ERK activation by zeranol has neuroprotective effect in cerebral ischemia reperfusion
In this study we used zeranol to protect ovariectomized (OVX) rats against cerebral I/R damage and our target is to identify the mechanism of its protection, in addition to investigating whether this mechanism inhibits inflammation (by preventing glial cell activation) and apoptosis.Main methodsFirst 18 ovariectomized rats were allocated into 3 groups: I/R group, zeranol+ I/R group and U0126, MEK1/2 inhibitor + zeranol+ I/R group. After 24 h reperfusion, protein expression of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (t-ERK1/2), phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (p-ERK1/2), Bcl-2, and...
Source: Life Sciences - April 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Synergistic effects of 7-O-geranylquercetin and siRNAs on the treatment of human breast cancer
Publication date: Available online 19 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Jiaxin Zuo, Yameng Jiang, Enxia Zhang, Yuling Chen, Ze Liang, Jie Zhu, Yinan Zhao, Hong Xu, Guoliang Liu, Jiasi Liu, Wei Wang, Shubiao Zhang, Yuhong ZhenAbstractAimsTo investigate the antitumor effect of 7-O-geranylquercetin (GQ) combining with survivin siRNA (siSuvi) or IL-10 siRNA (siIL-10) to breast cancer.Main methodsXenograft tumor model was established by subcutaneously inoculating human breast cancer MCF-7 cells in BALB/c nude mice. Transfection efficiency of siRNA mediated by cationic liposome CDO14 in MCF-7 cells and tumor bearing mice...
Source: Life Sciences - April 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Targeting non-oncogene ROS pathway by alantolactone in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Xiaoguang Xu, Lei Huang, Zilu Zhang, Jia Tong, Jianqing Mi, Yingli Wu, Chenli Zhang, Hua YanAbstractAimsAlantolactone (ALT) is active component of natural product Inula helenium with a lot of pharmacological effects, including anti-tumor effect. The present work aimed to explore the antitumor effect of ALT in B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).Main methodsB-ALL cells were treated with various concentrations of ALT, and then trypan blue assay, Annexin V/PI staining assay, PI staining assay, western blot analysis were employed to measure...
Source: Life Sciences - April 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

NH4Cl treatment prevents doxorubicin-induced myocardial dysfunction in vivo
This study we used DOX to induce cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice. Myocardial histology was performed using HE staining. Myocardial cell size was measured by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) staining. Echocardiographic evaluation of cardiac function, qPCR detection of the mRNA expression of cardiac hypertrophy and inflammation markers. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL method. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to detect autophagy.Key findingsWe found that NH4CL effectively improved DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and cardiac dysfunction in mice. Our results showed that NH4CL significantly improved DOX-...
Source: Life Sciences - April 19, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

NLRP3 inflammasome activates interleukin-23/interleukin-17 axis during ischaemia-reperfusion injury in cerebral ischaemia in mice
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Haining Wang, Di Zhong, Hongping Chen, Jing Jin, Qingqing Liu, Guozhong LiAbstractAimsNLRP3 inflammasome has been reported associated with some inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. We previously researches showed that interleukin-23 (IL-23) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) aggravates the ischaemic injury of the brain tissue. However, it is poorly understood whether the NLPR3 inflammasome was involved in regulating and activating the IL-23/IL-17 axis in ischaemic stroke. We aimed to delineate whether the NLRP3 inflammasome signalling provokes the IL-...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

The maintenance of an oral epithelial barrier
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Sha-sha Wang, Ya-ling Tang, Xin Pang, Min Zheng, Ya-jie Tang, Xin-hua LiangAbstractOral epithelial barrier consists of closely controlled structure of the stratified squamous epithelium, which is the gateway to human bodies and encounters a huge burden of microbial, airborne and dietary antigens, as well as masticatory damage. Once this barrier is destroyed, it will trigger bone loss, tissue damage and microbial dysbiosis and lead to diseases, such as periodontitis, oral mucosal diseases and oral cancer. Recently, increasing evidences showed th...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Maternal hyperuricemia superimposed on maternal hypertension aggravates the risk of small-for-gestational-age fetus
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Luna Liu, Chunxiao Yu, Feifei Yang, Zhongshang Yuan, Qian Wang, Shuang Liu, Changting Zuo, Qingbo GuanAbstractAimsSmall-for-gestational-age (SGA) fetus is an important public health issue because of its high mortality and long-term effects on health. Maternal hyperuricemia is associated with diverse adverse pregnant outcomes and neonatal disturbance. We aimed to evaluate whether maternal hyper-uric acid (HUA) is associated with the risk of SGA fetus and to explore whether it can modify the association between maternal hyper-blood pressure (HBP)...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Benidipine, an anti-hypertensive drug, relaxes mouse airway smooth muscle
This study represented benidipine with a new potential medicinal value for ASM hypercontractility. (Source: Life Sciences)
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

