Chemotherapeutic Resistance in Egyptian Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients.

Chemotherapeutic Resistance in Egyptian Acute Myeloid Leukemia Patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2019 08 01;20(8):2421-2427 Authors: Kassem NM, Medhat N, Kassem HA, El-Desouky MA Abstract Background: Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disorder with variable genetic abnormalities and cytogenetic alterations which provide a significant disease prognosis and determine response to therapy. Purpose: We aim to investigate the expression of the MDR1 gene in 100 Egyptian AML patients, to identify their role on both the progression and chemotherapeutic refractoriness together with assessment of known prognostic molecular markers; FLT3-ITD and NPM1 mutations. Methodology: Quantitative assessment of MDR1 gene expression was performed by quantitative RT-PCR. Additional prognostic molecular markers were determined as internal tandem duplications of the FLT 3 gene and nucleophosmin gene mutation A. Results: MDR1 gene expression levels and FLT3/ITD mutations were significantly higher in AML patients with resistant disease with P value
Source: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention - Category: Cancer & Oncology Tags: Asian Pac J Cancer Prev Source Type: research

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Publication date: May 2020Source: Biomedicine &Pharmacotherapy, Volume 125Author(s): Ka-Na Lin, Yue-Lian Jiang, Shun-Guo Zhang, Shi-Ying Huang, Hao LiAbstractBackground and purposeMultidrug resistance (MDR) is a great challenge and obstacle in cancer treatment. It is a common problem in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Whether grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) could reverse MDR in patients with AML is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the MDR reverse ability of GSPE and its possible mechanism in vitro.Materials and methodsHuman leukemia cell line HL-60 cells and HL-ADR cells...
Source: Biomedicine and Pharmacotherapy - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive disease with a current 5-year survival rate of only ∼25%, therefore development of effective treatments towards resistant AML is urgently needed. Potential mechanisms of therapy resistance include overexpression of members of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family. Natural IAP antagonists such as second-mitochondria-derived activator of ca spases (Smac) exist, leading to the pharmaceutical development of Smac-mimetics (SMs). The clinical SM birinapant has been trialed in AML and solid cancers, as well as in hepatitis B virus (HBV), with variable and limited success.
Source: Experimental Hematology - Category: Hematology Authors: Tags: 3100 Source Type: research
In this study we tested the clinoptilolite, chabazite, and natrolite ability to be loaded by antitumor ribonuclease binase and the cytotoxicity of the obtained complexes. We found the optimal conditions for binase loading into zeolites and established the dynamic of its release. Cytotoxic effects of zeolite-binase complexes toward colorectal cancer Caco2 cells were characterized after 24 and 48 h of incubation with cells using MTT-test. Zeolites were toxic by itselfs and reduced cells viability by 30% (clinoptilolite), 40% (chabazite), and 70% (natrolite) after 48 h of incubation. Binase complexes with clinoptilolite as we...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In conclusion, e-As4S4 holds great potential for an alternative therapeutics in the treatment of breast cancer, due to its unique function of correcting the aggressive microenvironment. Introduction Metastasis is the leading cause of breast cancer mortality, which has been one major challenge in clinical treatment (1). In particular, triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the absence of estrogen receptors (ER), progesterone receptors (PR) and HER2 receptors, which is one of the most aggressive types of breast cancers, marked by high rates of relapse, visceral metastases and early death (2, 3). The...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion Several TISC-based immunotherapeutic approaches are under development in various stages of preclinical studies. As outlined in this review article, a careful and more exhaustive genetic and metabolic understanding of TISC-associated phenotypes is critical to develop novel TISC based immunotherapies. Various components within the tumor microenvironment such as tumor cells, infiltrating immune cells, and supporting stromal cells impact the TISC metabolism. This unique metabolic profile leads to upregulation of certain enzymes and proteins such as ALDH1, CEP55, IDO COA1 etc., which can be utilized for development ...
Source: Frontiers in Oncology - Category: Cancer & Oncology Source Type: research
Conclusion and Perspective With in-depth understandings of antibodies, linkers, and payloads, ADCs have also achieved great development. The linkage strategy and target diversity have already improved the delivery of the payloads to tumor tissues and reduced exposure to normal tissues. With the development of payloads, some novel potent payloads are used by ADCs, which allows researchers to exploit novel linkers to attach the antibody and payloads without disturbing their potency (Dragovich et al., 2018). Furthermore, some irrelevant antigen-target ADCs also may exert toxicity to tumor cells due to the vascular gap of tum...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
In this study, the three natural compounds 6-methoxymellein (3), angelicoin B (4) and ellagic acid as well as nine novel 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins (Figure 1) were analyzed regarding their cytotoxicity in cancer cells and inhibition of the endogenously expressed human ABC transporters P-gp, BCRP, and MRP1 and of the yeast transporter Pdr5. For further insights into the mechanism of action, Pdr5 ATPase and substrate transport assays were performed. These results were complemented with molecular docking studies that indicate that differences in the inhibitory power of the investigated 3,4-dihydroisocoumarins with respect to P-g...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Discussion Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 is an essential molecule for maintaining immune homeostasis and subverting inflammation. Disorders arising from excess inflammation or SOCS1 deficiency can be potentially treated with SOCS1 mimetics (Ahmed et al., 2015). While SOCS1 has promising potential in many disorders, it should be noted that new targets and actions of SOCS1 are still being discovered and not all the effects of this protein are beneficial in autoimmune diseases and cancer. For instance, SOCS1 degrades IRS1 and IRS2, required for insulin signaling, via the SOCS Box domain, thus, limiting its potential in ...
Source: Frontiers in Pharmacology - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
Conclusion In conclusion, F. keratoplasticum and F. petroliphilum were the most frequent species in this study. Amphotericin B showed lower MICs against Fusarium species whereas the antifungal azoles and the fungicide difenoconazole exhibited higher MICs against FSSC. Ethics Statement Samples were collected during routine patient care and the study was retrospective, therefore it was determined by the local Institutional Review Board of the Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Paraná and CAPES that ethical clearance was not indicated. Author Contributions PH, AA-H, FQ-T, and JM designed the study....
Source: Frontiers in Microbiology - Category: Microbiology Source Type: research
Publication date: Available online 12 December 2018Source: International Journal of PharmaceuticsAuthor(s): Jing Wang, Changpei Gan, Irene A. Retmana, Rolf W. Sparidans, Wenlong Li, Maria C. Lebre, Jos H. Beijnen, Alfred H. SchinkelAbstractQuizartinib, a second-generation FLT3 inhibitor, is in clinical development for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. We studied its pharmacokinetic interactions with the multidrug efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 and the multidrug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A, using in vitro transport assays and knockout and transgenic mouse models. Quizartinib was transported by human ABCB1 in vitro...
Source: International Journal of Pharmaceutics - Category: Drugs & Pharmacology Source Type: research
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