Non-coding RNAs in cardiovascular cell biology and atherosclerosis
AbstractAtherosclerosis underlies the predominant number of cardiovascular diseases and remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development, progression and formation of clinically relevant atherosclerotic plaques involves the interaction of distinct and over-lapping mechanisms which dictate the roles and actions of multiple resident and recruited cell types including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and monocyte/macrophages. The discovery of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs, and their identification as key mechanistic regulators of mRNA and protein expression has piqued interest in their potential contribution to atherosclerosis. Accruing evidence has revealed ncRNAs regulate pivotal cellular and molecular processes during all stages of atherosclerosis including cell invasion, growth, and survival; cellular uptake and efflux of lipids, expression and release of pro- and anti-inflammatory intermediaries, and proteolytic balance. The expression profile of ncRNAs within atherosclerotic lesions and the circulation have been determined with the aim of identifying individual or clusters of ncRNAs which may be viable therapeutic targets alongside deployment as biomarkers of atherosclerotic plaque progression. Consequently, numerousin vivo studies have been convened to determine the effects of moderating the function or expression of select ncRNAs in well-characterized animal models of ath...
Current Trends in Neuropathology
Kirk D. Jones
JASON L. HORNICK, MD, PhD
SURGICAL PATHOLOGY CLINICS
This article provides a review of cystic lung disease and its gross and histologic mimics.
Patients with connective tissue diseases may have pulmonary involvement, including interstitial lung disease. Various patterns of interstitial lung disease have been classically described in certain connective tissue diseases. It is now recognized that there is significant overlap between patterns of interstitial lung disease observed in the various connective tissue diseases. Differentiating idiopathic from connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung disease is challenging but of clinical importance. New concepts in the diagnosis of connective tissue disease related interstitial lung disease may prove useful in making the diagnosis.
Transbronchial cryobiopsy, a new diagnostic procedure in patients with diffuse lung disease, provides larger and better-preserved lung specimens compared to forceps biopsy. The diagnostic yield of cryobiopsy is much better than that of forceps biopsy and slightly lower than that of surgical lung biopsy, but with a lower complication rate compared to the latter. Literature suggests that in the multidisciplinary approach to patients with diffuse lung disease cryobiopsy provides diagnostic and prognostic information similar to surgical lung biopsy. Cryobiopsy can also be performed in some patients unsuitable for surgical biop...
Alloimmune reactions are, besides various infections, the major cause for impaired lung allograft function following transplant. Acute cellular rejection is not only a major trigger of acute allograft failure but also contributes to development of chronic lung allograft dysfunction. Analogous to other solid organ transplants, acute antibody-mediated rejection has become a recognized entity in lung transplant pathology. Adequate sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of alloimmune reactions in the lung can only be achieved by synoptic analysis of histopathologic, clinical, and radiological findings together with serol...
This article discusses the molecular characteristics of the main lung cancer subtypes and discusses the current guidelines and novel targeted therapies, including checkpoint immunotherapy.