Treating Head Injury using a Novel Vasopressin 1a Receptor Antagonist

Publication date: Available online 20 October 2019Source: Neuroscience LettersAuthor(s): Thomas R. Morrison, Praveen Kulkarni, Xuezhu Cai, Sade Iriah, Dipak Aggarwal, Shi-Fang Lu, Neal G. Simon, Dan Madularu, Craig F. FerrisAbstractArginine vasopressin (AVP) is a chemical signal in the brain that influences cerebral vascular resistance and brain water permeability. Increases in AVP contribute to the pathophysiology of brain edema following traumatic brain injury (TBI). These effects are mediated through AVP V1a receptors that are expressed in cortical and subcortical brain areas. This exploratory study characterizes the effects of a novel, V1a receptor antagonist, AVN576, on behavioral and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures after severe TBI.Male Sprague Dawley rats were impacted twice producing contusions in the forebrain, putative cerebral edema, and cognitive deficits. Rats were treated with AVN576 after initial impact for 5 days and then tested for changes in cognition. MRI was used to assess brain injury, enlargement of the ventricles, and resting state functional connectivity. Vehicle treated rats had significant deficits in learning and memory, enlarged ventricular volumes, and hypoconnectivity in hippocampal circuitry. AVN576 treatment eliminated the enlargement of the lateral ventricles and deficits in cognitive function while increasing connectivity in hippocampal circuitry. These data corroborate the extensive literature that drugs selectively targeting the A...
Source: Neuroscience Letters - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research

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Authors: Park M, Chung J, Kim JK, Jeong Y, Moon WJ Abstract OBJECTIVE: Traumatic anosmia is a common disorder following head injury; however, little is known regarding its neural basis and influence on the functional networks. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the functional connectivity changes in patients with traumatic anosmia compared to healthy controls using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients with traumatic anosmia and 12 healthy controls underwent rs-fMRI. Differences in the connectivity of the olfactory and whole brain networks were co...
Source: Korean Journal of Radiology - Category: Radiology Tags: Korean J Radiol Source Type: research
Conclusions No clinically significant brain injury (requiring intervention) was seen in this cohort. These findings support delaying imaging in neurologically intact children to obtain MRI after hospital admission, thus, limiting radiation exposure.
Source: Pediatric Emergency Care - Category: Emergency Medicine Tags: Original Articles Source Type: research
ConclusionOur results show that olfactory training can slightly improve odor threshold levels in patients with traumatic anosmia, but did not improve the odor identification ability. Nevertheless, clinical improvement or benefit in quality of life from olfactory training needs further investigation.
Source: International Forum of Allergy and Rhinology - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: ORIGINAL ARTICLE Source Type: research
Conclusions: Our study describes the clinical phenomenology of patients with PTMDs and its radiological correlation. Tremor (alone or in combination with dystonia) was the most common MD observed and diffuse white matter lesions without affection of the basal ganglia was the most common site of lesion.
Source: Neurology India - Category: Neurology Authors: Source Type: research
We report the case of a 48 year-old male with an isolated right medial rectus palsy following a mechanical fall with occipital headstrike. Bifrontal and bitemporal haemorrhagic contusions were seen on computed tomography (CT). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a T2 hyperintense lesion at the right paramedian dorsal midbrain, with changes on diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), suggestive of ischaemic changes in the oculomotor nucleus. He was followed up at two- and six-weeks.
Source: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience - Category: Neuroscience Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Study design issues and limited information presented in the included studies mean that our results provide limited evidence to aid patient selection for surgery and prediction of likely surgical outcomes. Future research should be of high quality, follow a prospective design, be appropriately powered, and focus on specific issues related to diagnostic tools, the site-specific surgical approach, and other issues such as extent of resection. Researchers should investigate prognostic factors related to the outcome of surgery via multi-variable statistical regression modelling, where variables are selected for mo...
Source: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews - Category: General Medicine Authors: Tags: Cochrane Database Syst Rev Source Type: research
Rui Yan1, ShiWan Tao1, HaiYan Liu1, Yu Chen1, JiaBo Shi1, YuYin Yang1, RongXin Zhu1, ZhiJian Yao1,2* and Qing Lu3,4*1Department of Psychiatry, The Affiliated Brain Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, China2Nanjing Brain Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, China3School of Biological Sciences and Medical Engineering, Southeast University, Nanjing, China4Child Development and Learning Science, Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, Nanjing, ChinaBackground: Major depressive disorders often involve somatic symptoms and have been found to have fundamental differences from non-somatic depressi...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
Conclusion We have reviewed the literature and identified blood biomarkers with the highest discriminative abilities as determined by operating characteristics in four commonly encountered clinical situations: diagnosing concussion, predicting the need for a CT scan after mTBI, predicting delayed recovery after mTBI, and predicting poor outcome after sTBI. The top performers in each category may provide insight into pathogenic mechanisms of TBI that most influence the measured endpoint. Nonetheless, many challenges remain before these biomarkers can be incorporated into clinical practice. In particular, it remains unclear...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
Conclusions: Prefrontal gyrification is reduced in children with ADHD who also carry the DRD4 7R allele, and it relates to critical functional skills in the executive domain in carriers of the risk allele. More broadly, these effects highlight the importance of considering precise neurodevelopmental mechanisms through which risk alleles influence cortical neurogenesis and migration.IntroductionAttention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by developmentally inappropriate symptoms of inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. The disorder is thought to affect ar...
Source: Frontiers in Psychiatry - Category: Psychiatry Source Type: research
In conclusion, for the radiological assessment of TB fractures, the entire VA should be regarded as a part of the otic capsule, and delayed inner ear sequelae should be anticipated for retrolabyrinthine fracture lines that course into or through the VA. When considering treatment options in cases similar to the present, our findings suggest that surgical interventions targeting the eES (ES shunting/decompression procedures (31–33), which are used in MD with the intention to drain the hydropic endolymphatic fluid space, or to improve the fluid resorptive functions of the eES, respectively, most likely cannot work as p...
Source: Frontiers in Neurology - Category: Neurology Source Type: research
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