A look back: the quest for thrombosis in heart failure continues after COMMANDER HF
Heart failure (HF) has been associated with an increased incidence of thromboembolic events, while many HF deaths have been thought to be of thrombotic aetiology.1 In terms of pathophysiology, HF bears several prothrombotic features. The deceleration of peripheral and intracardiac blood flow due to peripheral congestion and impaired cardiac contractility, respectively, the prolonged bed rest in severely ill cases, the associated endothelial dysfunction, the increased risk for atrial fibrillation (AF) due to structural and electrical atrial remodelling in the presence of elevated atrial pressures due to left ventricular dys...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - October 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Highlights of ESC Congress 2019: a report from the ESC Scientists of Tomorrow
After a year full of successful meetings, including ESC 2018,1 AHA 2018,2 and ACC 20193, delegates from all over the word now reconvened in Paris, for the ESC Congress 2019, organized jointly with the World Congress of Cardiology. Over 33  500 participants attended the 5-day conference that covered a variety of late-breaking science, the latest clinical trials, practical workshops, and career development events, with the highlight being on Global Cardiovascular Health, emphasizing the differences in prevalence, clinical manifestatio ns, strategies, and management of cardiovascular diseases around the world. (Source: C...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - October 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The epitranscriptome: tools to study, manipulate, and exploit RNA modifications
Commentary to ‘Existence of diverse modifications in 16–28 nt small RNAs’ by Lanet al.,Chemistry, 2018 and ‘Precise RNA editing by recruiting endogenous ADARs with antisense oligonucleotides’ inNature Biotechnology, 2019. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - October 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Leaders in Cardiovascular Research: Thomas L üscher
Watch the interview here:youtu.be/tXWEP8sEDLo (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - September 23, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Autophagy promotes longevity —except in the presence of ‘leaky’ mitochondria
Commentary on ‘Mitochondrial permeability uncouples elevated autophagy and lifespan extension’ by Zhou B.et al.,Cell, 2019. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - September 13, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The Membership Committee of the ESC
(Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - September 11, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

PIONEER-HF: a new frontier in the role of neprilysin inhibition in the management of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
The addition of a neprilysin inhibitor to a renin –angiotensin system (RAS) antagonist, using the combination of sacubitril and valsartan, was shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in outpatients with chronic heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF).1 In PARADIGM-HF (Prospective Comparison of ARNI with ACEI to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and Morbidity in Heart Failure trial), sacubitril/valsartan reduced the risk of cardiovascular death or heart failure (HF) hospitalization by 20%, compared with a RAS blocker alone [the gold-standard angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor enalapril]. Cons...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - September 8, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Non-coding RNA in endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition
AbstractEndothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) is the process wherein endothelial cells lose their typical endothelial cell markers and functions and adopt a mesenchymal-like phenotype. EndMT is required for development of the cardiac valves, the pulmonary and dorsal aorta, and arterial maturation, but activation of the EndMT programme during adulthood is believed to contribute to several pathologies including organ fibrosis, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Non-coding RNAs, including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs, modulate EndMT during development and disease. Here, we review the mechanisms ...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - September 3, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: A human embryonic stem cell reporter line for monitoring chemical-induced cardiotoxicity
[Cardiovasc Res 2019;doi:10.1093/cvr/cvz148]. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - August 31, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The beginning of a new era in the field of percutaneous valvular interventions (PARTNER 3 and Evolut Low Risk trials)
In 2002, Cribier performed the first transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in an inoperable patient using a transseptal antegrade approach and a balloon-expandable aortic valve prosthesis, demonstrating the feasibility of percutaneous valve implantation. From then on, the favourable effects of TAVI vs. optimal medical treatment and similar outcomes compared to surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) in intermediate- to high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis have been shown by several studies.1 –3 Thanks to the results of these studies, nowadays, this technique is a part of everyday clinical practice...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Leaders in Cardiovascular Research: Jeroen Bax
Watch the full Onlife interview with Professor Bax here: https://youtu.be/rUzgmvHBwYc. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A paradigm shift from surgical to transcutaneous aortic valve replacement (PARTNER 3 and Evolut Low Risk trials)