(−)-α-Bisabolol reduces nociception and trigeminal central sensitisation in acute orofacial neuropathic pain induced by infraorbital nerve injury
This study aimed to examine whether (−)-α-bisabolol (BISA), a natural terpene, can attenuate nociceptive behaviour and central sensitisation in a rodent model of trigeminal neuropathic pain.Materials and methodsInfraorbital nerve transection (IONX) or sham operation was performed in adult male rats. Head withdrawal thresholds as a measure of facial mechanical sensitivity were tested with von Frey monofilaments applied bilaterally to the facial vibrissal pad pre-operatively (baseline) and then post-operatively before and at 60, 120, 240 and 360 min after administration of vehicle control per oris (p.o.) or BIS...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Role of AMPK and its molecular intermediates in subjugating cancer survival mechanism
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Anand Thirupathi, Yan-Zhong ChangAbstractThe gradual energy dissipation of all organisms allows adapting to energy demands. Pathological situations of uncured diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and other obesity-related diseases are caused by an abrupt energy imbalance. As an energy sensor, AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) can regulate the cellular energy status. In case of increased energy demands or insufficient nutrient supply, cells digest their own interior, which is called autophagy. AMPK-mediated autophagy regulates various metabolic and phys...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

miR-27a promotes endothelial-mesenchymal transition in hypoxia-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension by suppressing BMP signaling
This study was designed to investigate the role and underlying mechanism of miR-27a in EndMT during PAH.Main methodsRats were exposed in hypoxia (10% O2) for 3 weeks to induce PAH, and human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) were exposed in hypoxia (1% O2) for 48 h to induce EndMT. Immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, immunofluorescence, real-time PCR and Western blot were conducted to detect the expressions of RNAs and proteins, and luciferase assay was used to verify the putative binding site of miR-27a.Key findingsWe found that hypoxia up-regulated miR-27a in the tunica intima of rat pulmonary arte...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Increased expression of miR-155 correlates with abnormal allograft status in solid organ transplant patients and rat kidney transplantation model
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Jiayu Liang, Yongquan Tang, Zhihong Liu, Xianding Wang, Liangyou Tang, Zijun Zou, Chuan Zhou, Kan Wu, Fuxun Zhang, Fan Zhang, Yiping LuAbstractAimsIncreasing evidence has shown the diagnostic value of miR-155 in organ transplantation. The dysregulation of miR-155 is reported to be associated with development of acute or chronic complications in solid organ transplant recipients. Here, we summarized related evidence to explore the correlation between the dysregulation of miR-155 and various allograft dysfunction in transplant recipients, and ver...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Astragaloside IV exerts angiogenesis and cardioprotection after myocardial infarction via regulating PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Songyi Cheng, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Qian Feng, Jiandong Chen, Le Shen, Peng Yu, Li Yang, Daohai Chen, Haowen Zhang, Weixin Sun, Xiaohu ChenAbstractAims and methodsAcute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a common cardiovascular disease with high mortality. Astragaloside IV (AS-IV) was reported to have cardioprotective effect after AMI. We hypothesize that the cardioprotective role of AS-IV is exerted by enhancing angiogenesis via regulating PTEN/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. To valid our hypothesis, AMI rats and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVE...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Abnormality of hepatic triglyceride metabolism in ApcMin/+ mice with colon cancer cachexia
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Biao Yu, Mingjun Zhang, Jiahuan Chen, Lingyu Wang, Xiaohuan Peng, Xinwei Zhang, He Wang, Anbei Wang, Dazhong Zhao, Daxin Pang, Hongsheng OuYang, Xiaochun TangAbstractAimsColorectal cancer syndrome has been one of the greatest concerns in the world. Although several epidemiological studies have shown that hepatic low lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA expression may be associated with dyslipidemia and tumor progression, it is still not known whether the liver plays an essential role in hyperlipidemia of ApcMin/+ mice.Main methodsWe measured the expre...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

