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Percy Lamb obituary
My mentor, research supervisor and friend, the physicist WGP (Percy) Lamb, who has died aged 97, was a member of the celebrated King ’s College London team that contributed to the unravelling of the structure of DNA in the early 1950s. His PhD work at King’s was supervised by John Randall and as a result Percy joined the team led by Randall andMaurice Wilkins, which also includedRosalind Franklin, who was responsible for the famous “photo 51” that revealed the structure of a double helix.Percy specialised in the use of light and electron microscopes to study the nature of cell nuclei. He worked clos...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - April 25, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Raymond Batkin Tags: Science King's College London Physics Source Type: news

UK astronomers giving everyone access to a 3-D map of the Milky Way
A UK team of astronomers working on the European Space Agency Gaia mission have contributed to a revolution in our understanding of the Milky Way with the release today of a new census of the stars in our sky, thanks, in part, to work by physicists from the University of Bristol. (Source: University of Bristol news)
Source: University of Bristol news - April 25, 2018 Category: Universities & Medical Training Tags: Research; Faculty of Science, Faculty of Science, School of Physics; Press Release Source Type: news

A contribution to the modelling of human induced excitation on pedestrian bridges - Casciati F, Casciati S, Faravelli L.
Human induced vibration is a common problem in the design of planking levels as both flooring or decking. The source of the vibration is the so-called "human induced loading (HIL)". Models are available for a single exciting person and for a dense aggregat... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Application of motorcycle engine brake performance to traffic accident reconstruction - 均, 崇生, 智泰, 克樹, 弘毅, 涼, 健.
The motorcycle has a high running stability. Therefore, the motorcycle can keep running without the rider before and after a traffic accident. For Traffic accident reconstruction which involves an unmanned motorcycle, we needed the deceleration value of th... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Armor's ballistic resistance simulation using stochastic process modeling - Tahenti B, Coghe F, Nasri R, Pirlot M.
For many years, ballistic performance evaluation of protection structures makes use of the estimation of the ballistic limit velocity V50, the projectile impact velocity at which there is a 50 percent probability of perforation of the assessed structure. I... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Bridge extreme stress prediction based on Bayesian dynamic linear models and non-uniform sampling - Fan X.
Bridge monitoring systems produce a large amount of data, including uniform and non-uniform sampled data in the long-term service periods; the proper handling of these data is one of the main difficulties in structural health monitoring. To properly predic... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Effects on road safety and functionality of installing countdown timers to traffic lights - Botzoris G, Papakatsikas N, Profillidis V, Galanis A.
[Abstract unavailable] Language: en... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Bridge network maintenance prioritization under budget constraint - Zhang W, Wang N.
This study develops a decision model to assist bridge authorities in determining a preferred maintenance prioritization schedule for a degraded bridge network in a community that optimizes the performance of transportation systems within budgetary constrai... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Estimating aftershock collapse vulnerability using mainshock intensity, structural response and physical damage indicators - Burton HV, Sreekumar S, Sharma M, Sun H.
This paper describes statistical models for estimating aftershock collapse vulnerability of buildings using mainshock intensity, structural response and physical damage indicators. The performance of mainshock-damaged buildings is assessed by performing In... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Frontal collision of trains onto obliquely stuck road trucks at level crossings: derailment mechanisms and simulation - Ling L, Dhanasekar M, Thambiratnam DP.
Road trucks stuck obliquely across rail tracks in level crossings and collided by trains are common occurrences; such scenarios are used in the assessment of crashworthiness of locomotives. With the ongoing increase in mass of the road trucks, these incide... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Estimating spatially varying event rates with a change point using Bayesian statistics: application to induced seismicity - Gupta A, Baker JW.
We describe a model to estimate event rates of a non-homogeneous spatio-temporal Poisson process. A Bayesian change point model is described to detect changes in temporal rates. The model is used to estimate whether a change in event rates occurred for a p... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

On vibration-based damage detection by multivariate statistical techniques: application to a long-span arch bridge - Comanducci G, Magalh ães F, Ubertini F, Cunha.
Structural health monitoring allows the automated condition assessment of civil infrastructure, leading to a cost-effective management of maintenance activities. However, there is still a debate in the literature about the effectiveness of available signal... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Impacts of design exceptions on highway safety - Stamatiadis N, Psarianos B.
[Abstract unavailable] Language: en... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Seismic reliability evaluation of gas supply networks based on the probability density evolution method - Liu W, Li Z, Song Z, Li J.
This study takes gas supply networks as examples and establishes an approach to eval... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