Severe aortic stenosis is a relatively common clinical condition, becoming more common with advancing age, and the traditional treatment has been surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). Almost a decade ago transcutaneous aortic valve replacement (TAVR), was introduced as an alternative treatment to medical therapy alone in patients who were considered too high risk for conventional SAVR. A randomized trial published in 20101 showed a dramatic reduction in mortality at 1 year in these patients receiving TAVR in comparison to those only receiving medical therapy. One year later, it was reported that TAVR resulted in superi...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The impact of cardiovascular diseases and new gene variants in swaying Alzheimer ’s disease
Commentary on ‘Genetic meta-analysis of diagnosed Alzheimer’s disease identifies new risk loci and implicates Aß, tau, immunity and lipid processing’ by Nöthenet al.,Nat Genet, 2019.1 (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - August 22, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Role of the lysyl oxidase enzyme family in cardiac function and disease
AbstractHeart diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality world-wide. Lysyl oxidase (LOX) and related LOX-like (LOXL) isoforms play a vital role in remodelling the extracellular matrix (ECM). The LOX family controls ECM formation by cross-linking collagen and elastin chains. LOX/LOXL proteins are copper-dependent amine oxidases that catalyse the oxidation of lysine, causing cross-linking between the lysine moieties of lysine-rich proteins. Dynamic changes in LOX and LOXL protein-expression occur in a variety of cardiac pathologies; these changes are believed to be central to the associated tissue-fibrosis. An awa...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - August 20, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Scientists on the Spot: The cycle of basic science and clinical trials
Watch the interview here:https://youtu.be/APzgV8Vpc4Q (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - August 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Non-coding RNAs in cardiovascular cell biology and atherosclerosis
AbstractAtherosclerosis underlies the predominant number of cardiovascular diseases and remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The development, progression and formation of clinically relevant atherosclerotic plaques involves the interaction of distinct and over-lapping mechanisms which dictate the roles and actions of multiple resident and recruited cell types including endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, and monocyte/macrophages. The discovery of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) including microRNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and circular RNAs, and their identification as key mechanistic regulators...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - August 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Turning basic science discoveries into successful commercial opportunities
So far, the world for many of us scientists revolved solely around the function of our favourite gene or cell type. However, valorization is rapidly becoming the new cornerstone of modern basic research. Institutes, universities, and funding agencies are stimulating scientists to become more aware of opportunities to increase the social and economic value of research. While most scientists are focused on getting data, writing papers or acquiring funding, valuable research results, dataset, or methods might now not be used to their fullest potential due to improper exploitation. And while the dedication to do good science i...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - July 31, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Low cardiac lipolysis reduces mitochondrial fission and prevents lipotoxic heart dysfunction in Perilipin 5 mutant mice
[Cardiovasc Res 2019;doi:10.1093/cvr/cvz119] (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - July 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Heterogeneity and plasticity in healthy and atherosclerotic vasculature explored by single-cell sequencing
AbstractCellular characteristics and their adjustment to a state of disease have become more evident due to recent advances in imaging, fluorescent reporter mice, and whole genome RNA sequencing. The uncovered cellular heterogeneity and/or plasticity potentially complicates experimental studies and clinical applications, as markers derived from whole tissue ‘bulk’ sequencing is unable to yield a subtype transcriptome and specific markers. Here, we propose definitions on heterogeneity and plasticity, discuss current knowledge thereof in the vasculature and how this may be improved by single-cell sequencing (SCS)...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - July 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The evolving treatment of peripheral arterial disease: preventing ischaemic events in the post-COMPASS era
Patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) are at high risk of both major adverse cardiac events (MACE) as well as major adverse limb events (MALE), such as severe limb ischaemia and amputation, due to widespread atherosclerosis. Peripheral arterial disease patients also have higher cardiovascular event rates than patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or cerebrovascular disease,1 with double the total mortality than predicted by their risk factors alone.2 Much of this high morbidity is due to persistent risk factors and undertreatment with medical therapies.3 Until recently, and unlike the many trials including ...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - July 18, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Epac1 inhibition as a novel cardioprotective strategy: lights and shadows on GRK5 canonical and non-canonical functions
