of ovarian and breast cancer agreed to undergo RRSO for a pathogenic variant of the BRIP1 gene (heterozygous NM_03204...
Source: Familial Cancer - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
In conclusion, somatic mutational signatures suggest that conventional MMR status of tumor tissues is likely to underestimate the significance of the predisposing MMR defects as contributors to breast tumorigenesis in LS. PMID: 32292574 [PubMed]
Source: Oncotarget - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Oncotarget Source Type: research
ConclusionTo our knowledge, this study represents a comprehensive RNA-Seq analysis of several tumor types, revealing NCAPG as a promising molecular target. NCAPG overexpression may play important roles in carcinogenesis and progression of tumors via regulating tumor-related pathways, thereby broadening the understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms and highlighting the possibility of developing novel targeted therapeutics.
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
e;n Z Abstract Germinal or somatic mutations of the BRCA genes may serve as therapeutic targets. Deficient functioning of the BRCA genes render the cancer vulnerable to such therapeutic interventions as chemotherapy with DNA-targeted agents and PARP inhibitors targeting DNA repair capacity. Although BRCA mutations may be detected in a large variety of cancers, the mentioned specific therapies are efficient in the so called BRCA-associated cancers only including ovarian, breast, pancreatic, prostate cancers and the rare uterine sarcomas. While in ovarian and prostate carcinomas both germinal and somatic, in breast ...
Source: Magyar Onkologia - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Magy Onkol Source Type: research
RARITAN, N.J., February 3, 2020 – The Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies of Johnson &Johnson announced today multiple data presentations from a robust solid tumor portfolio that will be featured at the American Society of Clinical Oncology Genitourinary (ASCO GU) Cancers Symposium, taking place February 13-15 in San Francisco. Company-sponsored data presentations will include clinical results for ERLEADA® (apalutamide) and niraparib in prostate cancer; and BALVERSA™ (erdafitinib) in bladder cancer. “We are committed to improving outcomes in patients with prostate and bladder cancer where high unmet ...
Source: Johnson and Johnson - Category: Pharmaceuticals Tags: Innovation Source Type: news
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Seminars in Cancer BiologyAuthor(s): Kelly Olino, Tristen Park, Ntia AhujaAbstractAdvances in immunotherapy, most notably antibodies targeting the inhibitory immune receptors cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4/CD152), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1/CD279) and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1/B7H1/CD274) have become effective standard therapies in advanced malignancies including melanoma,1–4 merkel cell carcinoma5, urological cancers6–8, non-small cell lung cancer9–11, mis-match repair (MMR) deficient tumors12, and Hodgkin lymphoma...
Source: Seminars in Cancer Biology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: We identified that 8% of BRCAX patients were carriers of pathogenic variants in genes other than BRCA1 and BRCA2. Therefore, wide gene panels, including clinically actionable genes, should be routinely used in the screening of HBOC in our population. We observed differences from other studies in the prevalence of mutated genes, most likely due to differences in the selection criteria of the probands and in the population analyzed. The high incidence of deleterious variant detection in PALB2 supports its significant role in breast cancer susceptibility and reinforces its inclusion in the HBOC genetic diagnostic...
Source: Clinical Biochemistry - Category: Biochemistry Authors: Tags: Clin Biochem Source Type: research
It is by now widely recognized that ovarian cancer (OC) harbours a remarkable degree of genomic disarray and instability and presents with a wide range of mutations [1,2]. Indeed, around 50% of all high-grade serous ovarian tumours are estimated to have a deficiency in the homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair mechanism, with about 15% of carcinomas harbouring a germline and 6% a somatic Breast Related Cancer Antigens (BRCA) 1-2 mutation. These mutations confer to the cell a disability to repair DNA through the HR pathway, leading to a condition defined as homologous recombination deficiency (HRD) [1,3].
Source: Cancer Treatment Reviews - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: Systematic or Meta-analysis Studies Source Type: research
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