Soil water dynamics under Moistube irrigation
Publication date: Available online 11 January 2020Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Edwin Kimutai Kanda, Aidan Senzanje, Tafadzwanashe MabhaudhiAbstractThe design and management of irrigation systems require knowledge of soil water movement. There are few studies on soil water dynamics of Moistube irrigation (MTI) since it is a relatively new type of subsurface irrigation technology. It was hypothesised that soil texture influences soil water distribution under MTI. We determined soil water distribution, experimentally and numerically, using HYDRUS 2D/3D model for two soil textures (loamy sa...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 12, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of biomass and yield loss of maize caused by aerosols in heavily polluted agricultural areas of China based on APSIM model
In this study, the effects of aerosols on the biomass and yield of maize from 2001 to 2014 in heavily polluted agricultural areas of China were explored using global AErosol Robotic Network (AERONET) monitoring data, the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum radiative transfer (6S) model, and the Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator (APSIM) crop growth model. Beijing, Xianghe, and Taihu stations were selected as research areas. The results showed that the APSIM-maize model was able to accurately simulate the interactions between maize and the climatic constraints in the maize planting areas at ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 8, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of the impacts of climate change and human activities on vegetation cover change in the Haihe River basin, China
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Yan-Ling Sun, Mei Shan, Xin-Rui Pei, Xia-Kun Zhang, Yan-Li YangAbstractUsing the SPOT vegetation normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset from 2000 to 2013, we investigated the characteristics and future trends of spatiotemporal variations in vegetation in the Haihe River basin. At the same time, its associated driving factors were also analyzed. The Sen and Mann-Kendall models, the Hurst index and a partial correlation analysis were used to analyze the data. The study found that (1) the vegetatio...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 8, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hazard assessment and regionalization of snowstorms in Heilongjiang Province from 1961 to 2015
Publication date: Available online 7 January 2020Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Fan Zhang, Lijuan Zhang, Yutao Huang, Nan Wang, Yongsheng LiAbstractHazard risk has become an important issue because global warming will lead to an increased risk of extreme weather and climate events. Based on the daily snow precipitation of 63 cities and counties in Heilongjiang Province, China from 1961 to 2015, the probability of each level of snowstorm was calculated based on information diffusion theory, and a hazard index model was established using snowstorm probability and the amount of snow precipit...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 8, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

Adaption to climate change risk in eastern China: Carbon emission characteristics and analysis of reduction path
Publication date: Available online 2 January 2020Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Fan Yang, Jieming Chou, Wenjie Dong, Mingyang Sun, Weixing ZhaoAbstractTo improve its ability to adapt to climate change, China has promised considerable carbon emission reduction and proposed the policy strategy of “energy revolution”. Considering the lowest carbon emission intensity and the greatest mitigation task in the Eastern Economic Zone of China, this paper analyses the change of carbon emission intensity in Eastern China from 2000 to 2015. First, to prove the significance of carbon emissi...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 3, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

The stability of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau ecosystem to climate change
In this study, resistance and resilience were selected as two stability indicators of ecosystems to analyze the response of the QTP ecosystem to climate change over the past 34 years. We explored the main climate drivers that affect vegetation change, and predicted the stability of the ecosystem in the future. The results showed that the coniferous and Hylaea coniferous and hylaea forests of the QTP had high resilience, whereas the steppe and meadow had poor resilience. Shrubs and coniferous and hylaea coniferous and hylaea forests were with less resistance to climate change, whereas steppe and meadow showed more resistanc...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 3, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hazard prediction and risk regionalization of snowstorms in northeast China
Publication date: Available online 3 January 2020Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Dong Liu, Lijuan Zhang, Shunyu Jiang, Shuai Shi, Yongsheng LiAbstractThe hazard analysis of snowstorm disasters can provide a scientific understanding of their occurrence, development, and possible impact. Such knowledge can improve the efficiency of disaster alleviation efforts. The temporal and spatial distribution and variational patterns of snowfall amounts and the number of snowfall days in Northeast China in the future under different scenarios were analyzed. The analysis was based on the meteorological ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - January 3, 2020 Category: Science Source Type: research

Comparison of high capacity tensiometer designs for long-term suction measurements
Publication date: Available online 24 December 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): J. Mendes, D. GallipoliAbstractThis paper investigates the long-term measurement of negative (tensile) pore-water pressures in soils by using high capacity tensiometers (HCTs). Seven different HCT prototypes were designed and manufactured by using different porous filters, pressure transducers, water reservoirs and protective casings. The ability of these prototypes to record negative pore-water pressures over long times was initially assessed by a series of measurements on small clay samples equalized at di...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 26, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal distribution of landing tropical cyclones and disaster impact analysis in coastal China during 1990–2016
