Respiratory pathogens – some altered antibiotic susceptibility after implementation of pneumococcus vaccine and antibiotic control strategies

Publication date: Available online 18 October 2019Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and InfectionAuthor(s): Yu-Chin Huang, Chin-Fu Lin, Pei-Ju Ting, Tzu Han Tang, Fang-Liang Huang, Huei-Jen Chao, Chun-Lung Wang, Po-Yen ChenAbstractBackground/PurposeAntimicrobial resistance in Taiwan has been on the rise for two decades. The implementation of pneumococcal conjugate vaccination (PCV13) and enhanced antimicrobial control (2013-2015) by the government may have changed the antibiotic resistance.MethodsFour respiratory pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Moraxella catarrhalis) isolated in a single medical center during 2008 to 2017 were studied. We defined three temporal stages: (a) the first era (2008-2012), prior to implementation of the national immunization program (PCV13 vaccination), (b) the second era (2013-2015), during which an enhanced antibiotic control strategy was implemented, and (c) the third era (2016-2017), after implementation. Antimicrobial drug sensitivities were collected from two other hospitals: one from east Taiwan, one from west-central Taiwan.ResultsS. pneumoniae was frequently isolated during the first era. It declined progressively during the second era of PCV13 vaccination. S. pyogenes and M. catarrhalis were not frequently isolated. The drug susceptibility of S. pneumoniae to ceftriaxone and vancomycin remained high. The antimicrobial susceptibility of H. influenzae to amoxillin/clavulante ...
Source: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research

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Authors: İşeri Nepesov M, Dinleyici M, Kılıç Ö, Ceyhan M, Gürler N, Dinleyici EÇ Abstract Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of bacterial meningitis in children. It can progress and carries a serious risk of mortality and morbidity despite effective treatment. Cochlear implantation is a fairly successful procedure for restoring hearing in cases of sensorineural hearing loss. Moreover, patients with cochlear implants are at increased risk of contracting pneumococcal meningitis compared to the general population. The development of meningitis is associated with pathogens in the midd...
Source: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni - Category: Microbiology Tags: Mikrobiyol Bul Source Type: research
Abstract Endorsed by the World Health Assembly in 2012, the Global Vaccine Action Plan 2011-2020 (GVAP) (1) calls on all countries to reach ≥90% national coverage with all vaccines in the country's national immunization schedule by 2020. Building on previous analyses (2) and using the World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) global vaccination coverage estimates as of 2018, this report presents global, regional, and national vaccination coverage estimates and trends, including vaccination dropout rates. According to these estimates, global coverage with the first dose of dipht...
Source: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkl... - Category: Epidemiology Authors: Tags: MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep Source Type: research
This study was designed to investigate pneumonia-related hospitalisation rates and trends from 2009 to 2016 prior to the introduction of nationally funded PCV vaccination. METHODS: Using national public statistic data available from the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, annual hospitalisation rates for pneumonia were analysed, categorised by aetiology and age (
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Abstract BACKGROUND: To support vaccine decision-making we estimated from the societal perspective the potential health impact and costs averted through immunization with three vaccines - Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) and rotavirus vaccine (RVV). METHODS: Based on variability in disease burden, strength of health system and economic status, we selected four states in India: Bihar, New Delhi, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu. We used secondary data sources to estimate the number of under-5 deaths averted from Hib, pneumococcus and rotavirus in each state and back-calculate...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Conclusions: The PHiD-CV vaccination program in Brazil has resulted in important reductions of pneumococcal disease and substantial cost savings. Instead of switching PCVs, expanding vaccine coverage or investing in other health care interventions would be a more efficient use of resources to improve the health of the population in Brazil.
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Vaccine Reports Source Type: research
Acute otitis media is one of the most common childhood infections worldwide. Currently licensed vaccines against the common otopathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae target the bacterial capsular polysaccharide and confer no protection against nonencapsulated strains or capsular types outside vaccine coverage. Mucosal infections such as acute otitis media remain prevalent, even those caused by vaccine-covered serotypes. Here, we report that a protein-based vaccine, a fusion construct of epitopes of CbpA to pneumolysin toxoid, confers effective protection against pneumococcal acute otitis media for non-PCV-13 serotypes and enhan...
Source: Infection and Immunity - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Microbial Immunity and Vaccines Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 2 September 2019Source: Journal of Microbiological MethodsAuthor(s): Ali Pormohammad, Taher Azimi, Seyedeh Marzieh Jabbari Shiadeh, Ghazaleh Talebi, Ali Hashemi, Elham Abbasi, Fatemeh FallahAbstractThe present study aimed to design a sensitive, specific and rapid multiplex real-time PCR for detection of the common causative agents of meningitis. Also, we aimed to report valuable genotyping data from Iran for establishing future vaccination and prevention strategies for the meningitis. From July 2015 to January 2018, 325 suspected cases of meningitis were enrolled in the current study. Uni...
Source: Journal of Microbiological Methods - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Abstract Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) causes various invasive infections, such as meningitis, septic arthritis, and pneumonia, especially in children under 5 years of age. Despite Hib vaccines protect Hib infection, seroepidemiological surveys of Hib infections have not been conducted systematically in Japan thus far. We analyzed 1,338 serum samples from 0-5-year-old children that were provided by the National Serum Reference Bank of the National Institute of Infectious Diseases (Tokyo, Japan). Serum levels of the anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) IgG antibody against the Hib were determined using an ...
Source: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Tags: Jpn J Infect Dis Source Type: research
Background: Central nervous system infections are an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in high HIV-prevalence settings of Africa. We evaluated the epidemiology of pediatric meningitis in Botswana during the rollout of antiretroviral therapy, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and Haemophilus influenzae type B (HiB) vaccine. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study of children (
Source: The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Original Studies Source Type: research
Vaccinations with the 10-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PHiD-CV) started in Iceland in 2011. Protein D (PD) from H. influenzae, which is coded for by the hpd gene, is used as a conjugate in the vaccine and may provide protection against PD-positive H. influenzae. We aimed to evaluate the effect of PHiD-CV vaccination on H. influenzae in children, both in carriage and in acute otitis media (AOM). H. influenzae was isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs collected from healthy children attending 15 day care centers in 2009 and from 2012 to 2017 and from middle ear (ME) samples from children with AOM collected from 2012 t...
Source: Journal of Clinical Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Authors: Tags: Epidemiology Source Type: research
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