Geometric effect analysis of highway-rail grade crossing safety performance - Keramati A, L ü P, Tolliver D, Wang X.
Highway-rail grade crossings (HRGCs) are where a roadway and railway intersect at the same level. Safety at HRGCs has been identified as a high-priority concern among transportation agencies, but there has been little research on the effects of HRGC geomet... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 22, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

White House Seeking Additional Input on Open Access Options
With word of a potential open access executive order reverberating across the scientific community, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy is seeking further stakeholder input as it moves to increase public access to research results. (Source: FYI: The AIP Bulletin of Science Policy News)
Source: FYI: The AIP Bulletin of Science Policy News - February 21, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: aschwarber Source Type: news

Traumatic medial clavicle fracture induced by chin bar of a full-face helmet following a downhill mountainbike accident - Schmitt T, Pfalzer F, Huth J, Mauch F.
Downhill mountain biking is a rapidly growing sport. In our case we want to present an isolated medial clavicular fracture following a mountain bike accident with a critical review on the used protection device. A 35 year old healthy patient presented to o... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Train running safety on non-ballasted bridges - Arvidsson T, Andersson A, Karoumi R.
The train running safety on non-ballasted bridges is studied based on safety indices from the vertical wheel-rail forces. A 2D train-track-bridge interaction model that allows for wheel-rail contact loss is adopted for a comprehensive parametric study on h... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Traffic density on corridors subject to incidents: models for long-term congestion management - Lopes Gerum PC, Benton AR, Baykal-G ürsoy M.
The purpose of this research is to provide a faster and more efficient method to determine traffic density behavior for long-term congestion management using minimal statistical information. Applications include road work, road improvements, and route choi... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 21, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Greener spring, warmer air
(Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences) Advanced leaf-out enhances annual surface warming in the Northern Hemisphere (Source: EurekAlert! - Biology)
Source: EurekAlert! - Biology - February 21, 2020 Category: Biology Source Type: news

Jockeying Over NASA Policy Heats Up in Congress
Legislative efforts are under way in the House and Senate to advance broad policy legislation for NASA, with potential implications for scientific activities. In the House, lawmakers are seeking to exert particularly strong control over the agency ’s plans for the Moon and Mars. (Source: FYI: The AIP Bulletin of Science Policy News)
Source: FYI: The AIP Bulletin of Science Policy News - February 20, 2020 Category: Physics Authors: wthomas Source Type: news

American product injury monitoring system and its application -
Monitoring product injury based on hospital outpatient statistical reports is an important method for product safety risk prevention and control and product defect management in developed countries. The earliest product injury monitoring system in the worl... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Analysis on the present situation and influencing factors of road traffic injuries for takeaway riders in Shantou - Fuxiang C, Wanbao Y, Shuzhen Y, Haoyuan Z, Liping L, Limin O.
OBJECTIVE To investigate and analyze the current situation of road traffic injuries of takeaway riders in Shantou and analyze their risk factors, so as to provide reference for relevant departments to take effective prevention and control measures. ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Autonomous driving and traffic safety -
Automated driving means that the vehicle automatically completes some driving operations (steering, acceleration, braking, etc.) without the need for driver intervention. Autonomous driving technology is divided into: 0-no automation, 1-driving support, 2-... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Finding manoeuvre motifs in vehicle telematics - Silva MI, Henriques R.
Driving behaviour has a great impact on road safety. A popular way of analysing driving behaviour is to move the focus to the manoeuvres as they give useful information about the driver who is performing them. In this paper, we investigate a new way of ide... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 20, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Cooling of a levitated nanoparticle to the motional quantum ground state
Quantum control of complex objects in the regime of large size and mass provides opportunities for sensing applications and tests of fundamental physics. The realization of such extreme quantum states of matter remains a major challenge. We demonstrate a quantum interface that combines optical trapping of solids with cavity-mediated light-matter interaction. Precise control over the frequency and position of the trap laser with respect to the optical cavity allowed us to laser-cool an optically trapped nanoparticle into its quantum ground state of motion from room temperature. The particle comprises 108 atoms, similar to c...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Delic, U., Reisenbauer, M., Dare, K., Grass, D., Vuletic, V., Kiesel, N., Aspelmeyer, M. Tags: Physics reports Source Type: news