What is the role of peptide fragments of collagen I and IV in health and disease?
Publication date: Available online 17 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Andrew Kisling, Robert M. Lust, Laxmansa C. KatwaAbstractCollagen is the most abundant protein in mammalian systems; it can be found in organs such as bones, the liver, kidney, heart, teeth, and skin. Collagen provides the necessary structural framework for tissues in which it is found. However, if there are any alterations in the delicate balance of collagen types in the extracellular matrix (ECM), then problems arise. For example, increasing collagen I:III ratio would provide additional rigidity to tissue structure, whereas decreasing this ra...
Source: Life Sciences - April 17, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Omega-3 fatty acids protects against chronic sleep-deprivation induced memory impairment
In conclusion, a protective effect of omega-3 fatty acids administration has been observed against chronic SD-induced memory impairment probably via improving hippocampus antioxidant effects. (Source: Life Sciences)
Source: Life Sciences - April 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

New folate receptor targeted nano liposomes for delivery of 5-fluorouracil to cancer cells: Strong implication for enhanced potency and safety
Publication date: Available online 16 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Somayeh Handali, Eskandar Moghimipour, Maryam Kouchak, Zahra Ramezani, Mohsen Amini, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Sadegh Saremy, Farid Abedin Dorkoosh, Mohsen RezaeiAbstractWe previously showed that folate liposomes of 5FU made from Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) induced cell death in HT-29 and HeLa cells more potently than bulk 5FU. Also, a primary 5FU liposomal formulation with phosphatidyl choline (PC) exhibited higher cytotoxicity in murine colon cancer cells. In the present study, optimization of 5FU PC liposome, mechanism of cell death in...
Source: Life Sciences - April 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ovarian failure induced by 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide worsens the autonomic cardiovascular response to chronic unpredictable stress in rats
Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: Life Sciences, Volume 226Author(s): Flaviano Lorenzon, Bruna B. Simas, Tamires Gregorio, Janete A. Anselmo-Franci, Cilene Lino de Oliveira, Domitila A. Huber, Fernanda B. LimaAbstractAimsAfter menopause, women are more responsive to stress and more prone to exhibit hypertension, which elevates the risk of cardiac diseases. This vulnerability is due, in part, to the decline of ovarian steroids plasma levels. The 4-vinylciclohexane diepoxide (VCD) causes a gradual depletion of ovarian follicles causing loss of the normal ovarian function and a hormonal profile comparable to menopause in h...
Source: Life Sciences - April 16, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Myocardial hypothermia induced after reperfusion does not prevent adverse left ventricular remodeling nor improve cardiac function
Publication date: Available online 13 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Jianru Shi, Wangde Dai, Juan Carreno, Sharon L. Hale, Robert A. Kloner, Gregory L. KayAbstractAimsThe purpose of the study was to determine whether late therapeutic hypothermia (LTH), administered after reperfusion, could prevent adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling and improve cardiac function in the rat myocardial ischemia/reperfusion model.Main methodsRats were randomized to normothermia (n = 10) or LTH (initiated at 1 min after coronary artery reperfusion, n = 10) and subjected to 30 min of coronary occlusion followed by 6...
Source: Life Sciences - April 14, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Comment on: Triazoles bind the C-terminal domain of SMO: Illustration by docking and molecular dynamics simulations the binding between SMO and triazoles
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Paweł Kozielewicz (Source: Life Sciences)
Source: Life Sciences - April 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Celastrol-type HSP90 modulators allow for potent cardioprotective effects
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Henry Aceros, Shant Der Sarkissian, Mélanie Borie, Louis-Mathieu Stevens, Samer Mansour, Nicolas NoiseuxAbstractAimsCardiac ischemic conditioning has been shown to decrease ischemic injury in experimental models and clinically. Activation of survival pathways leading to heat shock proteins (HSP) modulation is an important contributor to this effect. We have previously shown that celastrol, an HSP90 modulator, achieves cardioprotection through activation of cytoprotective HSP's and heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This is the first comparative ev...
Source: Life Sciences - April 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Protective effect of diallyl sulfide against lead-mediated oxidative damage, apoptosis and down-regulation of CYP19 gene expression in rat testes
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Eman Hassan, Khaled Kahilo, Tarek Kamal, Mahmoud El-Neweshy, Marwa HassanAbstractAimsThe present study aimed to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of diallyl sulfide (DAS), a natural component of garlic (Allium sativum), in the improvement of lead (Pb)-induced testicular toxicity and its underlying mechanisms.Materials and methodsThirty-two male albino rats were randomly divided into control, PbAc (20 mg lead acetate/kg bwt, orally), DAS (200 mg/kg bwt, orally), and PbAc + DAS groups for 49 successive days. The investigation b...
Source: Life Sciences - April 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