Publication date: Available online 23 December 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Jieming Chou, Wenjie Dong, Gang Tu, Yuan XuAbstractTo assess the impact of tropical cyclones (hereafter as TCs) along the southeast coast of China, this study analyzed the spatiotemporal variation of TC-induced disasters, interannual variability of disasters and their intensities by using the data during 1990–2016. Economic losses were calculated by using the three disaster indices: based on the area of affected crops, number of collapsed buildings, and direct economic losses. Entropy method was used t...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 24, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatiotemporal patterns and variations of winter extreme precipitation over terrestrial northern hemisphere in the past century (1901–2017)
In this study, the spatiotemporal distributions and variation characteristics of winter extreme precipitation in the Northern Hemisphere over the past century (1901–2017) were analyzed using trend analysis and spatial analysis. These analyses utilized the monthly average dataset of surface climatic factors (CRU TS4.03), and years with extreme precipitation was defined based on the standard deviation method. The following results were obtained. (1) In the past century, the frequency of years with more winter extreme precipitation (denoted as more-extreme years) in the Northern Hemisphere was higher than that of years ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 24, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impact of heatwaves and cold spells on the morbidity of respiratory diseases: A case study in Lanzhou, China
Publication date: Available online 6 December 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Ge Xu, Ling Chen, Yi Chen, Tao Wang, Fei-Han Shen, Ku Wang, Shao-Fei JinAbstractMore than four hundred million people suffer from respiratory diseases each year. Respiratory diseases are associated with a large disease burden. Heatwaves and cold spells, the two most common extreme weather events, have been shown to have crucial negative effects on the prevalence of respiratory diseases. However, impacts of extreme weather on the prevalence of respiratory diseases has been largely overlooked in western China, ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 8, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: December 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 114Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 5, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial modelling of groundwater quality across a land use and land cover gradient in Limpopo Province, South Africa
This study indicated that LULC types and seasonal variability have influence on specific groundwater quality parameters. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 5, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Using an expert-based model to develop a groundwater pollution vulnerability assessment framework for Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Mhosisi Masocha, Timothy Dube, Richard OwenAbstractPredicting groundwater vulnerability to pollution in countries with sparse data is difficult. Using Zimbabwe as a case study, this study presents a simple expert-based GIS model that incorporates seven natural and anthropogenic factors for modelling groundwater vulnerability at a national scale. The predicted groundwater vulnerability was tested against three water quality parameters: pH, total nitrates and total dissolved solids (TDS). The agreement between ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 5, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Urban waterlogging risk assessment in well-developed region of Eastern China
Publication date: Available online 4 December 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Shao Sun, Jianqing Zhai, Ying Li, Dapeng Huang, Guofu WangAbstractEastern China, a populous and economically developed area, is severely affected by various meteorological disasters under the background of global climate change. In recent years, urban waterlogs caused by heavy rainfall has become a major concern threatening urban safety and socioeconomic development. This paper aimed to reveal the spatial pattern of waterlogging risk in 89 prefecture-level cities of Eastern China by a comprehensive analysis o...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 5, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Spatial distribution modelling of groundwater quality in the Limpopo Province of South Africa
This study indicated that LULC types and seasonal variability have effect on specific groundwater quality parameters and this varies over space and time. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - December 2, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: October 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 113Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 27, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Potential risk assessment of heavy metals in the Aharchai River in northwestern Iran
This study investigated the concentration of heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Fe, Cu, Cr, and Zn) in the Aharchai River as the most important river in northwestern Iran. This study had a descriptive cross-sectional design, and sampling was done at six hydrometric (gauging) stations along the river during the rainy (spring) and dry (summer) seasons in 2018. The concentrations of heavy metals were measured by an atomic absorption device. The results showed significant differences in the concentrations of heavy metals at various stations in the two seasons of spring and summer. As for the concentrations of Pb and Cd, all stations stood ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 26, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Recovery of uranium from residue generated during Mo-99 production, using organic solvent extraction