β1-adrenergic receptors (β1AR) are members of the super-family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and major regulators of cardiac function. β1AR stimulation leads to G protein-mediated generation of the second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and activation of effectors such as cAMP-dependent Protein Kinase A (PKA) or Exchange Proteins Activated by cAMP (Epac) (Figure 1). In addition, β1AR stimulation activates GPCR kinases (GRK) ‘canonical’ pathways,1 regulating β1AR phosphorylation, desensitization, down-regulation, degradation and recycling as well as activation of ...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - July 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Prime time viewing of the ischaemic heart: new technologies allow imaging and flow assessment of the microvasculature in the beating heart
This editorial refers to ‘Imaging the injured beating heart intravitally and the vasculoprotection afforded by haematopoietic stem cells’, by D.P.J. Kavanaghet al., pp. 1918 –1932. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - July 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Small animal models of heart failure
AbstractHeart disease is a major cause of death worldwide with increasing prevalence, which urges the development of new therapeutic strategies. Over the last few decades, numerous small animal models have been generated to mimic various pathomechanisms contributing to heart failure (HF). Despite some limitations, these animal models have greatly advanced our understanding of the pathogenesis of the different aetiologies of HF and paved the way to understanding the underlying mechanisms and development of successful treatments. These models utilize surgical techniques, genetic modifications, and pharmacological approaches....
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 27, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Social media and citations: what do cardiologists need to know?
(Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 26, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Corrigendum to: Mapping monocyte subsets to identify cardiovascular risk
[Cardiovasc Res 2019;115:989 –991]. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 24, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

The environment, epigenetic landscape and cardiovascular risk
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common non-communicable disease worldwide. Future projections predict an increasing CVD burden due to aging, urbanization, and unhealthy lifestyles with devastating socio-economic implications in emerging countries. Despite implementation of traditional risk score models and state-of-the-art treatment strategies, CVD is far from being eradicated. Atherothrombosis underlies the majority of CV events and mostly develops from unforeseeable disruption of atheromatous plaque with subsequent platelet activation and thrombus formation. This condition is triggered by the derail of molecular...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 23, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Up in the air: links between the environment and cardiovascular disease
(Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 23, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Endothelial function and dysfunction in the cardiovascular system: the long non-coding road
AbstractPresent throughout the vasculature, endothelial cells (ECs) are essential for blood vessel function and play a central role in the pathogenesis of diverse cardiovascular diseases. Understanding the intricate molecular determinants governing endothelial function and dysfunction is essential to develop novel clinical breakthroughs and improve knowledge. An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are active regulators of the endothelial transcriptome and function, providing emerging insights into core questions surrounding EC contributions to pathology, and perhaps the emergence of...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 19, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Keeping our hearts ‘NEAT’?
This editorial refers to ‘Long noncoding RNANEAT1 modulates immune cell functions and is suppressed in early onset myocardial infarction patients ’, by M. Gastet al., pp. 1886 –1906. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Red blood cell dysfunction: a new player in cardiovascular disease
AbstractThe primary role of red blood cells (RBCs) is to transport oxygen to the tissues and carbon dioxide to the lungs. However, emerging evidence suggests an important role of the RBC beyond being just a passive carrier of the respiratory gases. The RBCs are of importance for redox balance and are actively involved in the regulation of vascular tone, especially during hypoxic and ischaemic conditions by the release of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity and adenosine triphosphate. The role of the RBC has gained further interest after recent discoveries demonstrating a markedly altered function of the cell in several pathologi...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 14, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pentraxin 3: a novel target in the obesity –inflammation cascade
This editorial refers to ‘Pentraxin 3 deficiency protects from the metabolic inflammation associated to diet-induced obesity’, by F. Bonacinaet al., pp. 1861 –1872. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 6, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Is the digital revolution the dawn of a golden age or just the next fad?