A potential bioactive peptide candidate for biomaterial and tissue engineering applications
Publication date: Available online 12 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): K. Sivaraman, K. Muthukumar, C. ShanthiAbstractThe surface modification of biomaterials with matrikines for tissue engineering application is one of the recent approaches to improve their biocompatibility. In an earlier study, a peptide containing 21 amino acid isolated from bovine tendon collagen was shown to promote good cell adhesion in HeLa cell, and a smaller region in the peptide was identified using bioinformatics tool to mediate cell-peptide interaction. Hence, the present study was undertaken to validate the cell adhesion property of t...
Source: Life Sciences - April 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Chrysin prevents cognitive and hippocampal long-term potentiation deficits and inflammation in rat with cerebral hypoperfusion and reperfusion injury
This study aimed to examine neuroprotective potential of chrysin, as a natural potent antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agent in an animal model of bilateral common carotid artery occlusion and reperfusion (BCCAO/R).MethodsAdult male Wistar rats (250–300 g) were randomly divided into 6 groups and submitted to either sham surgery or BCCAO/R after pretreatment with chrysin (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg, once daily, for 21 consecutive days) or saline containing %5 DMSO. To make the animal model of BCCAO/R, bilateral common carotid arteries were occluded for 20 min, followed by reperfusion. Subsequently, spatial cognitiv...
Source: Life Sciences - April 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Temporal analysis of distribution pattern of islet cells and antioxidant enzymes for diabetes onset in postnatal critical development window in rats
Publication date: 1 June 2019Source: Life Sciences, Volume 226Author(s): Franciane Quintanilha Gallego, Carolina Abreu Miranda, Yuri Karen Sinzato, Isabela Lovizutto Iessi, Bruna Dallaqua, Rogelio Hernandez Pando, Noeme Sousa Rocha, Gustavo Tadeu Volpato, Débora Cristina DamascenoAbstractAimAt performing a temporal analysis of the distribution pattern of islet endocrine cells and antioxidant enzymes in diabetic rats during the post-natal critical development window.Main methodsThe newborns received streptozotocin (STZ) at birth for diabetes induction, and control females received the vehicle. The animals were euthan...
Source: Life Sciences - April 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Neuroprotective effects of novel nanosystems simultaneously loaded with vinpocetine and piracetam after intranasal administration
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Maha Nasr, Sara A. WahdanAbstractAimsThe study aim was to test the efficacy of a novel created hybrid nanosystem compared to other nanosystems in treatment of scopolamine induced memory impairment.Main methodsThe fabrication and characterization of nanoformulations (microemulsion, liposomes, ethosomes, transfersomes and transethosomes) coencapsulating two cognitive enhancers; piracetam and vinpocetine delivered intranasally, in addition to a novel nanocomposite microemulsion/vesicular nanoformulation was described.Key findingsFormulations deliv...
Source: Life Sciences - April 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Knockdown of Delta-like 3 restricts lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation, migration and invasion of A2058 melanoma cells via blocking Twist1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition
Publication date: Available online 11 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Xiaojie Ding, Fuyao Li, Li ZhangAbstractAimsTo investigate the effects and mechanisms of DLL3 in inflammation-mediated A2058 melanoma cell invasion and metastasis.Materials and methodsMelanoma A2058 cells was stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), with or without transfection of DLL3 siRNA, or DLL3 overexpression vector, or Twist1 siRNA. Cell migration and invasion were detected by wound healing and transwell invasion assay. The production of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-6 was measured by ELISA. The expression of Notch signaling-r...
Source: Life Sciences - April 13, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

miR-126-3p sensitizes glioblastoma cells to temozolomide by inactivating Wnt/β-catenin signaling via targeting SOX2
This study was designed to investigate the functions and mechanisms of miR-126-3p in regulating TMZ resistance in GBM.Materials and methodsqRT-PCR analysis was used to measure the expressions of miR-126-3p and SOX2 mRNA in GBM tissues and cells. Cell viability, colony forming ability and apoptosis were detected to evaluate the effect of miR-126-3p or SOX2 on TMZ resistance. Luciferase reporter experiments were applied to identify the target genes of miR-126-3p. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the protein levels associated with Wnt/β-catenin signaling. TOP/FOP Flash assays were conducted to determine t...
Source: Life Sciences - April 11, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

