Associations of the microbiome and esophageal disease.

Associations of the microbiome and esophageal disease. J Thorac Dis. 2019 Aug;11(Suppl 12):S1588-S1593 Authors: Okereke I, Hamilton C, Wenholz A, Jala V, Giang T, Reynolds S, Miller A, Pyles R Abstract The incidence of esophageal diseases such as esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) have been increasing over the last 40 years. The esophageal microbiome appears to have a role in the development of some disease processes, and could also serve as markers of early diseases of the esophagus. A literature review was performed examining the role of the microbiome in the development of esophageal disease. In addition, the results of several studies and experiments were included in the review. Both EAC and GERD have increased in incidence over the last 40 years. Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a risk factor for EAC. Patients with BE appear to have a microbiome expression pattern distinct from patients without BE. The distinct pattern may be related to factors within the distal esophagus such as a more acidic environment, intraluminal stasis and other elements. It remains unclear whether the change in microflora leads to esophageal disease, or whether the disease process within the esophagus allows these particular organisms to experience overgrowth compared to other microflora. Patient factors such as body mass index (BMI), diet and geographic location also appear to affect the esophageal microbiome. There is an association with t...
Source: Journal of Thoracic Disease - Category: Respiratory Medicine Tags: J Thorac Dis Source Type: research

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AbstractPurpose of ReviewObesity is associated with multiple gastrointestinal and liver diseases such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett ’s esophagus, esophageal adenocarcinoma, cholelithiasis, colon polyps, and fatty liver disease. To effectively manage obesity, it is imperative to understand current and emerging therapies and procedures.FindingsObesity is becoming increasingly prevalent and is associated with a growing monetary health care burden. Cardiac disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes are among the leading causes of preventable and premature death of Americans related to obesity. In additi...
Source: Current Treatment Options in Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
ConclusionThe new understanding of the significance of cardiac mucosa provides a new and highly accurate histologic method of assessment of LES damage, the primary cause of GERD. This opens a new door to complete histologic assessment of GERD from its etiologic standpoint and to new research that permit early diagnosis of GERD at its outset. Ultimately, such early diagnosis has the potential to reverse the increasing trend of esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Source: European Surgery - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Abstract Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is characterized by acid and bile reflux in the distal oesophagus, and this may cause the development of reflux esophagitis and Barrett's oesophagus (BE). The natural histological course of untreated BE is non-dysplastic or benign BE (ND) than low-grade (LGD), and high-grade dysplastic (HGD) BE, with the expected increase in malignancy transfer to oesophagal adenocarcinoma (EAC). The gold standard for BE diagnostics involves high-resolution white-light endoscopy, followed by uniform endoscopy findings description (Prague classification) with biopsy performance accord...
Source: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry - Category: Chemistry Authors: Tags: Mini Rev Med Chem Source Type: research
The etiology of adenocarcinoma of the cardia and the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) is not known and is doubted. It is thought that cardia gastric adenocarcinoma (CGA) is distinct from adenocarcinomas located in the esophagus or distal stomach, both epidemiologically and biologically. Moreover, CGA is often identified in the advanced stage having a poor prognosis. In this paper, we would like to ascertain the possible role of GC family history, lifestyle, demographics, gastroesophageal reflux disease,Helicobacter pylori infection, and multiple genetic and epigenetic risk factors as well as several predisposing conditions ...
Source: Cancer Medicine - Category: Cancer & Oncology Authors: Tags: REVIEW Source Type: research
Background: Chronic gastroesophageal reflux predisposes to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC). Asthma and medication to treat it are associated with gastroesophageal reflux and EAC. We studied subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) to examine the relationship between COPD and medication used to treat it, and the risk of reflux esophagitis, Barrett’s esophagus, and EAC. Methods: A case-control study from the UK General Practice Research Database was conducted. Cases were aged 50 or above with a diagnosis of COPD and were matched with controls without a diagnosis of COPD by age,...
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ONLINE ARTICLES: Original Articles Source Type: research
Conclusions: Contrary to our hypothesis, we found an inverse association between serum PTH and Barrett’s esophagus. Validation of the finding and the mechanism of that association deserves further study.
Source: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Tags: ALIMENTARY TRACT: Original Articles Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 6 October 2019Source: Cirugía Española (English Edition)Author(s): Félix Junquera, Sonia Fernández-Ananín, Carmen BalaguéAbstractEarly-stage (T1) esophagogastric junction cancer continues to represent 2%–3% of all cases. Adenocarcinoma is the most frequent and important type, the main risk factors for which are gastroesophageal reflux and Barrett's esophagus with dysplasia.Patients with mucosal (T1a) or submucosal (T1b) involvement initially require a thorough digestive endoscopy, and narrow-band imaging can improve visualization. Endoscopic...
Source: Cirugia Espanola - Category: Surgery Source Type: research
Incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) after sleeve gastrectomy (SG) is a concern considering the popularity of this procedure, lack of long-term data and theoretical risk of esophageal cancer development. Gastric bypass is considered the best therapeutic option for persisting reflux after SG. However up to 30% of patients suffer from post-operative GER.
Source: Surgery for Obesity and Related Diseases - Category: Surgery Authors: Source Type: research
AbstractPer-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was introduced nearly a decade ago. Since then, the literature on its safety and efficacy has been ever increasing. Initial studies focused solely on the feasibility and efficacy of this procedure in patients with idiopathic achalasia. Subsequent studies analyzed the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in addition to the efficacy of POEM. These studies depict a high incidence of GERD after POEM. However, vast majority of these studies lacked a comprehensive evaluation of GERD after POEM. Consequently, it is difficult to provide a true estimate of the incidence of G...
Source: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology - Category: Gastroenterology Source Type: research
Barrett esophagus is a metaplastic change in the lining of the distal esophageal epithelium, characterized by replacement of the normal squamous epithelium by specialized intestinal metaplasia. The presence of Barrett esophagus increases the risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma several-fold. Esophageal adenocarcinoma is a malignancy with rapidly rising incidence and persistently poor outcomes when diagnosed after the onset of symptoms. Risk factors for Barrett esophagus include chronic gastroesophageal reflux, central obesity, white race, male gender, older age, smoking, and a family history of Barrett esophagus or esophageal adenocarcinoma.
Source: Mayo Clinic Proceedings - Category: Internal Medicine Authors: Tags: Thematic review on gastroenterological diseases Source Type: research
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