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Naomi D. Mokhine, Manny Mathuthu, Elizabeth StassenAbstractDuring the production of the medical isotope Mo-99, the uranium and some fission products are precipitated as residue of mixed hydrated oxides. However, the PUREX extraction of uranium, plutonium is extracted, raising proliferation issues. The aim of this research was to characterize the most effective organic solvent for the recovery of uranium. Uranium oxide was dissolved in ammonium carbonate solution to form uranium tri-carbonate aqueous feed sol...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 23, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Shift of the Arctic polar vortex in recent decades and its simulation by the NCEP CFSv2
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Yajing Liu, Zhigang Wei, Guangyu Chen, Yujia Liu, Xian Zhu, Zhiyuan ZhengAbstractBy using ERA-I reanalysis data and the reforecast and forecast data of NCEP CFSv2, the inter-decadal shift in the stratospheric polar vortex boundary in winter and autumn in the Northern Hemisphere since the 1980s is analyzed, and the ability of CFSv2 to simulate the polar vortex boundary is evaluated. The results show that from 1980 to 2017, the Arctic polar vortex retreated northward in North America and expanded southward in ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 22, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Synthesis, characterization and application of polyacrylamide grafted bioflocculant
Publication date: Available online 22 November 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): S.S. Ngema, A.K. Basson, T.S. MalieheAbstractWater pollution contributes to water scarcity by decreasing the amount of available freshwater. Grafted bioflocculants tend to have excellent wastewater remediation capabilities. The aim of this research was to synthesize, characterize and apply polyacrylamide grafted bioflocculant to wastewater treatment. Bioflocculant (TMT−1) produced by Bacillus pumilus JX860616 was grafted with acrylamide chains using a microwave initiated method. To optimize the synthes...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 22, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of potential impacts of climate change on water resources in Ngerengere catchment, Tanzania
In this study, the potential impacts of climate change on water resources in Ngerengere River catchment in Tanzania were assessed. The HBV model was used to undertake water resources assessment for the Ngerengere catchment and subsequently impacts of climate change on the same. Future climate for 2050s (2040–2069) and 2080s (2070–2099) were downscaled using a statistical weather generator (LARS-WG) from outputs of the Global Circulation Model (HadCM3) under SRES A2 scenario.The HBV model was calibrated and validated using observed streamflow data at Mgude gauge station for the baseline period (1971–2000)....
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 20, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

An assessment of groundwater use in irrigated agriculture using multi-spectral remote sensing
This study assessed groundwater use for irrigated agriculture in the Venda-Gazankulu area of Limpopo Province in South Africa using crop evapotranspiration and irrigated crop area derived from the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI). Evapotranspiration data was derived from the Water Productivity through Open access of Remotely sensed Actual Evapotranspiration and Interception (WaPOR) dataset (250 m resolution), and irrigated areas were characterised using dry season NDVI data derived from Landsat 8. Field surveys were conducted for four years to assess accuracy and for post-classification correction. Daily ET ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 18, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessing seawater intrusion in arid and semi-arid Mediterranean coastal aquifers using geochemical approaches
In this study, a hydrogeochemical investigation, by interpretations of conservative dissolved ions was used to probe the main mechanisms controlling groundwater salinization and to characterize the associated hydrogeochemical processes occurring in Mediterranean coastal aquifers. Groundwaters of the different aquifers are of meteoric origin and they mostly flow toward the coast. Based on EC and ionic ratios, a hydro-chemical zonation of water types (ranging from Ca-HCO3, Na-HCO3, Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, Ca-Cl to Na-Cl) from recharge areas toward the coast is revealed. This zonation is mainly controlled by migration and mixing of sal...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 15, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Options for improving water productivity: A case study of bambara groundnut and groundnut
Publication date: Available online 11 November 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Tendai P. Chibarabada, Albert T. Modi, Tafadzwanashe MabhaudhiAbstractThe study determined the best management practices for improved yield (Y) and water productivity (WPET) of groundnut and bambara groundnut under different environments. Three sites representing different agro-ecological zones of KwaZulu Natal were used (Umbumbulu, Ukulinga and Wartburg). Thirty-year historic climate data from the different sites was categorised into normal and dry seasons based on probability of exceedance. Thereafter, eig...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 13, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Hydrologic evaluation of bias corrected CMORPH rainfall estimates at the headwater catchment of the Zambezi River
This study shows that bias correction of CMORPH rainfall in the Kabompo Basin is critical for successful application in rainfall-runoff modelling. (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 9, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Analysis of spatio-temporal rainfall trends across southern African biomes between 1981 and 2016
In this study, we simultaneously examined spatial and temporal rainfall trends based on the space-time rainfall cube derived from 1981 to 2016 CHIRPS satellite rainfall data. The space time rainfall trend analysis revealed a significant (P 
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 9, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Quantifying the contribution of riparian total evaporation to streamflow transmission losses: Preliminary investigations along the Groot Letaba river
