Evidence of nuclear transport mechanisms in the protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia

Publication date: Available online 29 October 2019Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell ResearchAuthor(s): Gonzalo Federico Mayol, María Victoria Revuelta, Agostina Salusso, María Carolina Touz, Andrea Silvana RópoloAbstractNuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking of proteins is a highly regulated process that modulates multiple biological processes in eukaryotic cells. In Giardia lamblia, shuttling has been described from the cytoplasm to nuclei of proteins during the biological cell cycle of the parasite. This suggests that a mechanism of nucleocytoplasmic transport is present and functional in G. lamblia. By means of computational biology analyses, we found that there are only two genes for nuclear transport in this parasite, named Importin α and Importin β. When these transporters were overexpressed, both localized close to the nuclear envelope, and no change was observed in trophozoite growth rate. However, during the encystation process, both transporters induced an increase in the number of cysts produced. Importazole and Ivermectin, two known specific inhibitors of importins, separately influenced the encysting process by inducing an arrest in the trophozoite stage that prevents the production of cysts. This effect was more noticeable when Ivermectin, an anti-parasitic drug, was used. Finally, we tested whether the enzyme arginine deiminase, which shuttles from the cytoplasm to the nuclei during encystation, was influenced...
Source: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) Molecular Cell Research - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research

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Contributors : Elisa Oberbeckmann ; Vanessa Niebauer ; Shinya Watanabe ; Lucas Farnung ; Manuela Moldt ; Andrea Schmid ; Patrick Cramer ; Craig L Peterson ; Sebastian Eustermann ; Karl-Peter Hopfner ; Philipp KorberSeries Type : Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencingOrganism : Escherichia coli ; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ; Schizosaccharomyces pombeArrays of regularly spaced nucleosomes dominate chromatin and are often phased, i.e., aligned at reference sites like active promoters. How distances between nucleosomes and distances between phasing sites and nucleosomes are determined remained unclear, ...
Source: GEO: Gene Expression Omnibus - Category: Genetics & Stem Cells Tags: Genome binding/occupancy profiling by high throughput sequencing Escherichia coli Saccharomyces cerevisiae Schizosaccharomyces pombe Source Type: research
Publication date: March 2020Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 108Author(s): Agni Kumar Biswal, Hariprasad P., Sampa SahaAbstractSimple addition of a minute quantity of non-toxic mustard oil in water/oil/water (W/O/W) double emulsion led to a porous morphology at the surface as well as in the interior of the biodegradable PLGA (Poly(l-lactide-co-glycolide)) microparticles. An attempt was made to understand the mechanism of pore formation by analyzing optical micrographs and SEM images in addition to solution viscosity of organic phase and interfacial tension values between organic and aqueous phases. The ...
Source: Materials Science and Engineering: C - Category: Materials Science Source Type: research
Conclusion: The recombinant wild-type protein showed its maximal activity at pH 2, more acidic pH than that found in the crude venom. The glycosylation was predicted to be responsible for the pH optimum and thermal stability of the enzymes activity.
Source: Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins including Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and WildlifeAuthor(s): Brenda Solórzano-García, Andrés Link Ospina, Silvia Rondón, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce de LeónAbstractPinworms of primates are believed to be highly host specific parasites, forming co-evolutionary associations with their hosts. In order to assess the strength and reach of such evolutionary links, we need to have a broad understanding of the pinworm diversity associated with primates. Here, we employed an integrative taxonomic approach to assess pinworm divers...
Source: International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife - Category: Parasitology Source Type: research
We present the case of a woman diagnosed with a tapeworm infection by capsule endsocopy. Capsule endoscopy may have a role when the microscopic stool examination is negative in patients with non-specific symptoms. PMID: 31793320 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Revista Espanola de Enfermedades Digestivas - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Rev Esp Enferm Dig Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Journal of Molecular StructureAuthor(s): Ozge Gungor, Feridun Kocer, Muhammet KoseAbstractMononuclear Cu(II) complexes of metformin type biguanidine ligands were prepared in pot reaction. The bidentate chelating ligands formed in the reaction (in situ) via the nucleophilic addition. The molecular structures of complexes [Cu(L1)2](ClO4)2 and [Cu(L3)2](ClO4)2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. In both structures, each Cu(II) adopts distorted square planar geometry bonded to the imine nitrogen atoms of two bidentate ligands. The DNA binding ca...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 December 2019Source: Journal of Molecular StructureAuthor(s): R. Rama, S. MeenakshiAbstractA novel Aliquat 336 based functionalized ionic liquid, methyltrioctylammonium naphthylacetate ([A336]+[NAA]-) have been synthesized and characterized using IR, UV, 1H NMR and Raman spectroscopy techniques. The prepared IL was tested for antimicrobial properties and chromium (VI) extraction. Anti-bacterial test was carried out towards five types of bacteria namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeroginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. The antifungal test was done ou...
Source: Journal of Molecular Structure - Category: Molecular Biology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis is the first study identifyingGiardia ESPs and evaluating their effects on IECs. It highlights the importance of host and parasite ESPs during interactions and reveals the intricate cellular responses that can explain disease mechanisms and attenuated inflammatory responses during giardiasis.
Source: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases - Category: Tropical Medicine Authors: Source Type: research
This study reveals a complex interaction at the surface of epithelial cells, between G. duodenalis and the intestinal mucus layer. Here, we reveal mechanisms whereby G. duodenalis evades and disrupts the first line of host defense by degrading human mucin-2 (MUC2), depleting mucin stores and inducing differential gene expression in the mouse small and large intestines. Human colonic biopsies exposed to G. duodenalis were depleted of mucus and in vivo, mice infected with G. duodenalis had a thinner mucus layer and demonstrated differential Muc2 and Muc5ac mucin gene expression. Infection in Muc2(-/-) mice elevated trophozoi...
Source: The American Journal of Pathology - Category: Pathology Authors: Tags: Am J Pathol Source Type: research
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most frequent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is characterized by abdominal hypersensitivity, leading to discomfort and pain, as well as altered bowel habits. While it is common for IBS to develop following the resolution of infectious gastroenteritis [then termed postinfectious IBS (PI-IBS)], the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. Giardia duodenalis is a cosmopolitan water-borne enteropathogen that causes intestinal malabsorption, diarrhea, and postinfectious complications. Cause-and-effect studies using a human enteropathogen to help investigate the mechanisms of PI-...
Source: AJP: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology - Category: Gastroenterology Authors: Tags: INFLAMMATION, IMMUNITY, AND INFECTION Source Type: research
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