UAS to support airport safety and operations: opportunities and challenges - Hubbard S, Pak A, Gu Y, Jin Y.
[Abstract unavailable] Language: en... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Survey of sUAS unintended flight termination as depicted in internet video - Fernando AV.
Studies of accidents involving large and military unmanned aerial vehicles have demonstrated that these are largely due to equipment failure. In many cases, accidents involving small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) do not reach damage or injury thresholds w... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 25, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Science Committee Advances Bipartisan Bill to Boost STEM Apprenticeships and Training
The House Science Committee unanimously approved a bipartisan bill that would direct the National Science Foundation to support several new grant  programs focused on mentoring, training, and apprenticeships in STEM fields. (Source: FYI: The AIP Bulletin of Science Policy News)
Source: FYI: The AIP Bulletin of Science Policy News - April 24, 2018 Category: Physics Authors: awolfe Source Type: news

Uranus Smells Terrible. There, We Said it
Let’s stop pretending, shall we? Because really, we’re not fooling anyone. Uranus is funny. It was funny when you were twelve, and it’s funny now. It was certainly funny when I was a boy and went to a space-themed summer camp where all the bunks were named after planets and Uranus happened to be where we stored the sports equipment, meaning that every now and then a counselor would say, “Somebody put those bats in Uranus,” and then would have to walk over and put them there himself because we were too busy falling over one another laughing. And it was absolutely funny in 1986 when the Voyager ...
Source: TIME: Science - April 24, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Jeffrey Kluger Tags: Uncategorized onetime space Source Type: news

The Order of Time by Carlo Rovelli review – a worthy heir to Stephen Hawking
Is time real or simply a useful measurement of change? The author of Seven Brief Lessons on Physics takes us to the limits of our understanding with clarity and styleIn Hitler ’s Germany, a handful of physicists bristled at the mere mention of quantum theory. The troubling uncertainties of Einsteinian relativity and other physical exotica were viewed as “Jewish science” inimical to German nationhood and the Newtonian mechanics of Deutsche Physik. “German physics” (sometimes called “Aryan physics”) failed to make inroads in 1930s Germany because its champions were so plainly de...
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - April 24, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ian Thomson Tags: Science and nature Books Culture Albert Einstein Stephen Hawking Space Physics Source Type: news

The dispute about the origins of terahertz photoresponse in graphene results in a draw
(Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology) Physicists at MIPT and their British and Russian colleagues revealed the mechanisms leading to photocurrent in graphene under terahertz radiation. The paper published in Applied Physics Letters not only puts a period to a long-lasting debate about the origins of direct current in graphene illuminated by high-frequency radiation but also sets the stage for the development of high-sensitivity terahertz detectors. Such detectors are highly demanded in medical diagnostics, wireless communications and security systems. (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - April 24, 2018 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Reconstructing what makes us tick
(American Institute of Physics) A major issue that limits modeling to predict cardiac arrhythmia is that it is impossible to measure and monitor all the variables that make our hearts tick, but researchers have now developed an algorithm that uses artificial intelligence to model the electrical excitations in heart muscle. Their work, appearing in Chaos, draws on partial differential equations describing excitable media and echo state networks to cross-predict variables about chaotic electrical wave propagations in cardiac tissue. (Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health)
Source: EurekAlert! - Medicine and Health - April 24, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Source Type: news

Two aviation accident investigation questionnaires for passenger and crew survival factors and injuries - Davies JM, Wallace WA, Colton CL, Yoo KI, Maurino M.
BACKGROUND: Review of injuries resulting from aircraft accidents and analysis of their mechanisms have proved helpful in generating and implementing survival-related improvements. Ideally, such information should be correlated with seat belt type and use, ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