Publication date: Available online 8 November 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): S. Gokool, E.S. Riddell, J.M. Nel, R. Raubenheimer, T. Strydom, A. Swemmer, K.T. ChettyAbstractThe Groot Letaba River, situated in the semi-arid north-eastern region of South Africa is an example of a river system in which the uncertainty associated with transmission losses (TL) has limited the effective management of environmental water requirement (EWR) flows. TL along the river significantly impacts EWR flows, as it is often the case that specified EWR releases are not adequately received further downstrea...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 9, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Identifying hotspots for investment in ecological infrastructure within the uMngeni catchment, South Africa
In this study, we aim to demonstrate how the state-of-the-art in ecosystem service modelling can be implemented to guide decision making with regards to investments in EI to improve the delivery of specific hydrological ecosystem services (HES) within the uMngeni catchment. For this purpose, the Resource Investment Optimization System (RIOS) and Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) models were applied to identify priority areas for investment and to evaluate the HES benefits that can potentially be achieved. Several global and local data sets were used to provide the requisite inputs to perform...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - November 9, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: August 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 112Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 22, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of Multi-Criteria Decision Making and GIS for Check Dam Layout in the Ilanlu Basin, Northwest of Hamadan Province, Iran
This study was carried out in the Illanlu catchment in the northwest of Hamadan Province, Iran. A set of effective indices were identified and developed using the Geographic Information System (GIS) and fuzzy logic to model optimal location of sites for construction of the check dams. Based on the ability to construct the check dams e.g. access road and environmental constraints, the map was classified from very high to very low construction ability. In the study area, 26% of the catchment area was located in the very high and high classes, predominantly in the upstream sub-catchments, 13% in the very low class, and 62% in...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 20, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Corrigendum to “Urban flood simulation and prioritization of critical urban sub-catchments using SWMM model and PROMETHEE II approach” [physics and chemistry of the earth, part A/B/C. 105 (2018) 3–11]
Publication date: Available online 10 October 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Sahar Babaei, Reza Ghazavi, Mahdi Erfanian (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 11, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Groundwater as an alternative source to irregular surface water in the O'Kiep area, Namaqualand, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): I.G. Erdogan, E. Fosso-Kankeu, S.K.O. Ntwampe, F.B. Waanders, N. Hoth, A. RandAbstractWater insecurity is a growing concern globally and the role of groundwater and aquifers in buffering the effects of climate variability and change is increasingly acknowledged due to extended periods of drought in arid regions. Water security can only be fully realised with a more robust understanding of groundwater as a water resource, especially in the O'Kiep area which is in Namaqualand, South Africa. Results of analyse...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - October 10, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Groundwater as an alternative source to irregular surface water in the O’Kiep area, Namaqualand, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 28 September 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): I.G. Erdogan, E. Fosso-Kankeu, S.K.O. Ntwampe, F.B. Waanders, N. Hoth, A. RandAbstractWater insecurity is a growing concern globally and the role of groundwater and aquifers in buffering the effects of climate variability and change is increasingly acknowledged due to extended periods of drought in arid regions. Water security can only be fully realised with a more robust understanding of groundwater as a water resource, especially in the O’Kiep area which is in Namaqualand, South Africa. Results of a...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 28, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of climate change impact on surface runoff, statistical downscaling and hydrological modeling
In this study, using the Statistical downscaling model (SDSM), the data of CanESM2 Canadian general circulation model (GCM) was downscaled under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. In order to study the climate change, the artificial neural network (ANN) and IHACRES models were used over the period of 2010-2040. The study results showed that the temperature is increased in the upcoming period of 2006-2100 (0.8 to 5.6 C°), and the highest temperature changes are related to winter and summer. The precipitation in the upcoming period shows an increasing trend on the annual average, but,...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 26, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

An environmental risk assessment of the klip river using water quality indices
Publication date: Available online 11 September 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): T. Marara, L.G. PalamuleniAbstractThe Klip River wetland is one of the most economically important ecological river system in South Africa as it plays two roles: water purification in the Vaal River system and is also a source of water. However, several studies have demonstrated that the wetland is extremely degraded and has lost capability to perform the two functions. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the Klip River water quality compliance with guidelines for its designated uses i.e. domes...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - September 11, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