Digital transformation is all around us. From personal banking, to booking our leisure time activities, and even ordering our food shopping, Apps and the Internet have transformed the way we live. Healthcare has been much slower to change (Table 1). The electronic medical record is well established and e-prescribing is common place, but most healthcare activity remains in silos, with patients and doctors finding it difficult to access data collected elsewhere. Incorporating data from wearables like FitBit ™ or AppleWatch™ or from smartphone Apps is often difficult, if not impossible, and many have concerns abou...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Interferon- γ regulates cardiac myeloid cells in myocardial infarction
This editorial refers to ‘A sequential interferon gamma directed chemotactic cellular immune response determines survival and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction’, by S. Fingeret al., pp. 1907 –1917. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - June 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Complexities in cardiovascular rhythmicity: perspectives on circadian normality, ageing and disease
AbstractBiological rhythms exist in organisms at all levels of complexity, in most organs and at myriad time scales. Our own biological rhythms are driven by energy emitted by the sun, interacting via our retinas with brain stem centres, which then send out complex messages designed to synchronize the behaviour of peripheral non-light sensing organs, to ensure optimal physiological responsiveness and performance of the organism based on the time of day. Peripheral organs themselves have autonomous rhythmic behaviours that can act independently from central nervous system control but is entrainable. Dysregulation of biologi...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - May 31, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

RNA binding protein and microRNA control of endothelial cell function
This editorial refers to ‘Therapeutic modulation of RNA-binding protein Rbm38 facilitates re-endothelialization after arterial injury’, by K. Sonnenscheinet al., pp.1804 –1810. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - May 23, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

How do endosomal Toll-like receptors sense and extend ischaemic myocardial injury?
This editorial refers to ‘Toll-like receptor 7 deficiency promotes survival and reduces adverse left ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction’ by D.P.V. de Kleijnet al., pp.1791 –1803. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - May 17, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Computational models of the atrial fibrillation substrate: can they explain post-ablation recurrences and help to prevent them
This editorial refers to ‘Arrhythmogenic propensity of the fibrotic substrate after AF ablation: a longitudinal study using MRI-based atrial models’ by R.L. Aliet al., pp.1757 –1765. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - May 14, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

MicroRNAs and regulation of cardiometabolic phenotypes: novel insights into the complexity of genome-wide association studies loci
This editorial refers to ‘Genome-wide identification of circulating-miRNA expression quantitative trait loci reveals the role of several miRNAs in the regulation of cardiometabolic phenotypes’ by M. Nikpayet al., pp. 1629 –1645. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - May 14, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Imaging the injured beating heart intravitally and the vasculoprotection afforded by haematopoietic stem cells
ConclusionWe present a novel approach for imaging multiple microcirculatory perturbations in the beating heart with LSCI assessment of blood flow. Despite deceptive hyperaemic responses, increased microcirculatory flow heterogeneity was seen, with non-perfused areas interspersed with perfused areas. Microthrombi, rather than neutrophils, appeared to be the major causative factor. We further applied this technique to demonstrate local stem cell presence is not a pre-requisite to confer vasculoprotection. This is the first detailedin vivo characterization of coronary microcirculatory responses post-reperfusion injury. (Sourc...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - May 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Getting your research funded (and other tips for early career cardiovascular investigators)
Approximately 2.5  years ago and after over 30 years of full-time engagement in cardiovascular research in a university environment, I joined the British Heart Foundation (BHF), one of the largest non-governmental funders of research into heart and circulatory diseases in Europe,1 as an Associate Medical Director for Research. My BHF role is on a part-time basis. Thus, while my current situation is not quite a case of ‘poacher turned game keeper’, with one foot still in the academic camp, my focus is now increasingly on helping empower exceptional researchers to undertake outstanding work, with a ...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - April 21, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Ketone body can be a fuel substrate for failing heart