Quantum anomalous Hall effect in intrinsic magnetic topological insulator MnBi2Te4
In a magnetic topological insulator, nontrivial band topology combines with magnetic order to produce exotic states of matter, such as quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) insulators and axion insulators. In this work, we probe quantum transport in MnBi2Te4 thin flakes—a topological insulator with intrinsic magnetic order. In this layered van der Waals crystal, the ferromagnetic layers couple antiparallel to each other; atomically thin MnBi2Te4, however, becomes ferromagnetic when the sample has an odd number of septuple layers. We observe a zero-field QAH effect in a five–septuple-layer specimen at 1.4 kelvin, and an ...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Deng, Y., Yu, Y., Shi, M. Z., Guo, Z., Xu, Z., Wang, J., Chen, X. H., Zhang, Y. Tags: Materials Science, Physics reports Source Type: news

Intrinsic quantized anomalous Hall effect in a moire heterostructure
We report the observation of a QAH effect in twisted bilayer graphene aligned to hexagonal boron nitride. The effect is driven by intrinsic strong interactions, which polarize the electrons into a single spin- and valley-resolved moiré miniband with Chern number C = 1. In contrast to magnetically doped systems, the measured transport energy gap is larger than the Curie temperature for magnetic ordering, and quantization to within 0.1% of the von Klitzing constant persists to temperatures of several kelvin at zero magnetic field. Electrical currents as small as 1 nanoampere controllably switch the magnetic order betw...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Serlin, M., Tschirhart, C. L., Polshyn, H., Zhang, Y., Zhu, J., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T., Balents, L., Young, A. F. Tags: Physics, Applied reports Source Type: news

Disassembling 2D van der Waals crystals into macroscopic monolayers and reassembling into artificial lattices
Two-dimensional materials from layered van der Waals (vdW) crystals hold great promise for electronic, optoelectronic, and quantum devices, but technological implementation will be hampered by the lack of high-throughput techniques for exfoliating single-crystal monolayers with sufficient size and high quality. Here, we report a facile method to disassemble vdW single crystals layer by layer into monolayers with near-unity yield and with dimensions limited only by bulk crystal sizes. The macroscopic monolayers are comparable in quality to microscopic monolayers from conventional Scotch tape exfoliation. The monolayers can ...
Source: ScienceNOW - February 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Liu, F., Wu, W., Bai, Y., Chae, S. H., Li, Q., Wang, J., Hone, J., Zhu, X.- Y. Tags: Physics, Applied, Materials Science reports Source Type: news

Quantum anomalous Hall goes intrinsic
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Stajic, J. Tags: Physics, Applied twis Source Type: news

A nanoparticle trapped and cooled
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Osborne, I. S. Tags: Physics twis Source Type: news

Larger monolayers with gold tapes
(Source: ScienceNOW)
Source: ScienceNOW - February 20, 2020 Category: Science Authors: Szuromi, P. Tags: Physics, Applied, Materials Science twis Source Type: news