An integrated conceptual approach for the monitoring and modelling of geo-structures subjected to climatic loading
Publication date: Available online 29 August 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): C. Jayasundara, R.N. Deo, J. KodikaraAbstractAdvancement of knowledge on the behaviour of unsaturated soil through constitutive modelling is an area of active research within the geotechnical community. Given that most of the Earth surface can be considered unsaturated and most of the geotechnical infrastructures constitute of compacted soil, advancements in predictive modelling are needed for reliable management of geo-infrastructures. Moreover, the complex processes of soil collapse, shear failures and exces...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 31, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

A Modelling approach to improving water security in a drought-prone area, West Coast, South Africa
Publication date: Available online 23 August 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Heng Zhang, Yongxin Xu, Thokozani KanyerereAbstractDue to severe droughts and rapid urbanization, Cape Town municipality including small towns along the West Coast of South Africa are facing water shortages. Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) seems to offer a solution to improve water security in this drought-prone area. This paper presents a conceptual framework within which numerical modelling of the aquifers system is operated to improve water security of West Coast. The ModelMuse software that included MODFLOW...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 25, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Assessment of Rooftop Rainwater Harvesting in Northern Jordan
The objective of this research is to investigate factors affecting the usage of rooftop rainwater harvesting, quantify the quality of rainwater, and provide preliminary estimate for the volume of rainwater storage tanks and integrate it in the building design. A public questionnaire revealed that 46% of people do not have rooftop rainwater harvesting largely because of the high costs of storage tanks. About 80% of the people surveyed chose an arbitrary volume for the tank based on the recommendation of a building contractor. The current study presented a preliminary estimate for the tank volume using historic monthly rainf...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 14, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Exploring the sanitation success, sanitation technology and diarrhoeal mortality nexus in Sub-Saharan Africa
Publication date: Available online 13 August 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Muchaneta Munamati, Innocent Nhapi, Shepherd MisiAbstractPrevious research on the determinants of sanitation success has largely focused on economic, environmental, political and social factors at the expense of technological factors. Therefore, this paper explores the relationship between improved sanitation technologies and sanitation success, and further investigates the impact of improved sanitation technologies on diarrhoeal mortality in 46 Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries. Cross-country regression ana...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 14, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Integrated Water Resources Development and Management:Innovative Technological Advances for Water Security in Eastern and Southern Africa
Publication date: Available online 14 August 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Benjamin Mapani, Hodson Makurira, Lapologang Magole, Maideyi Meck, Theresa Mkandawire, Marloes Mul, Cosmo Ngongondo (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 14, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Comparison of solute/heat transport in fractured formations using discrete fracture and equivalent porous media modeling at the reservoir scale
In this study, fluid flow and solute/heat transport phenomena were investigated using the equivalent porous media approach and compared to discrete fracture modeling. In the equivalent porous media approach, the fractures were replaced with a porous medium. Its effective porosity and permeability were adjusted to get the simulation results similar to discrete fracture modeling results. In addition, the solid deformation, in equivalent porous media approach, was coupled with heat transfer, while it was de-coupled with fluid flow to increase the simulations’ efficiency. The equivalent porous media approach was applied ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 9, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Impact of substrate type, depth and retention time on organic matter removal in vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland mesocosms for treating slaughterhouse wastewater
Publication date: Available online 6 August 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): C. Mburu, J. Kipkemboi, R. KimwagaAbstractPopulation growth and the associated demand for meat products is creating an increasing concern on water over slaughterhouse associated pollution of aquatic environments in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Kenya, increasing volumes of strong slaughterhouse wastewater being discharged either untreated or partially treated has necessitated ardent research into sustainable technologies. Vertical sub-surface flow constructed wetlands offer a promising solution. A study investigating ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 7, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

The removal and adsorption mechanisms of free amino acid l-tryptophan from aqueous solution by biomass-based activated carbon by H3PO4 activation: regeneration study
The objective of this work is to examine the effectiveness of low cost material as adsorbent for the removal of free amino acid l-tryptophan from aqueous solutions in order to avoid the formation of undesirable disinfection by-products, trihalomethanes and iodinated trihalomethanes, during the water chlorination. The adsorbent was prepared from date pits and activated with H3PO4 (DPH). The textural properties of DPH were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, SEM analysis and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. DPH possesses a large specific surface area (1040 m2 g–1) and a high total pore volume (1.089 cm3 g–1)....