The role of perceived competence and risk perception in cycling near misses - Mar ín Puchades V, Fassina F, Fraboni F, De Angelis M, Prati G, de Waard D, Pietrantoni L.
Cyclists' crashes account for a relatively large proportion of road fatalities and this proportion is increasing. Research suggests that near misses can be used as surrogate measures of crashes, based on the assumption that they share common causes. Also, ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Speed responses to speed humps as affected by time of day and light conditions on a residential road with light-emitting diode (LED) road lighting - J ägerbrand AK, Johansson M, Laike T.
This study examined the effects of speed humps, compared with a control location, on a re... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Safety risk factors of metro tunnel construction in China: an integrated study with EFA and SEM - Liu W, Zhao T, Zhou W, Tang J.
In this work, we proposed a systematic method by integrating exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and structural equation model (SEM) to examine the risk factors for the safety of metro construction. We collected 514 valid questionnaire responses from metro c... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Safety assessment of crude oil tankers - Vidmar P, Perkovi č M.
Crude oil tankers are transporting between 50 and 60 percent of all crude oil in world production. These huge amounts of black gold represent a source of a global economic development at the same time as they represent a threat for the sea and coastal envi... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Safety assessment in oil drilling work system based on empirical study and analytic network process - Sun ZY, Zhou JL, Gan LF.
Safety assessment is an essential work to guarantee the safety of oil drilling. There are relations and dependencies between human factors in oil drilling work system. Therefore, the safety of oil drilling work system should be analyzed in a comprehensive ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Reducing non-collision injuries aboard buses: passenger balance whilst walking on the lower deck - Karekla X, Tyler N.
Travelling by bus is a way millions of people choose for their everyday activities. However, the large acceleration levels, and therefore the associated increased number of falls and non-collision injuries, force current users to shift to other modes of tr... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Reconstruction of a rollover crash for thoracic injury etiology investigation - Tan T, Mongiardini M, Grzebieta R, Mattos G.
The cause of serious and fatal thoracic injuries in passenger vehicle rollover crashes is currently not well understood. Previous research on thoracic injuries resulting from rollover crashes have focused primarily on statistical analysis of crash data. Th... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Quad-bike operational instability - Macmillan RH.
The stake-holders in the quad-bike (QB) industry in Australia have failed to reach a satisfactory resolution of the present impasse that exists with respect to the causes and mitigation of the trauma suffered by riders due to QB instability. In an effort t... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Planning for winter road maintenance in the context of climate change - Matthews L, Andrey J, Picketts I.
Winter weather creates mobility challenges for most northern jurisdictions, leading to significant expenditures on winter road maintenance (WRM) activities. While the science and practice of snow and ice control is continually evolving, climate change pres... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Observed and projected changes in United States tornado exposure - Strader SM, Ashley WS, Pingel TJ, Krmenec AJ.
This study examines how tornado risk and societal exposure interact to create tornado disaster potential in the United States. Finescale historical and projected demographic data are used in a set of region-specific Monte Carlo tornado simulations to revea... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Network-constrained spatio-temporal clustering analysis of traffic collisions in Jianghan District of Wuhan, China - Fan Y, Zhu X, She B, Guo W, Guo T.
The analysis of traffic collisions is essential for urban safety and the sustainable development of the urban environment. Reducing the road traffic injuries and the financial losses caused by collisions is the most important goal of traffic management. In... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Models of automation surprise: results of a field survey in aviation - De Boer R, Dekker S.
Automation surprises in aviation continue to be a significant safety concern and the community's search for effective strategies to mitigate them are ongoing. The literature has offered two fundamentally divergent directions, based on different ideas about... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Modeling human steering behavior during path following in teleoperation of unmanned ground vehicles - Mirinejad H, Jayakumar P, Ersal T.
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents a behavioral model representing the human steering performance in teleoperated unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs). BACKGROUND: Human steering performance in teleoperation is considerably different from the performance in... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Lumbar disc herniation in military helicopter pilots vs. matched controls - Knox JB, Deal JB, Knox JA.
INTRODUCTION: Lumbar disc herniation (LDH) is a common injury among active duty service members resulting in missed duty hours and limited duty status. Little is known about the current burden of disease and risk factors for LDH among military rotary wing ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Injury/fatality-causing incidents involving the rearward movement of agricultural machinery: types, causes, and preventive measures - Ehlers SG, Field WE.
The research reported here sought to more fully understand the types and causative factors of injury/fatality incidents resulting from the rearward-movement of tractors and other self-propelled agricultural machinery, with the view that such findings might... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Implications of articulating machinery on operator line of sight and efficacy of camera based proximity detection systems - Schwabe N, Godwin A.
The underground mining industry, and some above ground operations, rely on the use of heavy equipment that articulates to navigate corners in the tight confines of the tunnels. Poor line of sight (LOS) has been identified as a problem for safe operation of... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