Assessment of freight vehicular movement on arterial roads of Delhi for safety of road users - Azad F, Das P, Ram S.
In the direction of fulfilling the needs of thickly populated NCT, highways are being used constantly by freight vehicles, in a very chaotic manner. It has been noticed that more than a lakh trucks enter Delhi daily to pass from one region to another. It c... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Bridges in hilly areas: need for long span bridges - Kumar A, Dixit NK.
Construction of bridges in hilly areas poses unique problem to the community of engineers. Each bridges site has its own peculiarity and need specialised approach to deal with the situation. Deep gorge, fast flow of current, Bouldery River bed, geological ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Bundle adjustment for monocular visual odometry based on detections of traffic signs - Zhang Y, Zhang H, Wang G, Yang J, Hwang JN.
The technology for simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) has been well investigated with the rising interest in autonomous driving. Visual odometry (VO) is a variation of SLAM without global consistency for estimating the position and orientation of... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Deep learning-based driving maneuver prediction system - Ou C, Karray F.
Many of today's vehicles come equipped with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). Proactive ADAS have the ability to predict short term driving situations. This provides drivers more time to take adequate actions to avoid or mitigate driving risks. In... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Empirical Bayesian before-and-after analysis of treatments: simulated traffic conflict approach - Shahdah UE.
An integrated empirical Bayesian (EB) model based on crash-conflict safety performance function (SPF) as a prior is presented for estimating treatment effects at treated sites. This model has the advantage of accounting for changes in before and after fact... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Estimation of passenger car units for heterogeneous traffic condition using vehicular speed and composition at mid - block section - Krishna BV, Ramesh A, Kumar M.
Traffic conditions in India are entirely different from other developed countries of the world. The traffic flow is highly dynamic in nature and observed at all mid - block section and interaction of vehicles is also expected to change with the mix charact... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Factors contributing to traffic flow congestion in heterogenous traffic conditions - Mahona J, Mhilu C, Kihedu J, Bwire H.
Most of the urban roadways do experience traffic flow congestion at various road sections called critical traffic points, which is partly contributed by the presence of various factors on the roadways. A number of studies have used travel time indices to d... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Heavy duty vehicles impact research on two-lane roads throughput in the Republic of Srpska - Suboti ć M, Radović D.
In this paper, the HDV (Heavy Duty Vehicles) impact on throughput on two-lane roads in functional dependence on longitudinal slope has been analysed. The HDV impact in traffic flow has been shown by passenger car equivalent - PCE and based on the extensive... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Measures to improve traffic operations at signalized intersections in urban areas - Ragab M, El-Naga IA.
Intersections are usually considered the most complex locations in the road network. They have a very considerable effect on operational performance of road traffic. Traffic signals at intersections have a significant effect on traffic operations. Therefor... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Model for determination the contribution of adverse events during dynamic measurement of road marking retroreflection - Babic D, Babi ć D, Fiolić M, Krasić D.
Retroreflection of road markings should be periodically tested to ensure they are adequately visible to drivers. Dynamic testing of retroreflection using a vehicle-mounted reflectometer offers numerous advantages over static testing, but the overall evalua... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Multiobjective optimization of lane-changing strategy for intelligent vehicles in complex driving environments - Zhou J, Zheng H, Wang J, Wang Y, Zhang B, Shao Q.
This paper describes an optimal lane-changing strategy for intelligent vehicles under the constraints of collision avoidance in complex driving environments. The key technique is optimization in a collision-free lane-changing trajectory cluster. To achieve... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Robust lane detection from continuous driving scenes using deep neural networks - Zou Q, Jiang H, Dai Q, Yue Y, Chen L, Wang Q.
Lane detection in driving scenes is an important module for autonomous vehicles and advanced driver assistance systems. In recent years, many sophisticated lane detection methods have been proposed. However, most methods focus on detecting the lane from on... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Self explaining and forgiving roads to improve road safety - Chaudhary SK.
Loss of lives due to Road accident has been a matter of great concern for Disaster professionals, Technocrats and Policy makers. More than 1.35 million people are killed on the road every year and more than 20 million are injured, according to a World Heal... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Traffic accidents caused by pedestrians in Turkey - Ku şkapan E, Alemdar KD, Kaya, Çodur MY.
Traffic accidents in the world cause various losses in economic and social aspects. Although the recovery of economic losses can be made easily and in a short time, it is not possible to recovery for social losses. Despite precautionary measures, it is see... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Traffic analysis zone level road traffic accident prediction models based on land use characteristics - Peera KM, Shekhawat RS, Prasad CSRK.
Studies have shown that there is a link between different land use characteristics and road traffic accidents. The present study investigates this relationship between road traffic accidents and land use characteristics for Cyberabad area of Hyderabad city... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Zero-to-stable driver identification: a non-intrusive and scalable driver identification scheme - Rahim MA, Zhu L, Li X, Liu J, Zhang Z, Qin Z, Khan S, Gai K.
Driver identification faces various challenges in real-time applications. These challenges include high dimensional input data, moderate accuracy, scalability issues and need for custom-built in-vehicle sensors. The conventional biometric solutions are eit... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 19, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

DOE Science Budget to Shrink by 17 percent
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) would receive $35.4 billion in FY 2021, an 8.1 percent decrease from the FY 2020 enacted level of $38.5 billion. Within this request, $5.8 billion (-17 percent) would be directed toward the Office of Science. The Office of Science supports both scientific research and design, development, construction, and operation of scientific user facilities. Approximately 23,000 researchers located at over 300 institutions and the 17 DOE national laboratories are supported by grants from the Office of Science. The budget for the Office of Science includes $475 million for exascale computing, $237 m...
Source: Public Policy Reports - February 18, 2020 Category: Biology Authors: AIBS Source Type: news