GRP78: A cell's response to stress
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Ibrahim M. Ibrahim, Doaa H. Abdelmalek, Abdo A. ElfikyAbstractBackgroundGlucose-Regulated Protein 78 (GRP78) is a chaperone heat shock protein that has been intensely studied in the last two decades. GRP78 is the master of the unfolded protein response (UBR) in the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) in normal cells. GRP78 force the unfolded proteins to refold or degrade using cellular degradation mechanisms.ScopeUnder stress, the overexpression of GRP78 on the cell membrane mediates the vast amount of disordered proteins. Unfortunately, this makes it a ...
Source: Life Sciences - April 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Parkinson's disease: Mechanisms, translational models and management strategies
Publication date: Available online 10 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Chand Raza, Rabia Anjum, Noor ul Ain ShakeelAbstractParkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder. The classical motor symptoms include resting tremors, bradykinesia, rigidity and postural instability and are accompanied by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and Lewy pathology. Diminished neurotransmitter level, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and perturbed protein homeostasis over time worsen the disease manifestations in elderly people. Current management strategies aim to provide symptomatic relief and to slow dow...
Source: Life Sciences - April 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Response to the Questions on Triazoles Binding SMO
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Musang Liu, Weida Liu (Source: Life Sciences)
Source: Life Sciences - April 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Dihydromyricetin alleviates acetaminophen-induced liver injury via the regulation of transformation, lipid homeostasis, cell death and regeneration
In this study, we evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of DHM against APAP-induced liver injury.Main methodsMale C57BL/6 mice were used for the experiment. LC-MS, q-PCR, immunochemistry and western blot analysis were employed to mechanism analysis.Key findingsDHM exhibited a protective effect against APAP-induced liver injury. Further mechanistic investigations revealed that the protective effect of DHM against APAP hepatotoxicity had multi-target and multi-pathway characteristics involving APAP metabolism, lipid regulation, and hepatocyte death and regeneration. DHM pretreatment resulted in cytochrome P450 2E1 inhibitio...
Source: Life Sciences - April 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Periostin in chronic liver diseases: Current research and future perspectives
Publication date: Available online 9 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yan Jia, Fenmiao Zhong, Shuoyi Jiang, Qin Guo, Huanhuan Jin, Feixia Wang, Mengmeng Li, Ling Wang, Anping Chen, Feng Zhang, Jiangjuan Shao, Shizhong ZhengAbstractThe liver is importantly metabolic and detoxifying organ in the body. When various pathogenic factors affect the liver, the normal physiological and biochemical functions are weakened, resulting in liver diseases. Liver fibrosis is a common pathological process of chronic liver disease. During hepatic fibrosis the changes in the components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) provide an env...
Source: Life Sciences - April 10, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