How did crew resource management take-off outside of the cockpit? A systematic review of how crew resource management training is conceptualised and evaluated for non-pilots - Havinga J, de Boer RJ, Rae A, Dekker SWA.
Crew resource management (CRM) training for flight crews is widespread and has been credited with improving aviation safety. As other industries have adopted CRM, they have interpreted CRM in different ways. We sought to understand how industries have adop... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Failure rates for aging aircraft - MacLean L, Richman A, Hudak M.
In any consideration of the operating condition, the age of a particular aircraft is a major factor. Much attention is focused on planes which are aged, that is, aircraft with chronological age or accumulated hours of use beyond a threshold. Being aged is ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Exploring measures to control road traffic injuries in Iran: key informants points of view - Salari H, Motevalian SA, Arab M, Esfandiari A, Sari AAKBARI.
This study aimed to explore strategies to control road traffic Injuries (RTI) in Iran.METHODS: We conducted a qualita... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Estimation of probability of harm in safety of machinery using an investigation systemic approach and Logical Analysis of Data - Jocelyn S, Ouali MS, Chinniah Y.
In safety of machinery, estimating the probability of occurrence of harm is a recurrent problem. This paper proposes and applies a new method to estimate that probability. Information regarding accidents involving machinery that is gathered and analyzed by... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Do online bicycle routing portals adequately address prevalent safety concerns? - Loidl M, Hochmair HH.
Safety concerns are among the most prevalent deterrents for bicycling. The provision of adequate bicycling infrastructure is considered as one of the most efficient means to increase cycling safety. However, limited public funding does not always allow age... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Cycling fatalities: when a helmet is useless and when it might save your life - B íl M, Dobias M, Andrášik R, Bílová M, Hejna P.
Autopsy reports of 119 cyclists who died in two Czech regions between 1995 and 2013 as a result of traffic crashes were studied. In all the study cases, pathologists analyzed whether a helmet could have helped the cyclists survive the crash or not. The cra... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Correct use of three-point seatbelt by pregnant occupants - Acar BS, Edwards AM, Aldah M.
The objective ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Bicycle helmets - To wear or not to wear? A meta-analyses of the effects of bicycle helmets on injuries - H øye A.
A meta-analysis has been conducted of the effects of bicycle helmets on serious head injury and other injuries among crash involved cyclists. 179 effect estimates from 55 studies from 1989-2017 are included in the meta-analysis. The use of bicycle helmets ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

A method for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle GPS trajectories - Yang W, Ai T, Lu W.
Crowdsourcing trajectory data is an important approach for accessing and updating road information. In this paper, we present a novel approach for extracting road boundary information from crowdsourcing vehicle traces based on Delaunay triangulation (DT). ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

A Kriging based spatiotemporal approach for traffic volume data imputation - Yang H, Yang J, Han LD, Liu X, Pu L, Chin SM, Hwang HL.
Along with the rapid development of Intelligent Transportation Systems, traffic data collection technologies have progressed fast. The emergence of innovative data collection technologies such as remote traffic microwave sensor, Bluetooth sensor, GPS-based... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Scientists plan huge European AI hub to compete with US
Exclusive: In an open letter, the scientists say the proposed Ellis institute is essential to avoid brain drain to big tech firmsLeading scientists have drawn up plans for a vast multinational European institute devoted to world-class artificial intelligence (AI) research in a desperate bid to nurture and retain top talent in Europe.The new institute would be set up for similar reasons asCern, the particle physics lab near Geneva, which was created after the second world war to rebuild European physics and reverse the brain drain of the brightest and best scientists to the US.Continue reading... (Source: Guardian Unlimited Science)
Source: Guardian Unlimited Science - April 23, 2018 Category: Science Authors: Ian Sample Science editor Tags: Science Technology Artificial intelligence (AI) Europe Computing Source Type: news

Accident Precursor Probabilistic Method (APPM) for modeling and assessing risk of offshore drilling blowouts - a theoretical micro-scale application - Perez P, Tan H.
This paper proposes and explains the application of an Accident Precursor Probabilistic Method (APPM) that aims to overcome the usual limitations of existing Quantitative Risk Analyses (QRA), with a focus on offshore drilling blowouts. This limitation is i... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - April 23, 2018 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news