Nasal Pneumococcal Density is Associated with Microaspiration and Heightened Human Alveolar Macrophage Responsiveness to Bacterial Pathogens.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that nasal colonization with pneumococcus and microaspiration prime AM, leading to brisker responsiveness to both pneumococcus and unrelated bacterial pathogens. The relative abundance of AM in the alveolar spaces, alongside with their potential for non-specific protection, render them an attractive target for novel vaccines. Clinical trial registration available at http://www.isrctn.com, ID: ISRCTN16993271. PMID: 31626559 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine - Category: Respiratory Medicine Authors: Tags: Am J Respir Crit Care Med Source Type: research

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This review focuses on current knowledge of the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of invasive pneumococcal (IPD) and meningococcal disease (IMD). IPD decreased significantly with the introduction of effective conjugate vaccines but is on the rise again. Effective antibiotic therapy of IPD includes the combination of a beta-lactam and a macrolide with additional considerations in meningitis. Steroids are mandatory in pneumococcal meningitis but not indicated in pneumococcal pneumonia except in the setting of refractory shock. There is increasing concern about the cardiovascular complications of IPD. IMD continues to b...
Source: Infectious Diseases Clinics of North America - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
ConclusionsThis is the first case report to describe pneumorachis and pneumocephalus following blunt trauma with pneumothorax, but no spinal or skull fractures. The mechanism that is probably involved here is a migration of air with subcutaneous emphysema and a pleural hernia into the spinal canal. However, in cases of pneumorachis or pneumocephalus, skull fractures need to be investigated as these require surgery and appropriate vaccination to prevent meningitis.
Source: Journal of Medical Case Reports - Category: General Medicine Source Type: research
Streptococcus pneumoniae, a gram-positive diplococcus, is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia. The diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia is usually confirmed by chest x-ray and gram stain. The most appropriate antibiotics for treatment pneumococcal infection are macrolides, beta-lactams, and quinolones. Two vaccines, PPSV23 and PCV13, are highly effective in preventing infection.
Source: Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology - Category: OBGYN Tags: New Antibiotics and Antibiotic Prophylaxis in Obstetrics Source Type: research
This study was designed to investigate pneumonia-related hospitalisation rates and trends from 2009 to 2016 prior to the introduction of nationally funded PCV vaccination. METHODS: Using national public statistic data available from the National Institute of Public Health - National Institute of Hygiene, annual hospitalisation rates for pneumonia were analysed, categorised by aetiology and age (
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Outbreaks of severe pneumococcal disease occur sporadically and can affect large numbers of individuals, although they are less frequent compared to the pre-antibiotic era.1 The responsible pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that commonly colonises the nasopharyngeal tract, especially in young children. Occasionally, however, it can invade locally to cause mucosal infections including sinusitis, otitis media or pneumonia. Rarely, invasion of the bloodstream can lead to more serious infections, including septicaemia and meningitis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
Outbreaks of severe pneumococcal disease occur sporadically and can affect large numbers of individuals, although they are less frequent compared to the pre-antibiotic era.1 The responsible pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae, is a Gram-positive bacterium that commonly colonises the nasopharyngeal tract, especially in young children. Occasionally, however, it can invade locally to cause mucosal infections including sinusitis, otitis media or pneumonia. Rarely, invasion of the bloodstream can lead to more serious infections, including septicaemia and meningitis.
Source: Journal of Infection - Category: Infectious Diseases Authors: Source Type: research
PMID: 31615716 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
Prospective cohort study (n=2,934) found that the incidence of pneumococcal community acquired pneumonia increased from 32.2 to 48.2 per 100 000 population, predominantly due to non-vaccine type serotype and serotype 3.
Source: Current Awareness Service for Health (CASH) - Category: Consumer Health News Source Type: news
ConclusionAdults who received pneumococcal vaccines experienced reduced rates of hospital versus ICU admissions due to pneumonia infection.
Source: Journal of Pharmaceutical Health Services Research - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Authors: Tags: Research Paper Source Type: research
This study was performed to investigate the serotype distribution and antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Asian countries. A prospective surveillance study on S. pneumoniae collected from adult patients (≥50 years old) with invasive pneumococcal disease or community-acquired pneumonia was performed at 66 hospitals in Asian countries (Korea, China, Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, and Thailand) in 2012-2017. Serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility tests of 850 pneumococcal isolates were performed. The proportions of isolates with serotypes covered by 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vac...
Source: Vaccine - Category: Allergy & Immunology Authors: Tags: Vaccine Source Type: research
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