miRNA-335-5p relieves chondrocyte inflammation by activating autophagy in osteoarthritis
Publication date: Available online 7 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Gang Zhong, Huiping Long, Shiting Ma, Yao Shunhan, Jia Li, Jun YaoAbstractAimsOsteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic and degenerative joint disease prevalent in the elderly, which is characterized by hypertrophy and reactive hyperplasia of articular cartilage. Autophagy has been reported to inhibit inflammation and reduce chondrocyte apoptosis in OA. As the microRNA (miRNA)-335-5p has been linked to both inflammation and autophagy, this study aimed to investigate its potential role in regulating autophagy during the pathogenesis of OA.Main methodsQuan...
Source: Life Sciences - April 8, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Postnatal early overfeeding induces cardiovascular dysfunction by oxidative stress in adult male Wistar rats
Publication date: Available online 8 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Marcos Divino Ferreira Junior, Keilah Valéria Naves Cavalcante, Lucas Araújo Ferreira, Paulo Ricardo Lopes, Carolina Nobre Ribeiro Pontes, Amanda de Sá Martins de Bessa, Ângela Ribeiro Neves, Flávio Andrade Francisco, Gustavo Rodrigues Pedrino, Carlos Henrique Xavier Custódio, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias, Carlos Henrique de Castro, Rodrigo Mello GomesAbstractAimsObesity is associated with innumerous comorbidities, including cardiovascular diseases, that occur by various mechanisms, including hyperactiv...
Source: Life Sciences - April 8, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Progression of micturition dysfunction associated with the development of heart failure in rats: Model of overactive bladder
In this study, we assess the aortocaval fistula (ACF) model as a novel experimental model of micturition dysfunction, associated with HF, focused on the molecular and functional studies to evaluate the autonomic nervous system and urinary bladder remodeling. Male rats were submitted to ACF for HF induction. Echocardiography, cystometric, histomorphometry and molecular analysis, as well as concentration-response curves to carbachol and ATP and frequency-response curves to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were evaluated in Sham and HF (4- and 12-weeksendpoint) groups. Compared to SHAM, HF groups exhibited progressive incre...
Source: Life Sciences - April 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Ovarian failure induced by 4-vinylciclohexene diepoxide worsens the autonomic cardiovascular response to chronic unpredictable stress in rats
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Flaviano Lorenzon, Bruna B. Simas, Tamires Gregorio, Janete A. Anselmo-Franci, Cilene Lino de Oliveira, Domitila A. Huber, Fernanda B. LimaAbstractAimsAfter menopause, women are more responsive to stress and more prone to exhibit hypertension, which elevates the risk of cardiac diseases. This vulnerability is due, in part, to the decline of ovarian steroids plasma levels. The 4-vinylciclohexane diepoxide (VCD) causes a gradual depletion of ovarian follicles causing loss of the normal ovarian function and a hormonal profile comparable to menopaus...
Source: Life Sciences - April 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Substance P accelerates wound repair by promoting neovascularization and preventing inflammation in an ischemia mouse model
This study aimed to elucidate whether systemically administered substance P (SP) could promote ischemic wound repair in mice by restoring blood perfusion and suppressing inflammation.Main methodsThe effects of SP were assessed by analyzing wound size, blood flow, epidermal and dermal layer regeneration, vessel formation, and the inflammatory cytokine profiles in a hind-limb ischemia non-clinical mouse model.Key findingsSP-treated mice exhibited dramatically rapid wound healing and restoration of blood flow within the ischemic zone, compared with saline-treated mice. Notably, SP-treated mice showed enhanced pericyte-covered...
Source: Life Sciences - April 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Glucagon like peptide 2 has a positive impact on osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats
In this study, we evaluate the effects of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) on bone microarchitecture, bone turnover markers (BTMs) and inflammation markers in ovariectomized (OVX) rats.Material and methodsIn total, 31 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following three groups: sham (control sham-operated with vehicle, n = 7), OV (OVX with vehicle, n = 12), and GLP-2 (OVX with GLP-2, n = 12). Intervention began at the 12th week after surgery and lasted for 4 weeks. The dosage of the GLP-2 was 160 μg/kg/d through subcutaneous injections, and normal saline was used as the vehicle agent. After 4 weeks...
Source: Life Sciences - April 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Triazoles bind the C-terminal domain of SMO: Illustration by docking and molecular dynamics simulations the binding between SMO and triazoles
Publication date: Available online 6 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Pawel Kozielewicz (Source: Life Sciences)
Source: Life Sciences - April 7, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Toll-like receptor 4 promotes high glucose-induced catabolic and inflammatory responses in chondrocytes in an NF-κB-dependent manner
In this study, we found that TLR4 expression was higher in OA cartilage from patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than that from non-T2DM patients. Similarly, its expression was induced in primary mouse chondrocytes treated with high glucose, which suggests that TLR4 upregulation in T2DM-associated OA cartilage may originate from hyperglycaemia stimulation. We further discovered that TLR4 promoted high glucose-induced catabolic and inflammatory responses in chondrocytes, and mechanistically, these effects could be explained by the exacerbated activation of the transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-&kappa...
Source: Life Sciences - April 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Chronic paradoxical sleep deprivation-induced depression­like behavior, energy metabolism and microbial changes in rats
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Weini Ma, Jing Song, Heran Wang, Fangyu Shi, Nian Zhou, Jiaye Jiang, Ying Xu, Lei Zhang, Li Yang, Mingmei ZhouAbstractAimsGiven the lasting impact of chronic paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) on behavior and organism metabolic alternations, along with the role of the microbiome in neurobehavioral development and metabolism, we sought to examine the relationship between the microbiota and chronic PSD-induced behavioral and metabolic changes.Materials and methodsPsychological status of 7-day PSD (7d-PSD) male rats was tested by behavioral method...
Source: Life Sciences - April 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Regulatory role of metallothionein-1/2 on development of sex differences in a high-fat diet-induced obesity
Publication date: Available online 4 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Takashige Kawakami, Satoshi Takasaki, Yoshito Kadota, Daiki Fukuoka, Masao Sato, Shinya SuzukiAbstractAimsTo evaluate the role of metallothionein (MT) in sex differences of obesity, we examined the effect of MT on regulation of lipid accumulation in female and male wild type (WT) and MT1/MT2-null (MT-KO) mice.Main methodsMale and female WT and MT-KO mice fed standard diet (SD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 35 weeks. Surgical castration in male mice was also performed to examine the effects of androgen on fat accumulation under HFD condition.Key f...
Source: Life Sciences - April 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