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - August 1, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Approaches to multi-scale analyses of mechanically and thermally-driven migration of fluid inclusions in salt rocks
Publication date: Available online 22 July 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Hua Shao, Yifeng Wang, Olaf Kolditz, Thomas Nagel, Torben BrüningAbstractFluid inclusions are found within mineral crystals or along grain boundaries in many sedimentary rocks, notably in evaporite formations, and can migrate along a thermal or hydro-mechanical gradient. Shale and salt rocks have been considered potential host rocks for radioactive waste disposal, due to their low permeability. Previously stagnant inclusions may become mobilised by a perturbation of the in situ state by a geotechnical insta...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 22, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

An assessment of baseline and downscaled projected climate variables in the Upper Manyame sub-catchment of Zimbabwe
Publication date: Available online 9 July 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Oliver Masimba, Webster Gumindoga, Alexander Mhizha, Donald Tendayi RwasokaAbstractThe study assessed historical trends in precipitation and temperature using Mann-Kendall trend and Wilcoxon signed rank tests in the Upper Manyame sub-catchment of Zimbabwe. The projected precipitation and temperature for the 2030s and 2060s were downscaled using the Statistical DownScaling Model with data from HadCM3 and CanESM2. Trend analysis results showed a declining statistically non-significant trend in precipitation and a s...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 10, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Terrestrial heat flow evaluation from thermal response tests combined with temperature profiling
Publication date: Available online 7 July 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Maria Isabel Velez, Jasmin Raymond, Daniela Blessent, Mikael PhilippeABSTRACTThe terrestrial heat flux density, an essential information to evaluate the deep geothermal resource potential, is rarely defined over urban areas where energy needs are important. In an effort to fill this gap, the subsurface thermal conductivity estimated during two thermal response tests was coupled with undisturbed temperature profile measurements conducted in the same boreholes to infer terrestrial heat flow near the surface. The un...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - July 7, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Mapping floods in the Middle Zambezi Basin using Earth observation and hydrological modeling techniques
Publication date: Available online 29 June 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): T. Nharo, H. Makurira, W. GumindogaAbstractThe Lower Middle Zambezi catchment, on the Zimbabwean side, is vulnerable to floods almost every year. In this work, the causes and impacts of floods in the Mbire District of the Middle Zambezi Basin are investigated. An algorithm based on the binary logistic regression is used together with MODIS NDVI images to determine the spatial and temporal variation of flood inundation. The HEC-HMS model is used to simulate rainfall time series at daily time step. The quantified ...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 30, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Editorial Board
Publication date: June 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C, Volume 111Author(s): (Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC)
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 18, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research

Application of the Two-Fluid Model to Prediction of Sediment Transport in Turbulent Open Channel Flow
Publication date: Available online 14 June 2019Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/CAuthor(s): Mina Ahadi, Donald J. Bergstrom, Kerry Anne MazurekAbstractThe two-fluid model formulation was used to predict the fluid and sediment transport in an open channel flow for a dilute concentration. A low Reynolds number k–ε model was used to represent the turbulence in the fluid phase; it included the effect of the sediment particles on the turbulence field. The particle-wall interactions were implemented using the boundary condition of Johnson and Jackson (1987), which resulted in a finite value for...
Source: Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts ABC - June 15, 2019 Category: Science Source Type: research