Pathogenetic pathways of cognitive dysfunction and dementia in metabolic syndrome

Publication date: Available online 10 October 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yury Yu Borshchev, Yury P. Uspensky, Michael M. GalagudzaAbstractThe prevalence of dementia worldwide is growing at an alarming rate. A number of studies and meta-analyses have provided evidence for increased risk of dementia in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) as compared to persons without MS. However, there are some reports demonstrating a lack of association between MS and increased dementia risk. In this review, taking into account the potential role of individual MS components in the pathogenesis of MS-related cognitive dysfunction, we considered the underlying mechanisms in arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity. The pathogenesis of dementia in MS is multifactorial, involving both vascular injury and non-ischemic neuronal death due to neurodegeneration. Neurodegenerative and ischemic lesions do not simply coexist in the brain due to independent evolution, but rather exacerbate each other, leading to more severe consequences for cognition than would either pathology alone. In addition to universal mechanisms of cognitive dysfunction shared by all MS components, other pathogenetic pathways leading to cognitive deficits and dementia, which are specific for each component, also play a role. Examples of such component-specific pathogenetic pathways include central insulin resistance and hypoglycemia in diabetes, neuroinflammation and adipokine imbalance in obe...
Source: Life Sciences - Category: Biology Source Type: research

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Conclusion: Chinese women had a substantially lower risk of venous thromboembolism during pregnancy and the postpartum period compared to that of Caucasians. The occurrence of pregnancy-related venous thromboembolism was largely confined to the early pregnancy period, probably related to the adoption of thromboprophylaxis, a lower rate of Cesarean section, and early mobilization. PMID: 31730677 [PubMed]
Source: Blood Research - Category: Hematology Tags: Blood Res Source Type: research
We examined US sensitivity for diagnosis of HCC in obese patients. Methods: Liver transplant patients data with HCC in explant was used (January 2012-December 2017). All patients underwent liver US within 3 months of diagnosis of HCC. Number/size of HCC lesions were extracted from radiologic and pathologic reports. Obesity was defined as BMI ≥30 kg/m2. Results: One hundred sixteen patients were included. 80% were male, with mean BMI of 31 kg/m2. The most common underlying liver disease was hepatitis C virus (62%). At the time of diagnosis, median number of HCC lesions was 2 (interquartile range [IQR], 1-3), and ...
Source: Clinical and molecular hepatology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: Clin Mol Hepatol Source Type: research
CONCLUSIONS: Because of its pleiotropic roles in several reproductive events and its association with some life-threatening pathological conditions of pregnancy, bikunin may represent a non-invasive marker for improving follow-up and early diagnosis. Studies showing its usefulness as a drug for reducing the risk of preterm delivery and improving neonatal outcomes have yielded interesting results that deserve to be investigated through further research. PMID: 31728877 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Hormones - Category: Endocrinology Tags: Hormones (Athens) Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 16 November 2019Source: Journal of Functional FoodsAuthor(s): Elena Fauste, Silvia Rodrigo, Lourdes Rodríguez, Cristina Donis, Antonia García, Coral Barbas, Juan J. Álvarez-Millán, María I. Panadero, Paola Otero, Carlos BocosAbstractFructose intake from added sugars correlates with the epidemic rise in metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, consumption of beverages sweetened with fructose is allowed in gestation. We have studied how adult male progeny from control (C/F), fructose- (F/F) and glucose-fed (G/F) mothers respond to liquid fructose (10% wt/vol), an...
Source: Journal of Functional Foods - Category: Nutrition Source Type: research
ConclusionsTaken together, these results illustrate a new model in which Purβ functions to regulate the glucagon/ADCY6/cAMP/PKA/CREB signaling pathway to help maintain glucose homeostasis.Graphical abstract
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsLack of ALX/FPR2 induced obesity, reduced the lifespan, amplified leukocyte dysfunction, and facilitated profound inter-organ non-resolving inflammation. Our study shows the integrative and indispensable role of ALX/FPR2 in lipid metabolism, cardiac inflammation-resolution processes, obesogenic aging, and renal homeostasis.
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsThe use of the tesaglitazar-[F7, P34]-NPY conjugate is a promising strategy to make use of the beneficial PPARα/γ effects in adipocytes while potentially omitting adverse-effects in other tissues.Graphical abstract
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionsIn conclusion, two of the predictions were partially supported (and hence also partially not supported) and the other three predictions were not supported. We conclude the CIM does not explain the impact of dietary macronutrients on adiposity in mice.
Source: Molecular Metabolism - Category: Endocrinology Source Type: research
ConclusionThis research supports and extends the ethnomedicinal use of C. songarica as diuretic and hypotensive agent. The results showed that AS-CS from C. songarica could present compounds responsible for hypotensive and diuretic activities with no signs of toxicity, and these effects could involve nitric oxide pathway activated by muscarinic receptors or/and inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme.Graphical abstract
Source: Journal of Ethnopharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 15 November 2019Source: Canadian Journal of CardiologyAuthor(s): Nicolette Stogios, Bhagwanpreet Kaur, Ella Huszti, Jessica Vasanthan, Robert P. NolanABSTRACTBackgroundBehavioural counselling via internet- or mobile-based digital platforms is recommended for hypertension, however outcome heterogeneity is problematic in trials of this digital intervention. Our objective was to assess how therapeutic outcome was optimized in digital trials for hypertension, according to key features of the intervention design and protocol.MethodsWe identified randomized controlled digital trials for systoli...
Source: Canadian Journal of Cardiology - Category: Cardiology Source Type: research
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