HIV-1 Nef-GCC185 interaction regulates assembly of cellular protein complexes at TGN targeting MHC-I downregulation
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Sushila Kumari, Manjeet Kumar, Richa Verma, Jimut Kanti Ghosh, Raj Kamal TripathiAbstractAimHIV-1 Nef downregulates surface MHC-I to protect the infected cells from CTLs-mediated killing. Although MHC-I downregulation has been extensively studied, the Nef-dependent assembly of the multi-protein complex and subsequent pathways activation has not yet been well explored. The present study is aimed for the identification of Nef-mediated sequential recruitment of cellular proteins that constitute the functional multi-protein complex, required for the...
Source: Life Sciences - April 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Metformin promotes autophagy in ischemia/reperfusion myocardium via cytoplasmic AMPKα1 and nuclear AMPKα2 pathways
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Yishi Wang, Zheng Yang, Guoxu Zheng, Lu Yu, Yue Yin, Nan Mu, Heng MaAbstractAimsIn myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury, impaired autophagy function worsens cardiomyocyte death. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric protein that plays an important role in cardioprotection and myocardial autophagic function. AMPKα1 and α2 are localized primarily in the cytoplasm and nucleus, respectively, in cardiomyocytes, but the isoform-specific autophagy regulation of AMPK during MI/R remains unclear.Materials and method...
Source: Life Sciences - April 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

In vivo pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of metformin mediated by the gut microbiota in rats
Publication date: Available online 3 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Bin Wu, ManYun Chen, YongChao Gao, JingLei Hu, MouZe Liu, Wei Zhang, WeiHua HuangAbstractAimsThe gut microbiota plays a crucial role in the efficacy of metformin in T2DM treatment. We evaluated whether the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of metformin are mediated by gut microbiota.Main methodsWe used conventional diabetic and pseudo-germ-free rats. After 6 weeks of metformin treatment, pharmacodynamic indexes were determined. Metformin concentrations were measured with a validated HPLC-MS/MS method after the first oral administration.Key...
Source: Life Sciences - April 5, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Panaxadiol inhibits synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease and targets the Fyn protein in APP/PS1 mice and APP-SH-SY5Y cells” [Life Sci. 221 (2019) 35–46]
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Xicai Liang, Yingjia Yao, Ying Lin, Liang Kong, Honghe Xiao, Yue Shi, Jingxian Yang (Source: Life Sciences)
Source: Life Sciences - April 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Response to Letter to Editor
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Musang Liu (Source: Life Sciences)
Source: Life Sciences - April 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Hydrogen protects against chronic intermittent hypoxia induced renal dysfunction by promoting autophagy and alleviating apoptosis
Publication date: Available online 2 April 2019Source: Life SciencesAuthor(s): Peng Guan, Zhi-Min Sun, Li-Fei Luo, Jian Zhou, Shengchang Yang, Ya-Shuo Zhao, Fu-Yang Yu, Ji-Ren An, Na Wang, En-Sheng JiAbstractAimsHydrogen gas (H2) has a diversity of effects such as anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties. However, molecular mechanism underlying the potential effect of H2 on chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) induced renal injury remains obscure.Materials and methodsIn the present study, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups: control (CON) group, CIH group, CIH with H...
Source: Life Sciences - April 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research

Geniposide ameliorated fluoxetine-suppressed neurite outgrowth in Neuro2a neuroblastoma cells
This study has provided the possible molecular mechanisms showing how FXT exerted its detrimental side-effects on the neurite differentiation, and via the same mechanisms how GPS attenuated these side effects. (Source: Life Sciences)
Source: Life Sciences - April 3, 2019 Category: Biology Source Type: research