This editorial refers to ‘Increased ketone body oxidation provides additional energy for the failing heart without improving cardiac efficiency’, by K.L. Hoet al., pp. 1606 –1616. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - April 15, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Arrhythmogenic propensity of the fibrotic substrate after atrial fibrillation ablation: a longitudinal study using magnetic resonance imaging-based atrial models
ConclusionRecurrent AF after PVI in the fibrotic atria may be attributable to both preserved RDs that sustain AF pre- and post-ablation, and the emergence of new RDs following ablation. The same levels of fibrosis entropy and density underlie the pro-RD propensity in both pre- and post-ablation substrates. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - April 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

A sequential interferon gamma directed chemotactic cellular immune response determines survival and cardiac function post-myocardial infarction
ConclusionIFN- γ directs a sequential chemotactic cellular immune response and determines survival and cardiac function post-MI. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - April 5, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Long noncoding RNA NEAT1 modulates immune cell functions and is suppressed in early onset myocardial infarction patients
AbstractAimsInflammation is a key driver of atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI), and beyond proteins and microRNAs (miRs), long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been implicated in inflammation control. To obtain further information on the possible role of lncRNAs in the context of atherosclerosis, we obtained comprehensive transcriptome maps of circulating immune cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) of early onset MI patients. One lncRNA significantly suppressed in post-MI patients was further investigated in a murine knockout model.Methods and resultsIndividual RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) was conducted o...
Source: Cardiovascular Research - March 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Putting the pieces together using in vivo optical mapping
This editorial refers to ‘In vivo ratiometric optical mapping enables high-resolution cardiac electrophysiology in pig models ’, by P. Leeet al., pp. 1659 –1671. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - March 29, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Identification of a pharmacological inhibitor of Epac1 that protects the heart against acute and chronic models of cardiac stress
ConclusionOur study represents a ‘proof-of-concept’ for the therapeutic effectiveness of inhibiting Epac1 activity in cardiac disease using small-molecule pharmacotherapy. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

SGLT receptors and myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury: inhibition of SGLT-1, SGLT-2, or both?
This editorial refers to ‘Cardiac sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 1 is a novel mediator of ischaemia/reperfusion injury’, by Z. Liet al., pp. 1646 –1658. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - March 14, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Pentraxin 3 deficiency protects from the metabolic inflammation associated to diet-induced obesity
ConclusionOur results support a critical role for PTX3 in the onset of obesity by promoting inflammation and limiting adipose tissue vascularization and delineate PTX3 targeting as a valuable strategy for the treatment of adipose tissue-associated inflammatory response. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - March 12, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Therapeutic modulation of RNA-binding protein Rbm38 facilitates re-endothelialization after arterial injury
ConclusionThe present data identified Rbm38 as an important factor of the regulation of various endothelial cell functions. Local inhibition of Rbm38 as well as overexpression of the upstream regulators miR-98 and let-7f improved endothelial regenerationin vivo and thus may be a novel therapeutic entry point to avoid endothelial damage after balloon angioplasty. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - March 7, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research

Toll-like receptor 7 deficiency promotes survival and reduces adverse left ventricular remodelling after myocardial infarction
ConclusionsIn acute MI, TLR7 mediates the response to acute cardiac injury and chronic remodelling probably via modulation of post-MI scar formation and BM-derived inflammatory infiltration of the myocardium. (Source: Cardiovascular Research)
Source: Cardiovascular Research - March 4, 2019 Category: Cardiology Source Type: research