Out-of-position motorcycle riders in crashes without loss of control - Symeonidis I, Margaritis D, Panou M, Bekiaris E, Peldschus S.
In most motorcycle crash tests, the crash test dummy is typically positioned in a normal seating position on an upright motorcycle; however most motorcycle crash fatalities involve a driver performing and avoidance maneuver such as braking or swerving befo... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Motion of the head and neck of female and male volunteers in rear impact car-to-car tests at 4 and 8 km/h - Carlsson A, Siegmund G, Linder A, Svensson M.
Whiplash injuries account for approximately 70% of all injuries leading to disability, induced by modern vehicle crashes. Females are at greater risk for sustaining whiplash injuries than males, which may be attributable to differences in the physiology of... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Pickup truck centerline crossover collision with medium-size bus - the NTSB report -
This National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) report details a crash involving a 2007 Dodge Ram pickup truck driven by a 20-year old male that collided with a medium-size on US Highway 83 near Concan, Texas. The report describes the statements given by ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Testing for frictional performance of high friction surface treatments after traffic polishing - Li S, Xiong R, Yu D, Zhao G, Cong P, Jiang Y.
Approximately 28% of roadway crash fatalities in the United States occur at or near horizontal curves, and three times as many crashes occur on horizontal curves than on tangential sections. Roadway conditions, and particularly pavement surface friction, p... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

AI Finds Connection Between Disease and Genes
Researchers from Linköping University are behind a new study that has used artificial intelligence to investigate whether it is possible to discover biological networks using deep learning, in which entities known as "artificial neural networks" are trained by experimental data. Since artificial neural networks are excellent at learning how to find patterns in enormous amounts of complex data, they are used in applications such as image recognition. However, this machine learning method has until now seldom been used in biological research. "We have for the first time used deep learning to find ...
Source: MDDI - February 18, 2020 Category: Medical Devices Authors: MDDI Staff Tags: Digital Health Source Type: news

Analyses of pre-impact and impact phase in real high-speed crash video recordings - Pascolo P, Stohr S, Zuppichini F.
In this study, the authors analyze video recordings of real high-speed crashes to identify pre-impact and impa... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Better information for better roadway safety - Cabelus R, Damiata M, Jackson E, Pollack R.
The Connecticut Department of Transportation (CTDOT) has developed a new system designed to improve crash data management and support better data collection and crash reporting. The system includes a state-of-the-art electronic reporting system with the ca... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Crash test and evaluation of the TxDOT T224 bridge rail - Williams W, Bligh R, Menges W, Kuhn D.
This study assesses the impact performance of th... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Crash testing of TxDOT short-span short-radius guardrail system - Abu-Odeh AY, Mitchell C, Bligh RP, Menges WL, Kuhn DL.
This article describes the development and crash testing of a short-span short-radius guardrail system for use by the Texas Department of Transportation (TxDOT). The guardrail system was designed to meet Manual for Assessing Safety Hardware(MASH) Test Leve... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Crush factor: a validity analysis - part I (frontal) - Vomhof DW, Vomhof DW.
In 1991, a set of Crush Factor values was published as part of 4N6XPRT Systems' Expert AutoStats ® program. The Crush Factor values represented a summary of data analyses performed by the authors. In subsequent years, numerous reasons have been cited as ba... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

E.D.R. collection from a Tesla Model 3 - Mahoney D, Mahoney M.
In this article, the authors explore the collection of data from the Event Data Recorder (EDR) within a Tesla Model 3. Drawing upon a case study of a crash involving a Tesla Model 3 and a Hyundai Sonata, the authors detail the data collection process and d... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Engine braking - Bartlett W.
Jacobs Vehicle Systems is a major producer of compression release engine brakes (also called Jake Brakes), which serve to reduce wear on heavy trucks' foundation brakes. Jake brakes function by opening exhaust valves in the cylinders, releasing compressed ... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Evaluation of impulse attenuation by football helmets in the frequency domain - Leiva-Molano N, Rolley R, Lee T, McIver K, Sankaran G, Meyer J, Adams DE, Breedlove EL, Talavage T, Nauman EA.
Design of helmets used in contact sports has been driven by the necessity of preventing traumatic head injuries. Manufacturing standards and pass or fail grading systems help ensure that protective headgear can be manufactured to withstand large impacts, b... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Exploring factors influencing injury severity of vehicle at-fault accidents: a comparative analysis of passenger and freight vehicles - Wang J, Lu H, Sun Z, Wang T.
The objective of this study is to find factors influencing the injury severity of vehicle at-fault accidents in Shenyang (China), and discuss the commonalities and differences between passenger and freight vehicle accidents. We analyzed 1647 traffic accide... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news

Generalized epileptic seizure induced by the stroboscopic effect of helicopter blades - Corgie L, Huiban N, Quesnel L, Brocq FX, Boulard JF, Monteil M.
We report a case of inaugural tonic-clonic generalized seizure while refueli... (Source: SafetyLit)
Source: SafetyLit - February 18, 2020 Category: International Medicine & Public Health Tags: Engineering, Physics, Structural Soundness and Failure Source Type: news