Groundwater as an alternative source to irregular surface water in the O'Kiep area, Namaqualand, South Africa

Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): I.G. Erdogan, E. Fosso-Kankeu, S.K.O. Ntwampe, F.B. Waanders, N. Hoth, A. RandAbstractWater insecurity is a growing concern globally and the role of groundwater and aquifers in buffering the effects of climate variability and change is increasingly acknowledged due to extended periods of drought in arid regions. Water security can only be fully realised with a more robust understanding of groundwater as a water resource, especially in the O'Kiep area which is in Namaqualand, South Africa. Results of analyses of groundwater samples (n = 8) indicated that pH values met acceptable standards for drinking, while the total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity (EC) were however not within the recommended limits. The chemical composition of the groundwater indicated Eh values −34.1 to −87.2 mV, indicative of reducing geochemical conditions with the most abundant ions being Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, F-, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and K+. Furthermore, some of the ions were not within the guidelines, i.e. Cl−, SO42+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+, but all the potential toxic elements, namely: Al, S, As, Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Hg, Ni, Se, V, Zn and CN, were within acceptable values for drinking groundwater as recommended by the SANS241-1 (2015) and WHO (2011). Hydrogeochemical characteristics of the water indicated that the continuous consumption of the groundwat...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - Category: Science Source Type: research

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CONCLUSION: Prevalence of antibiotic use was high not only versus other hospitals in the region but globally including Africa, coupled with significant evidence of sub-optimal prescribing. Swift action is needed to improve future prescribing to reduce AMR. One or two areas should initially be targeted for quality improvement including development of local guidelines, documentation of antibiotic indications and/or stop/review dates. PMID: 33034234 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
Authors: Rombauts A, Abelenda-Alonso G, Cuervo G, Gudiol C, Carratalà J Abstract INTRODUCTION: Despite adequate antibiotic coverage, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a leading cause of hospitalization and mortality worldwide. It induces both a local pulmonary and a systemic inflammatory response, particularly significant in severe cases. The intensity of the dysregulated host response varies from patient to patient and has a negative impact on survival and other outcomes. AREAS COVERED: This comprehensive review summarizes the pathophysiological aspects of the inflammatory response in CAP, brie...
Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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Source: Expert Review of Anti-Infective Therapy - Category: Infectious Diseases Tags: Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
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Source: Journal of Hazardous Materials - Category: Environmental Health Source Type: research
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