The changing phenotypes and genotypes of invasive pneumococcal isolates from children in Shenzhen during 2013-2017.

CONCLUSIONS: The phenotypes and genotypes of invasive pneumococcal isolates from Shenzhen Children's Hospital have changed with the passage of time. Compared with PCV7, PCV13 can more effectively protect Chinese children from IPDs. To some extent, these changes are possibly related to the usage of antibiotics and vaccines. PMID: 31635974 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research

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Conclusion: According to WHO-recommended thresholds for interpreting cost-effectiveness, introduction of PCV-13 for children under 5 years in the Islamic Republic of Iran would be cost-effective. PMID: 31774134 [PubMed - in process]
Source: Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal - Category: Middle East Health Tags: East Mediterr Health J Source Type: research
The objective of this study was to determine the number of cases of pediatric meningitis or purpura fulminans associated with an incorrect vaccination status from 2011 to 2013 in France. A total of 48 children with vaccine-preventable meningitis or purpura fulminans, including three deaths, had an incorrect vaccination status: 26 cases were due to Neisseria meningitidis group C (54.2%), 19 to Streptococcus pneumoniae (39.6%), and three to Haemophilus influenzae type b (6.3%). The majority of patients (n=35, 72.9%) had received no injection of the vaccine concerned. Over a 3-year period, 48 cases of bacterial meningiti...
Source: Archives de Pediatrie - Category: Pediatrics Authors: Tags: Arch Pediatr Source Type: research
Abstract Current vaccination coverage rates in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) are lower than the region-wide rates set by the Pan American Health Organization. To improve vaccination uptake, it is crucial to identify barriers to vaccination. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify the key barriers to vaccination in the LAC region, and to classify and quantify factors affecting vaccination coverage using the barrier categories outlined by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) working group. We mapped knowledge gaps in the understanding of region-specific and population-specific vacci...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Objectives: To perform a comprehensive description of the epidemiology of Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease in the pediatric population in 2 regions of Spain (Catalonia and Gipuzkoa) through 12 years. Methods: All S. pyogenes isolates causing invasive disease in pediatric patients between 2005 and 2016 were included. The emm-type and the presence of 13 exotoxin genes (speA, speB, speC, speF, speG, speH, speI, speJ, speK, speL, speM, smeZ, ssa and slo) were determined in all 93 available isolates and the Multi Locus Sequece Typing in 10% of isolates of each different emm-type. Results: Overall, 103 cases of S....
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Authors: İşeri Nepesov M, Dinleyici M, Kılıç Ö, Ceyhan M, Gürler N, Dinleyici EÇ Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial meningitis in children. It can progress and carries a serious risk of mortality and morbidity despite effective treatment. Cochlear implantation is a fairly successful procedure for restoring hearing in cases of sensorineural hearing loss. Moreover, patients with cochlear implants are at increased risk of contracting pneumococcal meningitis compared to the general population. The development of meningitis is associated with pathogens in the midd...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Conclusions Bacterial studies were performed more frequently than viral and other studies. Cerebrospinal fluid bacterial culture was nearly 5 times more likely to yield a contaminant than a pathogen. The frequency of viral infection was likely underestimated as only 20% were tested, mainly by culture, which is suboptimal. These data suggest diagnostic practices for the evaluation of suspected community-acquired CNS infections in children need to be modified to reflect current epidemiology and highlight the need for greater accessibility to polymerase chain reaction for viral diagnostics. Furthermore, NMDAR ab–media...
Source: Pediatric Emergency Care - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
This study explored the feasibility of a novel reporter gene assay (RGA) for pyrogen detection using RAW264.7 cells stably transfected with the NF-κB reporter gene as a pyrogenic marker. The RGA could detect different types of pyrogens, including the lipopolysaccharide of gram-negative bacteria, the lipoteichoic acid of gram-positive bacteria, and the zymosan of fungi, and a good dose-effect relationship was observed in terms of NF-κB activity. The limits of detection of the RGA to those pyrogens were 0.03 EU/ml, 0.001 μg/ml, and 1μg/ml, respectively. The method had good precision and accuracy and could b...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
This review focuses on current knowledge of the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of invasive pneumococcal (IPD) and meningococcal disease (IMD). IPD decreased significantly with the introduction of effective conjugate vaccines but is on the rise again. Effective antibiotic therapy of IPD includes the combination of a beta-lactam and a macrolide with additional considerations in meningitis. Steroids are mandatory in pneumococcal meningitis but not indicated in pneumococcal pneumonia except in the setting of refractory shock. There is increasing concern about the cardiovascular complications of IPD. IMD continues to b...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis is the first case report to describe pneumorachis and pneumocephalus following blunt trauma with pneumothorax, but no spinal or skull fractures. The mechanism that is probably involved here is a migration of air with subcutaneous emphysema and a pleural hernia into the spinal canal. However, in cases of pneumorachis or pneumocephalus, skull fractures need to be investigated as these require surgery and appropriate vaccination to prevent meningitis.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Opportunistic infections are those that are either more frequent or more severe as a result of the patient’s immunosuppressed condition. Opportunistic infections are, of course, the distinguishing feature of HIV infection, and they can be the cause of serious morbidity and even mortality. Some opportunistic infections can be prevented by vaccination, for example, pneumococcal infection, meningococcal infection, influenza, hepatitis A and B, and varicella. Other major opportunistic infections require prophylactic antibiotics or antiviral medications. In obstetric patients, pneumocystis infections and toxoplasmosis are...
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: New Antibiotics and Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Obstetrics Source Type: research
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